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Identification
NameGramicidin D
Accession NumberDB00027  (BIOD00036, BTD00036)
Typebiotech
Groupsapproved
Description

15 residue peptide isolated from Bacillus brevis. With alternating D and L amino acids

Protein structureNo structure small
Protein chemical formulaC99H140N20O17
Protein average weight1882.2947
Sequences
SynonymsNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
NeosporinPfizer
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number1405-97-6
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct parentPeptides
Alternative parentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Classification descriptionNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of skin lesions, surface wounds and eye infections
PharmacodynamicsGramicidin is particularly effective against gram-positive bacteria. Because the drug is highly hemolytic, it cannot be administered internally and so is used only on the skin as a lotion or ointment. It is used primarily in the treatment of infected surface wounds, and in eye, nose, and throat infections. It is normally given with two other antibiotics (neomycin and polymixin B) as an ophthalmic solution
Mechanism of actionGramicidin D binds to and inserts itself into bacterial membranes (with a strong preference to gram-positive cell membranes). This results in membrane disruption and permeabilization (it acts as a channel). This leads to (i) loss of intracellular solutes (e.g., K+ and amino acids); (ii) dissipation of the transmembrane potential; (iii) inhibition of respiration; (iv) a reduction in ATP pools; and (v) inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, which leads to cell death.
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption Not Available Not Available
Blood Brain Barrier Not Available Not Available
Caco-2 permeable Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein substrate Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Not Available Not Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Not Available Not Available
Renal organic cation transporter Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 1A2 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 2C19 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Not Available Not Available
Ames test Not Available Not Available
Carcinogenicity Not Available Not Available
Biodegradation Not Available Not Available
Rat acute toxicity Not Available Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Not Available Not Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Not Available Not Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Gramicidin d powder240.0USDg
Neosporin gu irr 40 mg/ml amp23.12USDml
Neosporin + pain relief cream0.32USDg
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point229 °CNot Available
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General Reference
  1. Ketchem RR, Lee KC, Huo S, Cross TA: Macromolecular structural elucidation with solid-state NMR-derived orientational constraints. J Biomol NMR. 1996 Jul;8(1):1-14. Pubmed
  2. Townsley LE, Tucker WA, Sham S, Hinton JF: Structures of gramicidins A, B, and C incorporated into sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 2;40(39):11676-86. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
PharmGKBPA449808
Drug Product Database422908
WikipediaGramicidin_D
ATC CodesR02AB30
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(71.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. Pubmed

Comments
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 21, 2010 11:39