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Identification
NameSalmon Calcitonin
Accession NumberDB00017  (BIOD00025, BTD00025)
Typebiotech
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Synthetic peptide, 32 residues long formulated as a nasal spray.

Protein structureDb00017
Protein chemical formulaC145H240N44O48S2
Protein average weight3431.8530
Sequences
>DB00017 sequence
CSNLSTCVLGKLSQELHKLQTYPRTNTGSGTP
Download FASTA Format
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
CalcimarNot AvailableNot Available
Calcitonin 1 precursorNot AvailableNot Available
Calcitonin-salmonNot AvailableNot Available
Calcitonin, salmonNot AvailableNot Available
CibacalcinNot AvailableNot Available
ForticalNot AvailableNot Available
MiacalcinNot AvailableNot Available
Salmon calcitoninNot AvailableNot Available
SalmotoninNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
CalcimarNot Available
ForticalNot Available
MiacalcinNovartis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number47931-85-1
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentPeptides
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed in the treatment of symptomatic Paget's disease for patients unresponsive to alternate treatments or intolerant to such treatments. In addition, it is used in emergency situations when serum calcium levels must be decreased quickly until the underlying condition is identified. It can also be added to existing therapeutic regimens for hypercalcemia such as intravenous fluids and furosemide, oral phosphate or corticosteroids, or other agents. Calcitonin can be used in patients with azotemia and cases where intravenous fluids would be contraindicated due to limited cardiac reserves. Also for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis in women more than 5 years post-menopause.
PharmacodynamicsCalcitonin inhibits bone resorption by osteoclasts (bone remodeling cells) and promotes bone formation by osteoblasts. This leads to a net increase in bone mass and a reduction in plasma calcium levels. It also promotes the renal excretion of ions such as calcium, phosphate, sodium, magnesium, and potassium by decreasing tubular reabsorption. In consequence, there is an increase in the jejunal secretion of water, sodium, potassium, and chloride.
Mechanism of actionCalcitonin binds to the calcitonin receptor (found primarily in osteoclasts) which then enhances the production of vitamin D producing enzymes (25-hydroxyvitamine D-24-hydroxylase), leading to greater calcium retention and enhanced bone density. Binding of calcitonin to its receptor also activates adenylyl cyclase and the phosphatidyl-inositol-calcium pathway.
AbsorptionSalmon calcitonin is rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Bioavailability following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection in humans is high and similar for the two routes of administration (71% and 66%, respectively). Via the nasal route, the bioavailability varies between 3 to 5% relative to IM.
Volume of distribution

0.15 to 0.3 L/kg

Protein binding30 to 40%
Metabolism

Salmon calcitonin is primarily and almost exclusively degraded in the kidneys, forming pharmacologically inactive fragments of the molecule. It is also metabolized in the blood and the peripheral tissue.

Route of eliminationUrine. Studies with injectable calcitonin show increases in the excretion of filtered phosphate, calcium, and sodium by decreasing their tubular reabsorption in the kidney.
Half lifeHalf-life elimination (terminal): I.M. 58 minutes; SubQ 59 to 64 minutes; Nasal: ~18 to 23 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicitySalmon calcitonin was shown to inhibit lactation in animals and is not recommend in nursing mothers. While research in animals have shown a decrease in fetal weight, no studies have yet shown similar results in humans. It is recommended however to proceed carefully when administering salmon calcitonin to pregnant women and consider if the benefits outweigh the risks. Because of its protein nature, salmon calcitonin may provoke an allergy reaction (bronchospams and swelling of the tongue/throat) that can turn into a full-blown anaphylactic response. The manufacturer also reports an increase in the risk of malignancies from oral route (0.7%) to intranasal route (2.4%) compared to placebo. The same may apply to IV, IM and SC routes since the systemic exposure is higher in those cases. Nausea is noticeable in some patients but tends to decrease with continued administration. Rhinitis, headaches and back pain have also been reported among others.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Astrazeneca lp
  • Novartis pharmaceuticals corp
  • Apotex inc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Upsher smith laboratories inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntramuscular
LiquidNasal
SolutionIntramuscular
SolutionNasal
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Miacalcin 200 unit/act Solution 3.7ml Bottle139.39USDbottle
Calcitonin (Salmon) 200 unit/act Solution 3.7ml Bottle123.28USDbottle
Miacalcin For Inj, 2 unit = 1 Box 2ml Vial63.59USDvial
Miacalcin 200 unit nasal spray44.68USDml
Calcitonin-salmon 200 unit sp39.51USDml
Fortical 200 unit nasal spray34.3USDml
Miacalcin 200 unit/ml vial30.73USDml
Calcimar 200 iu/ml29.94USDml
Caltine 100 (100 Iu/Ml) 100 iu/ml8.81USDml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
United States64403922001-02-022021-02-02
United States57335691995-03-312015-03-31
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
hydrophobicity-0.537Not Available
isoelectric point8.86Not Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Marcos C. Poblet, Berta P. Obiols, Gemma J. Farres, “Procedure for preparing salmon calcitonin.” U.S. Patent US5527881, issued October, 1991.

US5527881
General Reference
  1. Product monongraph
    #Lexicomp
External Links
ResourceLink
UniProtP01263
GenbankY00765
PharmGKBPA448715
RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic2/calcit.htm
WikipediaCalcitonin
ATC CodesH05BA01
AHFS Codes
  • 68:24.00
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Calcitonin receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Calcitonin receptor P30988 Details

References:

  1. Bouizar Z, Fouchereau-Peron M, Taboulet J, Moukhtar MS, Milhaud G: Purification and characterization of calcitonin receptors in rat kidney membranes by covalent cross-linking techniques. Eur J Biochem. 1986 Feb 17;155(1):141-7. Pubmed
  2. Stroop SD, Moore EE: Intracellular calcium increases mediated by a recombinant human calcitonin receptor. J Bone Miner Res. 1995 Apr;10(4):524-32. Pubmed
  3. Sarkar A, Dickerson IM: Cloning, characterization, and expression of a calcitonin receptor from guinea pig brain. J Neurochem. 1997 Aug;69(2):455-64. Pubmed
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 29, 2014 22:51