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Identification
NameGramicidin D
Accession NumberDB00027  (BTD00036, BIOD00036)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
DescriptionGramcidin D is a heterogeneous mixture of three antibiotic compounds, gramicidins A, B and C, making up 80%, 6%, and 14% respectively all of which are obtained from the soil bacterial species Bacillus brevis and called collectively gramicidin D. Gramcidins are 15 residue peptides with alternating D and L amino acids. The peptides assemble inside of the hydrophobic interior of the cellular lipid bilayer to form a β-helix. The helix itself is not long enough to span the membrane but it dimerizes to form the elongated channel needed to span the whole membrane. Gramicidin D is used primarily as a topical antibiotic and is one of the three constituents of consumer antibiotic polysporin ophthalmic solution.
Protein structureDb00027
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC99H140N20O17
Protein average weight1882.2947 Da
SequencesNot Available
Synonyms
Bacillus brevis gramicidin D
Gramicidin
Gramicidin A
Gramicidin B
Gramicidin C
Gramicidine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
SofradexSanofi
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Antibiotic CreamPharmetics (2011) Inc
Antibiotic Cream for KidsTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Antibiotic Cream Plus Pain ReliefPharmetics (2011) Inc
Antibiotic Cream Plus Pain Relief for KidsCanadian Custom Packaging Company
Antibiotic Plus Pain Relief CreamTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Complete Antibiotic OintmentTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Kenacomb CreamWestwood Squibb, Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.
Kenacomb Mild CreamWestwood Squibb, Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.
Kenacomb Mild OintmentWestwood Squibb, Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.
Kenacomb OintmentWestwood Squibb, Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.
Kenacomb OntSquibb Canada Inc., Division Of Bristol Myers Squibb Canada Inc.
Lidecomb CreamMedicis Canada Ltd.
Lidosporin CreamGlaxo Wellcome Inc.
Mecomb Crm 0.1%Medic Laboratory LtÉe
NeocidinMajor Pharmaceuticals
Neomycin and Polymyxin B Sulfates and GramicidinRebel Distributors Corp
NeosporinMonarch Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Neosporin Antibiotic CreamGlaxosmithkline Inc
Neosporin Eye-ear SolutionGlaxosmithkline Inc
Odan-sporOdan Laboratories Ltd
OptimyxinSandoz Canada Incorporated
Optimyxin Plus Oto-opht GtteSandoz Canada Incorporated
Original Antibiotic CreamTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Polycidin Eye, Ear DropsNovartis Ophthalmics Novartis Pharmaceuticals (Canada) Inc
Polysporin Antibiotic Burn CreamWarner Lambert Canada Inc.
Polysporin Antibiotic CreamJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin Burn Formula CreamGlaxo Wellcome Inc.
Polysporin Cold Sore OintmentJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin CompleteJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin CreamGlaxo Wellcome Inc.
Polysporin Eye and Ear Drops SterileJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin for KidsJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin for StitchesJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin Plus Pain ReliefJohnson & Johnson Inc
Polysporin Triple Antibiotic OintmentGlaxo Wellcome Inc.
Polytopic CreamSandoz Canada Incorporated
Ratio-triacombTeva Canada Limited
Sandoz OpticortSandoz Canada Incorporated
Sofracort Ear/eye OintmentRoussel Canada Inc.
Sofracort Sterile Ear/eye DropsSanofi Aventis Canada Inc
Sofracort Sterile Ear/eye OintmentHoechst Roussel Canada Inc.
Soframycin Nasal SprayErfa Canada 2012 Inc
Soframycin OintmentRoussel Canada Inc.
Soframycin Skin OintmentErfa Canada 2012 Inc
Theraderm CreamBimeda Mtc Animal Health Inc
Triple Antibiotic OintmentTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Viaderm Kc CrmTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
Viaderm Kc OntTaro Pharmaceuticals Inc
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII5IE62321P4
CAS number1405-97-6
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of skin lesions, surface wounds and eye infections
PharmacodynamicsGramicidin is particularly effective against gram-positive bacteria. Because the drug is highly hemolytic, it cannot be administered internally and so is used only on the skin as a lotion or ointment. It is used primarily in the treatment of infected surface wounds, and in eye, nose, and throat infections. It is normally given with two other antibiotics (neomycin and polymixin B) as an ophthalmic solution
Mechanism of actionGramicidin D binds to and inserts itself into bacterial membranes (with a strong preference to gram-positive cell membranes). This results in membrane disruption and permeabilization (it acts as a channel). This leads to (i) loss of intracellular solutes (e.g., K+ and amino acids); (ii) dissipation of the transmembrane potential; (iii) inhibition of respiration; (iv) a reduction in ATP pools; and (v) inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, which leads to cell death.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Neisseria meningitidis
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Escherichia coli
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Klebsiella
  • Enterobacter
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solution/ dropsophthalmic
Solutionophthalmic
Liquidophthalmic
Dropsophthalmic; otic
Liquidophthalmic; otic
Creamtopical
Solutionophthalmic; otic
Ointmentophthalmic; otic
Dropstopical
Spraynasal
Ointmenttopical
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Gramicidin d powder240.0USD g
Neosporin gu irr 40 mg/ml amp23.12USD ml
Neosporin + pain relief cream0.32USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point229 °CNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

U.S.Patent 2,534,541.

General References
  1. Ketchem RR, Lee KC, Huo S, Cross TA: Macromolecular structural elucidation with solid-state NMR-derived orientational constraints. J Biomol NMR. 1996 Jul;8(1):1-14. [PubMed:8810522 ]
  2. Townsley LE, Tucker WA, Sham S, Hinton JF: Structures of gramicidins A, B, and C incorporated into sodium dodecyl sulfate micelles. Biochemistry. 2001 Oct 2;40(39):11676-86. [PubMed:11570868 ]
  3. Burkhart BM, Gassman RM, Langs DA, Pangborn WA, Duax WL, Pletnev V: Gramicidin D conformation, dynamics and membrane ion transport. Biopolymers. 1999;51(2):129-44. [PubMed:10397797 ]
External Links
ATC CodesR02AB30
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (71.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcebutololThe serum concentration of Acebutolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AcetaminophenThe serum concentration of Acetaminophen can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe serum concentration of Acetylsalicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AfatinibThe serum concentration of Afatinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AldosteroneThe serum concentration of Aldosterone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AlitretinoinThe serum concentration of Alitretinoin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AmbrisentanThe serum concentration of Ambrisentan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AmitriptylineThe serum concentration of Amitriptyline can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ApixabanThe serum concentration of Apixaban can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Arsenic trioxideThe serum concentration of Arsenic trioxide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AtazanavirThe serum concentration of Atazanavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AtenololThe serum concentration of Atenolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
AxitinibThe serum concentration of Axitinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
BetamethasoneThe serum concentration of Betamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
BoceprevirThe serum concentration of Boceprevir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
BosutinibThe serum concentration of Bosutinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Brentuximab vedotinThe serum concentration of Brentuximab vedotin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
BromocriptineThe serum concentration of Bromocriptine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CabazitaxelThe serum concentration of Cabazitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CaffeineThe serum concentration of Caffeine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CamptothecinThe serum concentration of Camptothecin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CanagliflozinThe serum concentration of Canagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CarbamazepineThe serum concentration of Carbamazepine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CarfilzomibThe serum concentration of Carfilzomib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CeritinibThe serum concentration of Ceritinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CerivastatinThe serum concentration of Cerivastatin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ChlorpromazineThe serum concentration of Chlorpromazine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CimetidineThe serum concentration of Cimetidine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CiprofloxacinThe serum concentration of Ciprofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CisplatinThe serum concentration of Cisplatin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CitalopramThe serum concentration of Citalopram can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClarithromycinThe serum concentration of Clarithromycin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClobazamThe serum concentration of Clobazam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClomifeneThe serum concentration of Clomifene can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClonidineThe serum concentration of Clonidine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClopidogrelThe serum concentration of Clopidogrel can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ClozapineThe serum concentration of Clozapine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CobimetinibThe serum concentration of Cobimetinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ColchicineThe serum concentration of Colchicine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Conjugated Equine EstrogensThe serum concentration of Conjugated Equine Estrogens can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CrizotinibThe serum concentration of Crizotinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
CyclosporineThe serum concentration of Cyclosporine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Dabigatran etexilateThe serum concentration of Dabigatran etexilate can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DabrafenibThe serum concentration of Dabrafenib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DactinomycinThe serum concentration of Dactinomycin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DapagliflozinThe serum concentration of Dapagliflozin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DasatinibThe serum concentration of Dasatinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DaunorubicinThe serum concentration of Daunorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DebrisoquinThe serum concentration of Debrisoquin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DexamethasoneThe serum concentration of Dexamethasone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DiazepamThe serum concentration of Diazepam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DiethylstilbestrolThe serum concentration of Diethylstilbestrol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DihydrotestosteroneThe serum concentration of Dihydrotestosterone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DiltiazemThe serum concentration of Diltiazem can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DipyridamoleThe serum concentration of Dipyridamole can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DocetaxelThe serum concentration of Docetaxel can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DomperidoneThe serum concentration of Domperidone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
DoxorubicinThe serum concentration of Doxorubicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EdoxabanThe serum concentration of Edoxaban can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EletriptanThe serum concentration of Eletriptan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EpinastineThe serum concentration of Epinastine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ErlotinibThe serum concentration of Erlotinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ErythromycinThe serum concentration of Erythromycin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EstradiolThe serum concentration of Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EstriolThe serum concentration of Estriol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EstroneThe serum concentration of Estrone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Ethinyl EstradiolThe serum concentration of Ethinyl Estradiol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EtoposideThe serum concentration of Etoposide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EverolimusThe serum concentration of Everolimus can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
EzetimibeThe serum concentration of Ezetimibe can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
FesoterodineThe serum concentration of Fesoterodine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
FexofenadineThe serum concentration of Fexofenadine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
FidaxomicinThe serum concentration of Fidaxomicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Fluticasone furoateThe serum concentration of Fluticasone furoate can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GefitinibThe serum concentration of Gefitinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GemcitabineThe serum concentration of Gemcitabine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrazoprevirThe serum concentration of Grazoprevir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
GrepafloxacinThe serum concentration of Grepafloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
HaloperidolThe serum concentration of Haloperidol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
HydrocortisoneThe serum concentration of Hydrocortisone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IbuprofenThe serum concentration of Ibuprofen can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IdelalisibThe serum concentration of Idelalisib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ImatinibThe serum concentration of Imatinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ImipramineThe serum concentration of Imipramine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IndacaterolThe serum concentration of Indacaterol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IndinavirThe serum concentration of Indinavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IndomethacinThe serum concentration of Indomethacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IrinotecanThe serum concentration of Irinotecan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
IvermectinThe serum concentration of Ivermectin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
KetazolamThe serum concentration of Ketazolam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
KetoconazoleThe serum concentration of Ketoconazole can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LamivudineThe serum concentration of Lamivudine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LamotrigineThe serum concentration of Lamotrigine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LansoprazoleThe serum concentration of Lansoprazole can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LedipasvirThe serum concentration of Ledipasvir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LenalidomideThe serum concentration of Lenalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LenvatinibThe serum concentration of Lenvatinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LevetiracetamThe serum concentration of Levetiracetam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LevofloxacinThe serum concentration of Levofloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LevomilnacipranThe serum concentration of Levomilnacipran can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LinagliptinThe serum concentration of Linagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LoperamideThe serum concentration of Loperamide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
LosartanThe serum concentration of Losartan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MannitolThe serum concentration of Mannitol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MethylprednisoloneThe serum concentration of Methylprednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MetoprololThe serum concentration of Metoprolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MidazolamThe serum concentration of Midazolam can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MirabegronThe serum concentration of Mirabegron can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MitoxantroneThe serum concentration of Mitoxantrone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
MorphineThe serum concentration of Morphine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe serum concentration of Mycophenolate mofetil can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NadololThe serum concentration of Nadolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NaloxegolThe serum concentration of Naloxegol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NaloxoneThe serum concentration of Naloxone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NelfinavirThe serum concentration of Nelfinavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NicardipineThe serum concentration of Nicardipine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NifedipineThe serum concentration of Nifedipine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NilotinibThe serum concentration of Nilotinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NintedanibThe serum concentration of Nintedanib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
NizatidineThe serum concentration of Nizatidine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
OlanzapineThe serum concentration of Olanzapine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
OmbitasvirThe serum concentration of Ombitasvir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
OsimertinibThe serum concentration of Osimertinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PaclitaxelThe serum concentration of Paclitaxel can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PanobinostatThe serum concentration of Panobinostat can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PazopanibThe serum concentration of Pazopanib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PhenobarbitalThe serum concentration of Phenobarbital can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PhenytoinThe serum concentration of Phenytoin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Picosulfuric acid can be decreased when used in combination with Gramicidin D.
PitavastatinThe serum concentration of Pitavastatin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PomalidomideThe serum concentration of Pomalidomide can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PonatinibThe serum concentration of Ponatinib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PravastatinThe serum concentration of Pravastatin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PrazosinThe serum concentration of Prazosin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PrednisoloneThe serum concentration of Prednisolone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PrednisoneThe serum concentration of Prednisone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ProgesteroneThe serum concentration of Progesterone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PropranololThe serum concentration of Propranolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
PrucaloprideThe serum concentration of Prucalopride can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
QuetiapineThe serum concentration of Quetiapine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
QuinidineThe serum concentration of Quinidine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
QuinineThe serum concentration of Quinine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RanitidineThe serum concentration of Ranitidine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RanolazineThe serum concentration of Ranolazine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ReserpineThe serum concentration of Reserpine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RifampicinThe serum concentration of Rifampicin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RifaximinThe serum concentration of Rifaximin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RisperidoneThe serum concentration of Risperidone can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RitonavirThe serum concentration of Ritonavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RivaroxabanThe serum concentration of Rivaroxaban can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
RomidepsinThe serum concentration of Romidepsin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Salicylic acidThe serum concentration of Salicylic acid can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SaquinavirThe serum concentration of Saquinavir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SelexipagThe serum concentration of Selexipag can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SilodosinThe serum concentration of Silodosin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SimeprevirThe serum concentration of Simeprevir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SitagliptinThe serum concentration of Sitagliptin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SofosbuvirThe serum concentration of Sofosbuvir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SorafenibThe serum concentration of Sorafenib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SparfloxacinThe serum concentration of Sparfloxacin can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
SphingosineThe serum concentration of Sphingosine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TacrolimusThe serum concentration of Tacrolimus can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TamoxifenThe serum concentration of Tamoxifen can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Taurocholic AcidThe serum concentration of Taurocholic Acid can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Technetium Tc-99m sestamibiThe serum concentration of Technetium Tc-99m sestamibi can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TelaprevirThe serum concentration of Telaprevir can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TemsirolimusThe serum concentration of Temsirolimus can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TicagrelorThe serum concentration of Ticagrelor can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TimololThe serum concentration of Timolol can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TolvaptanThe serum concentration of Tolvaptan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
TopotecanThe serum concentration of Topotecan can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ToremifeneThe serum concentration of Toremifene can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Trastuzumab emtansineThe serum concentration of Trastuzumab emtansine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
UlipristalThe serum concentration of Ulipristal can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
UmeclidiniumThe serum concentration of Umeclidinium can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VecuroniumThe serum concentration of Vecuronium can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VenlafaxineThe serum concentration of Venlafaxine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VerapamilThe serum concentration of Verapamil can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VinblastineThe serum concentration of Vinblastine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VincristineThe serum concentration of Vincristine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
VismodegibThe serum concentration of Vismodegib can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
ZidovudineThe serum concentration of Zidovudine can be increased when it is combined with Gramicidin D.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Nagy H, Goda K, Fenyvesi F, Bacso Z, Szilasi M, Kappelmayer J, Lustyik G, Cianfriglia M, Szabo G Jr: Distinct groups of multidrug resistance modulating agents are distinguished by competition of P-glycoprotein-specific antibodies. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Mar 19;315(4):942-9. [PubMed:14985103 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23