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Identification
NameL-Cysteine
Accession NumberDB00151  (NUTR00018, DB04443)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form cystine. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2R)-2-amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
(R)-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropanoic acid
Cys
Cysteine
Free Cysteine
L-2-Amino-3-mercaptopropionic acid
L-Cys
L-Cystein
L-Zystein
External Identifiers
  • E 920
  • E-920
  • E920
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
L Cysteine HCl Inj 50mg/mlliquid50 mgintravenousAbbott Laboratories, Limited1984-12-311997-08-18Canada
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Aminoderm PoudreDesbergers LtÉe, Division Of Technilab Inc.
Cicatrin PowderGlaxosmithkline Inc
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
L-Cysteine hydrochloride
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001754
Categories
UNIIK848JZ4886
CAS number52-90-4
WeightAverage: 121.158
Monoisotopic: 121.019749163
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2S
InChI KeyInChIKey=XUJNEKJLAYXESH-RUOZJJLTNA-N
InChI
InChI=1/C3H7NO2S/c4-2(1-7)3(5)6/h2,7H,1,4H2,(H,5,6)/t2-/s2
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-amino-3-sulfanylpropanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CS)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentL-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Alkylthiol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prevention of liver damage and kidney damage associated with overdoses of acetaminophen
PharmacodynamicsDue to this ability to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine is an important source of sulfur in human metabolism, and although it is classified as a non-essential amino acid, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine may at some point be recognized as an essential or conditionally essential amino acid.
Mechanism of actionAlthough classified as a non-essential amino acid cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with certain metabolic disease or who suffer from malabsorption syndromes. Cysteine can usually be synthesized by the human body under normal physiological conditions if a sufficient quantity of methionine is available. Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Cysteine's antioxidant properties are typically expressed in the tripeptide glutathione, which occurs in humans as well as other organisms. The systemic availability of oral glutathione (GSH) is negligible; so it must be biosynthesized from its constituent amino acids, cysteine, glycine, and glutamic acid. Glutamic acid and glycine are readily available in the diets of most industrialized countries, but the availability of cysteine can be the limiting substrate. Cysteine is also an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron-sulfur clusters and in nitrogenase is extracted from cysteine, which is converted to alanine in the process. In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, cysteine is one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. Its use or purpose, however, is unknown, like most cigarette additives. Its inclusion in cigarettes could offer two benefits: Acting as an expectorant, since smoking increases mucus production in the lungs; and increasing the beneficial antioxidant glutathione (which is diminished in smokers).
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Quinethazone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00091
Metolazone Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00105
Hartnup DisorderDiseaseSMP00189
IminoglycinuriaDiseaseSMP00193
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00214
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00222
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDiseaseSMP00223
Homocysteine DegradationMetabolicSMP00455
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00484
Blue diaper syndromeDiseaseSMP00583
CystinuriaDiseaseSMP00723
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00004
Indapamide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00110
Trichlormethiazide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00121
Amiloride Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00133
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)DiseaseSMP00179
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00242
SarcosinemiaDiseaseSMP00244
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)DiseaseSMP00340
Beta-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduriaDiseaseSMP00499
Gamma-cystathionase deficiency (CTH)DiseaseSMP00514
Homocystinuria, cystathionine beta-synthase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00515
Methionine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00033
Glutamate MetabolismMetabolicSMP00072
Chlorothiazide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00078
Ethacrynic Acid Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00097
Hydroflumethiazide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00108
Furosemide Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00115
5-OxoprolinuriaDiseaseSMP00143
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)DiseaseSMP00184
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9698
Blood Brain Barrier+0.5918
Caco-2 permeable-0.721
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8141
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.984
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9903
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9462
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8473
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8141
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8245
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.94
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9584
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9665
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9634
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9602
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9888
Ames testAMES toxic0.9107
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7998
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7577
Rat acute toxicity1.7757 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9891
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9684
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Hospira inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Powdertopical
Liquidintravenous50 mg
Liquidintravenous
Solutionintravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-cysteine powder1.65USD g
L-cysteine 50 mg/ml vial0.4USD ml
L-cysteine hcl powder0.3USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point240 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility2.77E+005 mg/L (at 25 °C)BEILSTEIN
logP-2.49HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa1.71MERCK INDEX (1996); pK1
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.6ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-0.72ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity28.22 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.41 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.4 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-1zn0100000-df7e91c95b610ff21c79View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-2zi0100000-aefe34765fb447090a23View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-0zr0100000-10a155c40ea499023052View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-1zi0100000-037a3a34651c3154b3b3View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-zxk0100000-118c43e33861a6baa8d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-zp00000000-374c5872d68662832769View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z100000000-ddbd3df6b8dbb280ffbaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-z200000000-320a2c77443b80ebf733View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z10000000-9dcd3d757c5cd11eb18eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-ez00000000-212e081fe83ad70de0adView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z100000000-2eb01f41c225f614db24View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-a19834eb7cb9f211fdf2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-2458f2587761e779ed93View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-z000000000-77e590f0ed26f69b31c0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-dz00000000-7b1857997392b006b95fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-ez00000000-bc268c27ed5706a4bbd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-0z00000000-4573390bccc238e3c91bView in MoNA
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Alfred Maierhofer, Hans Wagner, “Process for the production of high purity S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine.” U.S. Patent US4129593, issued May, 1965.

US4129593
General References
  1. Bulaj G, Kortemme T, Goldenberg DP: Ionization-reactivity relationships for cysteine thiols in polypeptides. Biochemistry. 1998 Jun 23;37(25):8965-72. [PubMed:9636038 ]
  2. Baker DH, Czarnecki-Maulden GL: Pharmacologic role of cysteine in ameliorating or exacerbating mineral toxicities. J Nutr. 1987 Jun;117(6):1003-10. [PubMed:3298579 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (73.2 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CARS
Uniprot ID:
P49589
Molecular Weight:
85472.665 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLM
Uniprot ID:
P48507
Molecular Weight:
30726.745 Da
References
  1. Ashida H, Sawa Y, Shibata H: Cloning, biochemical and phylogenetic characterizations of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005 Apr;46(4):557-62. Epub 2005 Feb 2. [PubMed:15695431 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Magnesium ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
P48506
Molecular Weight:
72765.14 Da
References
  1. Ashida H, Sawa Y, Shibata H: Cloning, biochemical and phylogenetic characterizations of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005 Apr;46(4):557-62. Epub 2005 Feb 2. [PubMed:15695431 ]
  2. Srivastava S, Chan C: Application of metabolic flux analysis to identify the mechanisms of free fatty acid toxicity to human hepatoma cell line. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008 Feb 1;99(2):399-410. [PubMed:17615559 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CDO-1
Uniprot ID:
Q16857
Molecular Weight:
6589.415 Da
References
  1. Jin HF, DU SX, Zhao X, Zhang SQ, Tian Y, Bu DF, Tang CS, DU JB: [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Aug 18;39(4):423-5. [PubMed:17657274 ]
  2. Roopnarinesingh ES, Steventon GB, Harris RM, Waring RH, Mitchell SC: Induction of cysteine dioxygenase activity by oral administration of cysteine analogues to the rat: implications for drug efficacy and safety. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21(2):75-86. [PubMed:16355974 ]
  3. Ye S, Wu X, Wei L, Tang D, Sun P, Bartlam M, Rao Z: An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):3391-402. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [PubMed:17135237 ]
  4. McCoy JG, Bailey LJ, Bitto E, Bingman CA, Aceti DJ, Fox BG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3084-9. Epub 2006 Feb 21. [PubMed:16492780 ]
  5. Pierce BS, Gardner JD, Bailey LJ, Brunold TC, Fox BG: Characterization of the nitrosyl adduct of substrate-bound mouse cysteine dioxygenase by electron paramagnetic resonance: electronic structure of the active site and mechanistic implications. Biochemistry. 2007 Jul 24;46(29):8569-78. Epub 2007 Jun 28. [PubMed:17602574 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Biosynthesis of L-glutamate from L-aspartate or L-cysteine. Important regulator of levels of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the vertebrate central nervous system. Acts as a scavenger of glutamate in brain neuroprotection. The aspartate aminotransferase activity is involved in hepatic glucose synthesis during development and in adipocyte glyceroneogenesis. Using L-cysteine a...
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular Weight:
46247.14 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the last step in the trans-sulfuration pathway from methionine to cysteine. Has broad substrate specificity. Converts cystathionine to cysteine, ammonia and 2-oxobutanoate. Converts two cysteine molecules to lanthionine and hydrogen sulfide. Can also accept homocysteine as substrate. Specificity depends on the levels of the endogenous substrates. Generates the endogenous signaling mol...
Gene Name:
CTH
Uniprot ID:
P32929
Molecular Weight:
44507.64 Da
References
  1. Fiorucci S, Antonelli E, Mencarelli A, Orlandi S, Renga B, Rizzo G, Distrutti E, Shah V, Morelli A: The third gas: H2S regulates perfusion pressure in both the isolated and perfused normal rat liver and in cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2005 Sep;42(3):539-48. [PubMed:16108046 ]
  2. Zhang H, Zhi L, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Role of hydrogen sulfide in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):L1193-201. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [PubMed:16428267 ]
  3. Wallace JL, Dicay M, McKnight W, Martin GR: Hydrogen sulfide enhances ulcer healing in rats. FASEB J. 2007 Dec;21(14):4070-6. Epub 2007 Jul 18. [PubMed:17634391 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Hydro-lyase catalyzing the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, where the hydroxyl group of L-serine is displaced by L-homocysteine in a beta-replacement reaction to form L-cystathionine, the precursor of L-cysteine. This catabolic route allows the elimination of L-methionine and the toxic metabolite L-homocysteine (PubMed:23981774, PubMed:20506325, PubMed:23974653). Also involved in the...
Gene Name:
CBS
Uniprot ID:
P35520
Molecular Weight:
60586.05 Da
References
  1. Zhang H, Zhi L, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Role of hydrogen sulfide in cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis in the mouse. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2006 Jun;290(6):L1193-201. Epub 2006 Jan 20. [PubMed:16428267 ]
  2. Lowicka E, Beltowski J: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) - the third gas of interest for pharmacologists. Pharmacol Rep. 2007 Jan-Feb;59(1):4-24. [PubMed:17377202 ]
  3. Tamizhselvi R, Moore PK, Bhatia M: Hydrogen sulfide acts as a mediator of inflammation in acute pancreatitis: in vitro studies using isolated mouse pancreatic acinar cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2007 Mar-Apr;11(2):315-26. [PubMed:17488480 ]
  4. Oh GS, Pae HO, Lee BS, Kim BN, Kim JM, Kim HR, Jeon SB, Jeon WK, Chae HJ, Chung HT: Hydrogen sulfide inhibits nitric oxide production and nuclear factor-kappaB via heme oxygenase-1 expression in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Jul 1;41(1):106-19. Epub 2006 Apr 25. [PubMed:16781459 ]
  5. Bhatia M, Wong FL, Fu D, Lau HY, Moochhala SM, Moore PK: Role of hydrogen sulfide in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. FASEB J. 2005 Apr;19(6):623-5. Epub 2005 Jan 25. [PubMed:15671155 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Ferrous iron binding
Specific Function:
Initiates several important metabolic pathways related to pyruvate and several sulfurate compounds including sulfate, hypotaurine and taurine. Critical regulator of cellular cysteine concentrations. Has an important role in maintaining the hepatic concentation of intracellular free cysteine within a proper narrow range.
Gene Name:
CDO1
Uniprot ID:
Q16878
Molecular Weight:
22971.745 Da
References
  1. Roopnarinesingh ES, Steventon GB, Harris RM, Waring RH, Mitchell SC: Induction of cysteine dioxygenase activity by oral administration of cysteine analogues to the rat: implications for drug efficacy and safety. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 2005;21(2):75-86. [PubMed:16355974 ]
  2. McCoy JG, Bailey LJ, Bitto E, Bingman CA, Aceti DJ, Fox BG, Phillips GN Jr: Structure and mechanism of mouse cysteine dioxygenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 28;103(9):3084-9. Epub 2006 Feb 21. [PubMed:16492780 ]
  3. Ye S, Wu X, Wei L, Tang D, Sun P, Bartlam M, Rao Z: An insight into the mechanism of human cysteine dioxygenase. Key roles of the thioether-bonded tyrosine-cysteine cofactor. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 2;282(5):3391-402. Epub 2006 Nov 29. [PubMed:17135237 ]
  4. Jin HF, DU SX, Zhao X, Zhang SQ, Tian Y, Bu DF, Tang CS, DU JB: [Significance of endogenous sulfur dioxide in the regulation of cardiovascular system]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2007 Aug 18;39(4):423-5. [PubMed:17657274 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Involved in the cellular defense against the biological effects of O6-methylguanine (O6-MeG) in DNA. Repairs alkylated guanine in DNA by stoichiometrically transferring the alkyl group at the O-6 position to a cysteine residue in the enzyme. This is a suicide reaction: the enzyme is irreversibly inactivated.
Gene Name:
MGMT
Uniprot ID:
P16455
Molecular Weight:
21645.83 Da
References
  1. Niture SK, Velu CS, Smith QR, Bhat GJ, Srivenugopal KS: Increased expression of the MGMT repair protein mediated by cysteine prodrugs and chemopreventative natural products in human lymphocytes and tumor cell lines. Carcinogenesis. 2007 Feb;28(2):378-89. Epub 2006 Aug 31. [PubMed:16950796 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Protein homodimerization activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
P48637
Molecular Weight:
52384.325 Da
References
  1. Tanaka T, Halicka HD, Huang X, Traganos F, Darzynkiewicz Z: Constitutive histone H2AX phosphorylation and ATM activation, the reporters of DNA damage by endogenous oxidants. Cell Cycle. 2006 Sep;5(17):1940-5. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16940754 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Thiamine uptake transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates high affinity thiamine uptake, propably via a proton anti-port mechanism. Has no folate transport activity.
Gene Name:
SLC19A3
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZV2
Molecular Weight:
55664.265 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA77
Molecular Weight:
62223.345 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sulfinoalanine decarboxylase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CSAD
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y600
Molecular Weight:
55022.79 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Chan-Palay V, Lin CT, Palay S, Yamamoto M, Wu JY: Taurine in the mammalian cerebellum: demonstration by autoradiography with [3H]taurine and immunocytochemistry with antibodies against the taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine-sulfinic acid decarboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Apr;79(8):2695-9. [PubMed:6953423 ]
  4. Guion-Rain M-C, Portemer C, Chatagner F: Rat liver cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase: purification, new appraisal of the molecular weight and determination of catalytic properties. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1975 Mar 28;384(1):265-76. [PubMed:236774 ]
  5. Daniels KM, Stipanuk MH: The effect of dietary cysteine level on cysteine metabolism in rats. J Nutr. 1982 Nov;112(11):2130-41. [PubMed:7131091 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the removal of elemental sulfur from cysteine to produce alanine. It supplies the inorganic sulfur for iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters. May be involved in the biosynthesis of molybdenum cofactor.
Gene Name:
NFS1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y697
Molecular Weight:
50195.21 Da
References
  1. You D, Wang L, Yao F, Zhou X, Deng Z: A novel DNA modification by sulfur: DndA is a NifS-like cysteine desulfurase capable of assembling DndC as an iron-sulfur cluster protein in Streptomyces lividans. Biochemistry. 2007 May 22;46(20):6126-33. Epub 2007 May 1. [PubMed:17469805 ]
  2. Ding H, Harrison K, Lu J: Thioredoxin reductase system mediates iron binding in IscA and iron delivery for the iron-sulfur cluster assembly in IscU. J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 26;280(34):30432-7. Epub 2005 Jun 28. [PubMed:15985427 ]
  3. Ding B, Smith ES, Ding H: Mobilization of the iron centre in IscA for the iron-sulphur cluster assembly in IscU. Biochem J. 2005 Aug 1;389(Pt 3):797-802. [PubMed:15828873 ]
  4. Yang J, Bitoun JP, Ding H: Interplay of IscA and IscU in biogenesis of iron-sulfur clusters. J Biol Chem. 2006 Sep 22;281(38):27956-63. Epub 2006 Jul 27. [PubMed:16877383 ]
  5. Layer G, Ollagnier-de Choudens S, Sanakis Y, Fontecave M: Iron-sulfur cluster biosynthesis: characterization of Escherichia coli CYaY as an iron donor for the assembly of [2Fe-2S] clusters in the scaffold IscU. J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 16;281(24):16256-63. Epub 2006 Apr 9. [PubMed:16603772 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 25, 2016 10:35