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Identification
NameAnti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit)
Accession NumberDB00098  (BTD00040, BIOD00040)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved
Description

Rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin. Thymoglobulin is a polyclonal antibody that suppresses certain types of immune cells responsible for acute organ rejection in transplant patients. Thymoglobulin is a mixture of antibodies intended to bind to various cell surface antigens. The most common mode of action of Thymoglobulin is via selective depletion of T-cells.

Protein structureDb00098
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaNot Available
Protein average weightNot Available
SequencesNot Available
Synonyms
Anti-thymocyte globulin (rabbit)
rabbit ATG
rATG
Thymoglobulin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Thymoglobulinpowder for solution25 mgintravenousSanofi Aventis Canada Inc2003-05-06Not applicableCanada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ATG-FreseniusFresenius SE
ATG-Fresenius SFresenius SE
GenzymeNot Available
Thymoglobulin SangStat MedicalNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIID7RD81HE4W
CAS numberNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor prevention of renal transplant rejection
PharmacodynamicsAntithymocyte Globulin (ATG) is a concentrated anti-human T-lymphocyte immunoglobulin preparation derived from rabbits after immunization with a T-lympoblast cell line. ATG is an immunosuppressive product for the prevention and treatment of acute rejection following organ transplantation. ATG reduces the host immune response against tissue transplants or organ allografts.
Mechanism of actionBinds to multiple, T-cell specific antigens leading to T-lymphocyte cell death via complement mediated cytotoxicity or apoptosis.
Related Articles
AbsorptionT-cell depletion usually observed within 1 day after initiating therapy. Average 21.5 and 87 mcg/mL 4–8 hours post-infusion after first and last IV doses, respectively, when given for 7–11 days.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Most likely removed by opsonization via the reticuloendothelial system when bound to T lymphocytes, or by human antimurine antibody production.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life2-3 days, may increase after multiple doses administration
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot known whether ATG (rabbit) distributes into human milk; however, other immunoglobulins are distributed into human milk.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powder for solutionintravenous25 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Thymoglobulin 25 mg vial636.48USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point61 °C (FAB fragment), 71 °C (whole mAb)Vermeer, A.W.P. & Norde, W., Biophys. J. 78:394-404 (2000)
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Link [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
DenosumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Denosumab is combined with Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) is combined with Leflunomide.
NatalizumabThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) is combined with Natalizumab.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimecrolimus is combined with Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
RoflumilastRoflumilast may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
Sipuleucel-TThe therapeutic efficacy of Sipuleucel-T can be decreased when used in combination with Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
TacrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tacrolimus is combined with Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
TofacitinibAnti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit) may increase the immunosuppressive activities of Tofacitinib.
TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the neutropenic activities of Anti-thymocyte Globulin (Rabbit).
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Lipopeptide binding
Specific Function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells.
Gene Name:
CD1A
Uniprot ID:
P06126
Molecular Weight:
37077.1 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Antigen-presenting molecule specialized in presenting microbial vitamin B metabolites. Involved in the development and expansion of a small population of T-cells expressing an invariant T-cell receptor alpha chain called mucosal-associated invariant T-cells (MAIT). MAIT lymphocytes are preferentially located in the gut lamina propria and therefore may be involved in monitoring commensal flora o...
Gene Name:
MR1
Uniprot ID:
Q95460
Molecular Weight:
39365.76 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-L/beta-2 is a receptor for ICAM1, ICAM2, ICAM3 and ICAM4. It is involved in a variety of immune phenomena including leukocyte-endothelial cell interaction, cytotoxic T-cell mediated killing, and antibody dependent killing by granulocytes and monocytes.
Gene Name:
ITGAL
Uniprot ID:
P20701
Molecular Weight:
128768.495 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production, by binding CD28 or CTLA-4. May play a critical role in the early events of T-cell activation and costimulation of naive T-cells, such as deciding between immunity and anergy that is made by T-cells within 24 hours after activation. Isoform 2 interferes with the formation of CD86 ...
Gene Name:
CD86
Uniprot ID:
P42081
Molecular Weight:
37681.97 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Not Available
Specific Function:
Receptor for the Fc region of complexed or aggregated immunoglobulins gamma. Low affinity receptor. Involved in a variety of effector and regulatory functions such as phagocytosis of immune complexes and modulation of antibody production by B-cells. Binding to this receptor results in down-modulation of previous state of cell activation triggered via antigen receptors on B-cells (BCR), T-cells ...
Gene Name:
FCGR2B
Uniprot ID:
P31994
Molecular Weight:
34043.355 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Accessory protein for MHC class-II antigen/T-cell receptor interaction. May regulate T-cell activation. Induces the aggregation of lipid rafts.(Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for human immunodeficiency virus-1 (PubMed:2214026, PubMed:16331979, PubMed:9641677). Down-regulated by HIV-1 Vpu (PubMed:17346169). Acts as a receptor for Human Herpes virus 7/HHV-7 (PubMed:7909607).
Gene Name:
CD4
Uniprot ID:
P01730
Molecular Weight:
51110.205 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Integrins alpha-1/beta-1, alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-10/beta-1 and alpha-11/beta-1 are receptors for collagen. Integrins alpha-1/beta-1 and alpha-2/beta-2 recognize the proline-hydroxylated sequence G-F-P-G-E-R in collagen. Integrins alpha-2/beta-1, alpha-3/beta-1, alpha-4/beta-1, alpha-5/beta-1, alpha-8/beta-1, alpha-10/beta-1, alpha-11/beta-1 and alpha-V/beta-1 are receptors for fibronectin. Alpha...
Gene Name:
ITGB1
Uniprot ID:
P05556
Molecular Weight:
88414.575 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
The alpha-V (ITGAV) integrins are receptors for vitronectin, cytotactin, fibronectin, fibrinogen, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, osteopontin, osteomodulin, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vWF. They recognize the sequence R-G-D in a wide array of ligands.(Microbial infection) Integrin ITGAV:ITGB5 acts as a receptor for adenovirus type C (PubMed:20615244). Integrin ITGAV:ITGB5 and ITGAV:ITG...
Gene Name:
ITGAV
Uniprot ID:
P06756
Molecular Weight:
116036.855 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Integrin alpha-V/beta-3 (ITGAV:ITGB3) is a receptor for cytotactin, fibronectin, laminin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, osteopontin, osteomodulin, prothrombin, thrombospondin, vitronectin and von Willebrand factor. Integrin alpha-IIb/beta-3 (ITGA2B:ITGB3) is a receptor for fibronectin, fibrinogen, plasminogen, prothrombin, thrombospondin and vitronectin. Integrins alpha-IIb/beta-3 and alpha-V/bet...
Gene Name:
ITGB3
Uniprot ID:
P05106
Molecular Weight:
87056.975 Da
References
  1. Monti P, Allavena P, Di Carlo V, Piemonti L: Effects of anti-lymphocytes and anti-thymocytes globulin on human dendritic cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003 Feb;3(2):189-96. [PubMed:12586600 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23