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Identification
NameSpermine
Accession NumberDB00127  (NUTR00055, EXPT02947, DB02564)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
4,9-Diaza-1,12-dodecanediamine
4,9-Diazadodecane-1,12-diamine
N,N'-Bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine
Spermine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Spermine dihydrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000870
Categories
UNII2FZ7Y3VOQX
CAS number71-44-3
WeightAverage: 202.3402
Monoisotopic: 202.215746852
Chemical FormulaC10H26N4
InChI KeyInChIKey=PFNFFQXMRSDOHW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C10H26N4/c11-5-3-9-13-7-1-2-8-14-10-4-6-12/h13-14H,1-12H2
IUPAC Name
(3-aminopropyl)({4-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]butyl})amine
SMILES
NCCCNCCCCNCCCN
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylamines. These are organic compounds containing a dialkylamine group, characterized by two alkyl groups bonded to the amino nitrogen.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassAmines
Sub ClassSecondary amines
Direct ParentDialkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance
PharmacodynamicsSpermine is a polyamine. It is an organic molecule that is involved in cellular metabolism.
Mechanism of actionSpermine is derived from spermidine by spermine synthase. Spermine is a polyamine, a small organic cations that is absolutely required for eukaryotic cell growth. Spermine, is normally found in millimolar concentrations in the nucleus. Spermine functions directly as a free radical scavenger, and forms a variety of adducts that prevent oxidative damage to DNA. Oxidative damage to DNA by reactive oxygen species is a continual problem that cells must guard against to survive. Hence, spermine is a major natural intracellular compound capable of protecting DNA from free radical attack. Spermine is also implicated in the regulation of gene expression, the stabilization of chromatin, and the prevention of endonuclease-mediated DNA fragmentation.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00445
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9215
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6345
Caco-2 permeable+0.7072
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5094
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9178
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6414
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6066
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8863
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.5607
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8262
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.877
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9072
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9502
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9703
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9386
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8957
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6436
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.5525
Rat acute toxicity2.4561 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.7691
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7739
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point29 °CPhysProp
boiling point150-150 °CNot Available
water solubility> 100 mg/mLNot Available
logP-0.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.19 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.66ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area76.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity62.56 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (10.5 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-014u-1900000000-e9620319823eaeccecccView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (x TMS)splash10-00s6-3900000000-d7da5cd1c0be289412eeView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00r6-1900000000-861e0541e2eb67219b93View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-7900000000-9706a16d903df3f9e094View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-5900000000-eb1574dc4aea2972932bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00ei-8900000000-710d44c573ed398f7db9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00s6-3900000000-cb82c1371fa767015cffView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS)splash10-00rf-1900000000-ca3a2df44acb740134cdView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS)splash10-00y0-1900000000-7ba8e67861945901b381View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0w29-2940000000-a8b05c7cfaea58c5d82dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-1900000000-75ac3953e5378c465a62View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-e3b84db5723912be8a4fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0930000000-4bb02118dea11e2101f8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-468357ae06dea8985d85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00b9-6900000000-cf244bbfdbb5b7889d7aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-c5af077deeab934c36b7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0940000000-098121f449eb29dd74beView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-167ef7503b0827eb212fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-feb04e188e675948f795View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-93e15f4592fe9bbeb367View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0090000000-c22e98adb3dc62b1eb77View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-01t9-0900000000-76aa5e4bf523c2027cbaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-03di-4900000000-b762c20d8a09a78cf931View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-001i-9300000000-0428cb6df2b593ded567View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-001i-9000000000-c319f927047d78e2b69bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-b4f106f6fe26766fbf73View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-29d4a223bb44ded927b5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT (LC/MSD Trap XCT, Agilent Technologies) , Positivesplash10-01q9-9500000000-d1b7e914e9ccee2d0f66View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udr-2970000000-268b93360fb5eaa19e49View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a73-9810000000-ee919f22493191f56708View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9200000000-f7cb18a7a6036554cb6bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-ea2e2f233958fa61cd8bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-3390000000-0ade7d389047531a84eeView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fu-9200000000-e760ec8b3259e54992ceView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-053u-9100000000-5a106273203d28e4a701View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Koji Nakanishi, Amira T. Eldefrawi, Mohyee E. Eldefrawi, Peter N. R. Usherwood, “Butyryl-tyrosinyl spermine, analogs thereof and methods of preparing and using same.” U.S. Patent US5770625, issued January, 1966.

US5770625
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (19.4 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Spermine synthase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM).
Gene Name:
SMS
Uniprot ID:
P52788
Molecular Weight:
41267.855 Da
References
  1. Lopatin AN, Shantz LM, Mackintosh CA, Nichols CG, Pegg AE: Modulation of potassium channels in the hearts of transgenic and mutant mice with altered polyamine biosynthesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Nov;32(11):2007-24. [PubMed:11040105 ]
  2. Korhonen VP, Niiranen K, Halmekyto M, Pietila M, Diegelman P, Parkkinen JJ, Eloranta T, Porter CW, Alhonen L, Janne J: Spermine deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the spermine synthase gene in embryonic stem cells leads to enhanced sensitivity to antiproliferative drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):231-8. [PubMed:11160858 ]
  3. Cason AL, Ikeguchi Y, Skinner C, Wood TC, Holden KR, Lubs HA, Martinez F, Simensen RJ, Stevenson RE, Pegg AE, Schwartz CE: X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) defect: the first polyamine deficiency syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2003 Dec;11(12):937-44. [PubMed:14508504 ]
  4. Wang X, Ikeguchi Y, McCloskey DE, Nelson P, Pegg AE: Spermine synthesis is required for normal viability, growth, and fertility in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):51370-5. Epub 2004 Sep 30. [PubMed:15459188 ]
  5. Schwartz CE, Wang X, Stevenson RE, Pegg AE: Spermine synthase deficiency resulting in X-linked intellectual disability (Snyder-Robinson syndrome). Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:437-45. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-034-8_28. [PubMed:21318891 ]
  6. Wang X, Pegg AE: Use of (Gyro) Gy and spermine synthase transgenic mice to study functions of spermine. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:159-70. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-034-8_9. [PubMed:21318872 ]
  7. Theiss C, Bohley P, Voigt J: Regulation by polyamines of ornithine decarboxylase activity and cell division in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 2002 Apr;128(4):1470-9. [PubMed:11950995 ]
  8. Krauss M, Langnaese K, Richter K, Brunk I, Wieske M, Ahnert-Hilger G, Veh RW, Laube G: Spermidine synthase is prominently expressed in the striatal patch compartment and in putative interneurones of the matrix compartment. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):174-89. Epub 2006 Mar 3. [PubMed:16515550 ]
  9. Kobayashi M, Takao K, Shiota Y, Sugita Y, Takahashi M, Nakae D, Samejima K: Inhibition of putrescine aminopropyltransferase influences rat liver regeneration. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):863-7. [PubMed:16651710 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
ligand
General Function:
Spermine:oxygen oxidoreductase (spermidine-forming) activity
Specific Function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor ...
Gene Name:
SMOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWM0
Molecular Weight:
61818.76 Da
References
  1. Binda C, Angelini R, Federico R, Ascenzi P, Mattevi A: Structural bases for inhibitor binding and catalysis in polyamine oxidase. Biochemistry. 2001 Mar 6;40(9):2766-76. [PubMed:11258887 ]
  2. Vujcic S, Diegelman P, Bacchi CJ, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin. Biochem J. 2002 Nov 1;367(Pt 3):665-75. [PubMed:12141946 ]
  3. Vujcic S, Liang P, Diegelman P, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of the mammalian polyamine oxidase involved in polyamine back-conversion. Biochem J. 2003 Feb 15;370(Pt 1):19-28. [PubMed:12477380 ]
  4. Wang Y, Murray-Stewart T, Devereux W, Hacker A, Frydman B, Woster PM, Casero RA Jr: Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 May 16;304(4):605-11. [PubMed:12727196 ]
  5. Bacchi CJ, Rattendi D, Faciane E, Yarlett N, Weiss LM, Frydman B, Woster P, Wei B, Marton LJ, Wittner M: Polyamine metabolism in a member of the phylum Microspora (Encephalitozoon cuniculi): effects of polyamine analogues. Microbiology. 2004 May;150(Pt 5):1215-24. [PubMed:15133083 ]
3. DNA
Kind
Nucleotide
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
binder
General Function:
Used for biological information storage.
Specific Function:
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive and reproduce.
Molecular Weight:
2.15 x 1012 Da
References
  1. Trubetskoy VS, Wolff JA, Budker VG: The role of a microscopic colloidally stabilized phase in solubilizing oligoamine-condensed DNA complexes. Biophys J. 2003 Feb;84(2 Pt 1):1124-30. [PubMed:12547793 ]
  2. Cho SK, Kwon YJ: Polyamine/DNA polyplexes with acid-degradable polymeric shell as structurally and functionally virus-mimicking nonviral vectors. J Control Release. 2011 Mar 30;150(3):287-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2010.12.004. Epub 2010 Dec 16. [PubMed:21167887 ]
  3. Saminathan M, Thomas T, Shirahata A, Pillai CK, Thomas TJ: Polyamine structural effects on the induction and stabilization of liquid crystalline DNA: potential applications to DNA packaging, gene therapy and polyamine therapeutics. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Sep 1;30(17):3722-31. [PubMed:12202757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
product of
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme of polyamine biosynthesis that converts ornithine into putrescine, which is the precursor for the polyamines, spermidine and spermine.
Gene Name:
ODC1
Uniprot ID:
P11926
Molecular Weight:
51147.73 Da
References
  1. Nilsson J, Grahn B, Heby O: Antizyme inhibitor is rapidly induced in growth-stimulated mouse fibroblasts and releases ornithine decarboxylase from antizyme suppression. Biochem J. 2000 Mar 15;346 Pt 3:699-704. [PubMed:10698696 ]
  2. Ray RM, Viar MJ, Yuan Q, Johnson LR: Polyamine depletion delays apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Mar;278(3):C480-9. [PubMed:10712236 ]
  3. Korhonen VP, Niiranen K, Halmekyto M, Pietila M, Diegelman P, Parkkinen JJ, Eloranta T, Porter CW, Alhonen L, Janne J: Spermine deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the spermine synthase gene in embryonic stem cells leads to enhanced sensitivity to antiproliferative drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):231-8. [PubMed:11160858 ]
  4. Rohn G, Els T, Hell K, Ernestus RI: Regional distribution of ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine levels in experimental cat brain tumors. Neurochem Int. 2001 Aug;39(2):135-40. [PubMed:11408092 ]
  5. Ernestus RI, Rohn G, Schroder R, Els T, Klekner A, Paschen W, Klug N: Polyamine metabolism in brain tumours: diagnostic relevance of quantitative biochemistry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Jul;71(1):88-92. [PubMed:11413269 ]
  6. Lee NK, MacLean HE: Polyamines, androgens, and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. J Cell Physiol. 2011 Jun;226(6):1453-60. doi: 10.1002/jcp.22569. [PubMed:21413019 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xanthine oxidase activity
Specific Function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular Weight:
146422.99 Da
References
  1. Lovaas E, Carlin G: Spermine: an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Free Radic Biol Med. 1991;11(5):455-61. [PubMed:1663062 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Diamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine ...
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular Weight:
20023.8 Da
References
  1. Vujcic S, Halmekyto M, Diegelman P, Gan G, Kramer DL, Janne J, Porter CW: Effects of conditional overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase on polyamine pool dynamics, cell growth, and sensitivity to polyamine analogs. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38319-28. [PubMed:10978316 ]
  2. Hegardt C, Andersson G, Oredsson SM: Changes in polyamine metabolism during glucocorticoid-induced programmed cell death in mouse thymus. Cell Biol Int. 2000;24(12):871-80. [PubMed:11114236 ]
  3. Marverti G, Bettuzzi S, Astancolle S, Pinna C, Monti MG, Moruzzi MS: Differential induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells in response to N1,N12-bis(ethyl)spermine involves transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Eur J Cancer. 2001 Jan;37(2):281-9. [PubMed:11166157 ]
  4. Scorcioni F, Corti A, Davalli P, Astancolle S, Bettuzzi S: Manipulation of the expression of regulatory genes of polyamine metabolism results in specific alterations of the cell-cycle progression. Biochem J. 2001 Feb 15;354(Pt 1):217-23. [PubMed:11171097 ]
  5. Min SH, Simmen RC, Alhonen L, Halmekyto M, Porter CW, Janne J, Simmen FA: Altered levels of growth-related and novel gene transcripts in reproductive and other tissues of female mice overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3647-57. Epub 2001 Nov 14. [PubMed:11709547 ]
  6. Limsuwun K, Jones PG: Spermidine acetyltransferase is required to prevent spermidine toxicity at low temperatures in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000 Oct;182(19):5373-80. [PubMed:10986239 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Diamine n-acetyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular Weight:
19154.905 Da
References
  1. Chen Y, Vujcic S, Liang P, Diegelman P, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of a second spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Biochem J. 2003 Aug 1;373(Pt 3):661-7. [PubMed:12803540 ]
  2. Coleman CS, Stanley BA, Jones AD, Pegg AE: Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase-2 (SSAT2) acetylates thialysine and is not involved in polyamine metabolism. Biochem J. 2004 Nov 15;384(Pt 1):139-48. [PubMed:15283699 ]
  3. Vogel NL, Boeke M, Ashburner BP: Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyltransferase 2 (SSAT2) functions as a coactivator for NF-kappaB and cooperates with CBP and P/CAF to enhance NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Oct;1759(10):470-7. Epub 2006 Aug 30. [PubMed:17011643 ]
  4. Limsuwun K, Jones PG: Spermidine acetyltransferase is required to prevent spermidine toxicity at low temperatures in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000 Oct;182(19):5373-80. [PubMed:10986239 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET).
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular Weight:
62154.48 Da
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [PubMed:10215651 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Secondary active organic cation transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)-N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine...
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular Weight:
61153.345 Da
References
  1. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. [PubMed:8955087 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 12, 2016 21:48