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Identification
NamePyruvic acid
Accession NumberDB00119  (NUTR00050)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
2-ketopropionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
2-Oxopropanoic acidNot AvailableNot Available
2-OxopropansaeureNot AvailableNot Available
2-OxopropionsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
a-Ketopropionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acetylformic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acide pyruviqueNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-Ketopropionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
alpha-OxopropionsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
BrenztraubensaeureNot AvailableNot Available
BTSNot AvailableNot Available
CH3COCOOHNot AvailableNot Available
Pyroracemic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Pyruvic acidNot AvailableNot Available
α-ketopropionic acidNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand namesNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number127-17-3
WeightAverage: 88.0621
Monoisotopic: 88.016043994
Chemical FormulaC3H4O3
InChI KeyLCTONWCANYUPML-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H4O3/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h1H3,(H,5,6)
IUPAC Name
2-oxopropanoic acid
SMILES
CC(=O)C(O)=O
Mass Specshow(7.4 KB)
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassKeto-Acids and Derivatives
SubclassAlpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Direct parentAlpha Keto-Acids and Derivatives
Alternative parentsKetones; Polyamines; Enolates; Carboxylic Acids; Keto Acids and Derivatives
Substituentsketone; enolate; polyamine; carboxylic acid; carboxylic acid derivative; carbonyl group
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the alpha keto-acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing an aldehyde substituted with a keto group on the adjacent carbon.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsPyruvic acid or pyruvate is a key intermediate in the glycolytic and pyruvate dehydrogenase pathways, which are involved in biological energy production. Pyruvate is widely found in living organisms. It is not an essential nutrient since it can be synthesized in the cells of the body. Certain fruits and vegetables are rich in pyruvate. For example, an average-size red apple contains approximately 450 milligrams. Dark beer and red wine are also rich sources of pyruvate. Recent research suggests that pyruvate in high concentrations may have a role in cardiovascular therapy, as an inotropic agent. Supplements of this dietary substance may also have bariatric and ergogenic applications.
Mechanism of actionPyruvate serves as a biological fuel by being converted to acetyl coenzyme A, which enters the tricarboxylic acid or Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to produce ATP aerobically. Energy can also be obtained anaerobically from pyruvate via its conversion to lactate. Pyruvate injections or perfusions increase contractile function of hearts when metabolizing glucose or fatty acids. This inotropic effect is striking in hearts stunned by ischemia/reperfusion. The inotropic effect of pyruvate requires intracoronary infusion. Among possible mechanisms for this effect are increased generation of ATP and an increase in ATP phosphorylation potential. Another is activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, promoting its own oxidation by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Pyruvate dehydrogenase is inactivated in ischemia myocardium. Yet another is reduction of cytosolic inorganic phosphate concentration. Pyruvate, as an antioxidant, is known to scavenge such reactive oxygen species as hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxides. Indirectly, supraphysiological levels of pyruvate may increase cellular reduced glutathione.
AbsorptionPyruvate is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract from whence it is transported to the liver via the portal circulation.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

In the liver, pyruvate is metabolized via several pathways.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThose taking large doses of supplemental pyruvate—usually greater than 5 grams daily—have reported gastrointestinal symptoms, including abdominal discomfort and bloating, gas and diarrhea. One child receiving pyruvate intravenously for restrictive cardiomyopathy died.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationMetabolicSMP00459
Glucose-Alanine CycleMetabolicSMP00127
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaMetabolicSMP00466
Citric Acid CycleMetabolicSMP00057
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencyDiseaseSMP00548
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)DiseaseSMP00560
Fanconi-bickel syndromeDiseaseSMP00572
Glycogenosis, Type ICDiseaseSMP00574
Cystinosis, ocular nonnephropathicDiseaseSMP00722
Fumarase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00547
Cysteine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00013
GluconeogenesisMetabolicSMP00128
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencyDiseaseSMP00549
Glycogenosis, Type IBDiseaseSMP00573
GlycolysisMetabolicSMP00040
Beta-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduriaDiseaseSMP00499
Glycogenosis, Type VII. Tarui diseaseDiseaseSMP00531
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)DiseaseSMP00550
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00562
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseDiseaseSMP00581
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseDiseaseSMP00374
Congenital lactic acidosisDiseaseSMP00546
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)DiseaseSMP00551
Triosephosphate isomeraseDiseaseSMP00563
Pyruvate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00060
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00212
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseDiseaseSMP00240
Pyruvate kinase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00559
Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00055
Lactic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00313
Tay-Sachs DiseaseDiseaseSMP00390
Sjogren Larsson SyndromeDiseaseSMP00217
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type IDiseaseSMP00352
Leigh SyndromeDiseaseSMP00196
Amino Sugar MetabolismMetabolicSMP00045
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00350
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00334
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaDiseaseSMP00216
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseDiseaseSMP00534
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2DiseaseSMP00558
SarcosinemiaDiseaseSMP00244
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDiseaseSMP00485
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00567
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Urea CycleMetabolicSMP00059
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)DiseaseSMP00205
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
DimethylglycinuriaDiseaseSMP00484
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00721
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00243
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
ArgininemiaDiseaseSMP00357
HomocarnosinosisDiseaseSMP00385
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDiseaseSMP00003
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00002
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeDiseaseSMP00339
Citrullinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00001
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)DiseaseSMP00136
Warburg EffectMetabolicSMP00654
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9753
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9401
Caco-2 permeable - 0.6934
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.8153
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9498
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9514
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.949
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.7951
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9402
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.7806
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.98
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9608
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9697
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9834
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9882
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9932
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.8578
Carcinogenicity Carcinogens 0.5171
Biodegradation Ready biodegradable 0.9262
Rat acute toxicity 1.7859 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9883
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9801
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Stateliquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point13.8 °CPhysProp
boiling point54 °C at 1.00E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.5Not Available
pKa2.45 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility134.0ALOGPS
logP-0.38ALOGPS
logP0.066ChemAxon
logS0.18ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area54.37 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity17.99 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability7.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
References
Synthesis Reference

Tadamitsu Kiyoura, “Process for producing salts of pyruvic acid.” U.S. Patent US4242525, issued December, 1965.

US4242525
General ReferenceNot Available
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC00022
PubChem Compound1060
PubChem Substance46505692
ChemSpider1031
BindingDB19473
ChEBI32816
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP000543
PharmGKBPA164778686
HETPYR
PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/pyr_0218.shtml
WikipediaPyruvic_acid
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(72 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 4 O15427 Details

References:

  1. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed

2. Monocarboxylate transporter 8

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 P36021 Details

References:

  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed

3. Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Alanine--glyoxylate aminotransferase 2, mitochondrial Q9BYV1 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Tamaki N, Fujimoto S, Mizota C, Kaneko M, Kikugawa M: Inhibitory effect of 6-azauracil on beta-alanine metabolism in rat. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1989 Oct;35(5):451-61. Pubmed

4. Monocarboxylate transporter 6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 6 O15375 Details

References:

  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed

5. Pyruvate kinase PKLR

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate kinase PKLR P30613 Details

References:

  1. Percy MJ, van Wijk R, Haggan S, Savage GA, Boyd K, Dempsey S, Hamilton J, Kettle P, Kyle A, Shepherd CW, van Solinge WW, Lappin TR, McMullin MF: Pyruvate kinase deficient hemolytic anemia in the Northern Irish population. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2007 Sep-Oct;39(2):189-94. Epub 2007 Jun 15. Pubmed
  2. Meza NW, Quintana-Bustamante O, Puyet A, Rio P, Navarro S, Diez A, Bueren JA, Bautista JM, Segovia JC: In vitro and in vivo expression of human erythrocyte pyruvate kinase in erythroid cells: a gene therapy approach. Hum Gene Ther. 2007 Jun;18(6):502-14. Pubmed
  3. Rajaseger G, Lim CL, Lee KW, Arjunan P, Jia L, Moochhala S: Profiling of hepatocellular proteins by 1D PAGE-MALDI/MS/MS in a rat heat stress model. Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:2924-8. Pubmed
  4. Xu J, Christian B, Jump DB: Regulation of rat hepatic L-pyruvate kinase promoter composition and activity by glucose, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 7;281(27):18351-62. Epub 2006 Apr 27. Pubmed
  5. Suzuki T, Kawamoto M, Murai A, Muramatsu T: Identification of the regulatory region of the L-type pyruvate kinase gene in mouse liver by hydrodynamics-based gene transfection. J Nutr. 2006 Jan;136(1):16-20. Pubmed

6. Monocarboxylate transporter 7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 7 O15403 Details

References:

  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed

7. Monocarboxylate transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 2 O60669 Details

References:

  1. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed
  2. Hinoi E, Takarada T, Tsuchihashi Y, Fujimori S, Moriguchi N, Wang L, Uno K, Yoneda Y: A molecular mechanism of pyruvate protection against cytotoxicity of reactive oxygen species in osteoblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;70(3):925-35. Epub 2006 Jun 9. Pubmed
  3. Yoshida Y, Holloway GP, Ljubicic V, Hatta H, Spriet LL, Hood DA, Bonen A: Negligible direct lactate oxidation in subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria obtained from red and white rat skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;582(Pt 3):1317-35. Epub 2007 Jun 7. Pubmed
  4. de Laplanche E, Gouget K, Cleris G, Dragounoff F, Demont J, Morales A, Bezin L, Godinot C, Perriere G, Mouchiroud D, Simonnet H: Physiological oxygenation status is required for fully differentiated phenotype in kidney cortex proximal tubules. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006 Oct;291(4):F750-60. Epub 2006 Apr 4. Pubmed
  5. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. Pubmed

8. Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial P11177 Details

References:

  1. Kumar V, Rangaraj N, Shivaji S: Activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase A (PDHA) in hamster spermatozoa correlates positively with hyperactivation and is associated with sperm capacitation. Biol Reprod. 2006 Nov;75(5):767-77. Epub 2006 Jul 19. Pubmed

9. Pyruvate kinase PKM

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate kinase PKM P14618 Details

References:

  1. Li Y, Chang Y, Zhang L, Feng Q, Liu Z, Zhang Y, Zuo J, Meng Y, Fang F: High glucose upregulates pantothenate kinase 4 (PanK4) and thus affects M2-type pyruvate kinase (Pkm2). Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Sep;277(1-2):117-25. Pubmed
  2. Stetak A, Veress R, Ovadi J, Csermely P, Keri G, Ullrich A: Nuclear translocation of the tumor marker pyruvate kinase M2 induces programmed cell death. Cancer Res. 2007 Feb 15;67(4):1602-8. Pubmed
  3. Vlaeminck-Guillem V, Safi R, Guillem P, Leteurtre E, Duterque-Coquillaud M, Laudet V: Thyroid hormone receptor expression in the obligatory paedomorphic salamander Necturus maculosus. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50(6):553-60. Pubmed
  4. Weinberger R, Appel B, Stein A, Metz Y, Neheman A, Barak M: The pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (Tu M2-PK) as a tumour marker for renal cell carcinoma. Eur J Cancer Care (Engl). 2007 Jul;16(4):333-7. Pubmed
  5. Staib P, Hoffmann M, Schinkothe T: Plasma levels of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase should not be used as a tumor marker for hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(1):28-31. Pubmed

10. 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrial P80404 Details

References:

  1. Andersen G, Andersen B, Dobritzsch D, Schnackerz KD, Piskur J: A gene duplication led to specialized gamma-aminobutyrate and beta-alanine aminotransferase in yeast. FEBS J. 2007 Apr;274(7):1804-17. Epub 2007 Mar 12. Pubmed
  2. Schmidt C, Hofmann U, Kohlmuller D, Murdter T, Zanger UM, Schwab M, Hoffmann GF: Comprehensive analysis of pyrimidine metabolism in 450 children with unspecific neurological symptoms using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(6):1109-22. Pubmed
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

11. Monocarboxylate transporter 5

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 5 O15374 Details

References:

  1. Kay HH, Zhu S, Tsoi S: Hypoxia and lactate production in trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2007 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):854-60. Epub 2007 Feb 2. Pubmed
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. Pubmed
  3. Bonen A, Heynen M, Hatta H: Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006 Feb;31(1):31-9. Pubmed
  4. Pierre K, Pellerin L: Monocarboxylate transporters in the central nervous system: distribution, regulation and function. J Neurochem. 2005 Jul;94(1):1-14. Pubmed
  5. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed

12. Monocarboxylate transporter 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 3 O95907 Details

References:

  1. Jansen S, Esmaeilpour T, Pantaleon M, Kaye PL: Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development. Reproduction. 2006 Mar;131(3):469-79. Pubmed

13. Monocarboxylate transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 P53985 Details

References:

  1. Duerr JM, Tucker K: Pyruvate transport in isolated cardiac mitochondria from two species of amphibian exhibiting dissimilar aerobic scope: Bufo marinus and Rana catesbeiana. J Exp Zool Part A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2007 Aug 1;307(8):425-38. Pubmed
  2. Han M, Trotta P, Coleman C, Linask KK: MCT-4, A511/Basigin and EF5 expression patterns during early chick cardiomyogenesis indicate cardiac cell differentiation occurs in a hypoxic environment. Dev Dyn. 2006 Jan;235(1):124-31. Pubmed
  3. Shimoyama Y, Akihara Y, Kirat D, Iwano H, Hirayama K, Kagawa Y, Ohmachi T, Matsuda K, Okamoto M, Kadosawa T, Yokota H, Taniyama H: Expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 in oral and ocular canine melanocytic tumors. Vet Pathol. 2007 Jul;44(4):449-57. Pubmed
  4. Shimada A, Nakagawa Y, Morishige H, Yamamoto A, Fujita T: Functional characteristics of H+ -dependent nicotinate transport in primary cultures of astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex. Neurosci Lett. 2006 Jan 16;392(3):207-12. Epub 2005 Oct 5. Pubmed
  5. Philp A, Macdonald AL, Watt PW: Lactate—a signal coordinating cell and systemic function. J Exp Biol. 2005 Dec;208(Pt 24):4561-75. Pubmed

14. Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial P11498 Details

References:

  1. Jitrapakdee S, Vidal-Puig A, Wallace JC: Anaplerotic roles of pyruvate carboxylase in mammalian tissues. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006 Apr;63(7-8):843-54. Pubmed
  2. Simpson NE, Khokhlova N, Oca-Cossio JA, Constantinidis I: Insights into the role of anaplerosis in insulin secretion: A 13C NMR study. Diabetologia. 2006 Jun;49(6):1338-48. Epub 2006 Mar 31. Pubmed
  3. Jensen MV, Joseph JW, Ilkayeva O, Burgess S, Lu D, Ronnebaum SM, Odegaard M, Becker TC, Sherry AD, Newgard CB: Compensatory responses to pyruvate carboxylase suppression in islet beta-cells. Preservation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):22342-51. Epub 2006 Jun 1. Pubmed
  4. Ikeda K, Yukihiro Hiraoka B, Iwai H, Matsumoto T, Mineki R, Taka H, Takamori K, Ogawa H, Yamakura F: Detection of 6-nitrotryptophan in proteins by Western blot analysis and its application for peroxynitrite-treated PC12 cells. Nitric Oxide. 2007 Feb;16(1):18-28. Epub 2006 May 4. Pubmed
  5. Liu L, Li Y, Zhu Y, Du G, Chen J: Redistribution of carbon flux in Torulopsis glabrata by altering vitamin and calcium level. Metab Eng. 2007 Jan;9(1):21-9. Epub 2006 Aug 12. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Monocarboxylate transporter 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 2 O60669 Details

References:

  1. Broer S, Broer A, Schneider HP, Stegen C, Halestrap AP, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the high-affinity monocarboxylate transporter MCT2 in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Biochem J. 1999 Aug 1;341 ( Pt 3):529-35. Pubmed
  2. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. Pubmed

2. Monocarboxylate transporter 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 P53985 Details

References:

  1. Broer S, Rahman B, Pellegri G, Pellerin L, Martin JL, Verleysdonk S, Hamprecht B, Magistretti PJ: Comparison of lactate transport in astroglial cells and monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT 1) expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes. Expression of two different monocarboxylate transporters in astroglial cells and neurons. J Biol Chem. 1997 Nov 28;272(48):30096-102. Pubmed
  2. Broer S, Schneider HP, Broer A, Rahman B, Hamprecht B, Deitmer JW: Characterization of the monocarboxylate transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes by changes in cytosolic pH. Biochem J. 1998 Jul 1;333 ( Pt 1):167-74. Pubmed
  3. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. Pubmed

3. Monocarboxylate transporter 10

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 10 Q8TF71 Details

References:

  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. Pubmed
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. Pubmed

4. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2A1 Q92959 Details

References:

  1. Chan BS, Endo S, Kanai N, Schuster VL: Identification of lactate as a driving force for prostanoid transport by prostaglandin transporter PGT. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002 Jun;282(6):F1097-102. Pubmed

5. Monocarboxylate transporter 4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Monocarboxylate transporter 4 O15427 Details

References:

  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 24, 2013 10:25