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Identification
NameEnflurane
Accession NumberDB00228  (APRD00234)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Vet Approved
DescriptionAn extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether
Alyrane
Efrane
Enflurane
Enflurano
Enfluranum
Ethrane
Methylflurether
External Identifiers
  • Anesthetic 347
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Enfluraneliquid99.9 %inhalationAbbvie Corporation1993-12-312012-11-02Canada
Ethrane Liq Inhliquid100 %inhalationOhmeda Pharmaceutical Products, Division Of Boc Canada Limited1996-09-181997-08-25Canada
Ethrane Liquid Inhliquid100 %inhalationBaxter Corporation1997-02-202004-08-05Canada
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlyraneBaxter
Compound 347Dexa Medica
EnduraneSingapore Pharmawealth Lifesciences
EnfluranCristália
EthraneAbbott
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII91I69L5AY5
CAS number13838-16-9
WeightAverage: 184.492
Monoisotopic: 183.971433418
Chemical FormulaC3H2ClF5O
InChI KeyInChIKey=JPGQOUSTVILISH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C3H2ClF5O/c4-1(5)3(8,9)10-2(6)7/h1-2H
IUPAC Name
2-chloro-1-(difluoromethoxy)-1,1,2-trifluoroethane
SMILES
FC(F)OC(F)(F)C(F)Cl
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as halomethanes. These are organic compounds in which at least one of the four hydrogen atoms of methane (CH4) are replaced by halogen atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganohalogen compounds
ClassAlkyl halides
Sub ClassHalomethanes
Direct ParentHalomethanes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Halomethane
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organofluoride
  • Organochloride
  • Alkyl fluoride
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.
PharmacodynamicsEnflurane is an extremely stable halogenated ether inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate. Enflurane induces muscle relaxation and reduces pains sensitivity by altering tissue excitability. Induction of and recovery from anesthesia with enflurane are rapid. Enflurane may provide a mild stimulus to salivation or tracheobronchial secretions. Pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes are readily obtunded. In the cardiovascular system, enflurane is a mild negative inotrope, causing a marked decrease in systemic vascular resistance, thus leading to a decrease in mean arterial pressure. This results in a reflex tachycardia. Enflurane also decreases coronary vascular resistance and sensitizes the myocardium to circulating catecholamines. Enflurane is a strong respiratory depressant. It decreases tidal volume but may increase respiratory rate. It also causes bronchodilatationa and inhibits pulmonary macrophage activity and mucociliary activity. Enflurane principle action in the CNS is general anaesthesia with little analgesic effect. It causes increased cerebral blood flow in concentrations and may induce tonic/clonic muscle activity and epileptiform EEG traces. It also causes a marked decrease in skeletal muscle tone. Actions in the genitourinary system include a decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the tone of pregnant uterus is decreased.
Mechanism of actionEnflurane induces a reduction in junctional conductance by decreasing gap junction channel opening times and increasing gap junction channel closing times. Enflurane also activates calcium dependent ATPase in the sarcoplasmic reticulum by increasing the fluidity of the lipid membrane. It also appears to bind the D subunit of ATP synthase and NADH dehydogenase. Enflurane also binds to and angonizes the GABA receptor, the large conductance Ca2+ activated potassium channel, the glycine receptor, and antagonizes the glutamate receptor receptor. These yield a decreased depolarization and therefore, tissue excitability which results in anesthesia.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed into the circulation via the lungs.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding97%
Metabolism

2.4% of the dose is slowly metabolized hepatically via oxidation and dehalogenation (primarily through the actions of cytochrome P450 2E1). Leads to low levels of serum fluoride (15 µmol/L).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityLD50=5.4 ml/kg (oral, rat). Symptoms of acute overdose include nausea, vomiting, irritation to the eyes, skin and nose/throat, headache, dizziness, and drowsiness. Symptoms of chronic overdose include hypotension, cardiac arrhythmias, respiratory depression, and liver/kidney dysfunction.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.994
Caco-2 permeable+0.6125
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8919
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9553
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9297
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9293
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8407
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7179
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.5701
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8112
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9408
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5794
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9604
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8702
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.7574
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9642
Rat acute toxicity1.3804 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9576
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9032
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Abbott laboratories hosp products div
  • Piramal critical care inc
  • Baxter healthcare corp anesthesia critical care
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Liquidinhalation99.9 %
Liquidinhalation100 %
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Ethrane inhalation0.55USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
boiling point56.5Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8, 1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.
water solubility5620 mg/L (at 37 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP2.10HANSCH,C & LEO,AJ (1985)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.9 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.24ALOGPS
logP2.8ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area9.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity23.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.54 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0gb9-9300000000-03817aefdcc06ee54c49View in MoNA
References
Synthesis Reference

Terrell, R.C.; U.S. Patents 3,469,011; September 23,1969 and 3,527,813; September 8,
1970; both assigned to Air Reduction Company, Incorporated.

General References
  1. Link [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesN01AB04
AHFS Codes
  • 28:04.92
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (64.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alfentanil.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Alprazolam.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amobarbital.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Amperozide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Aripiprazole.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Asenapine.
Atracurium besylateEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Atracurium besylate.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Enflurane.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzocaine.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Bupivacaine.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Buprenorphine.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Buspirone.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butabarbital.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butethal.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Butorphanol.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carbamazepine.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Carisoprodol.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlordiazepoxide.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlormezanone.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chloroprocaine.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorprothixene.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cinchocaine.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clonidine.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clorazepate.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Clozapine.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cocaine.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Codeine.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyclobenzaprine.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Cyproheptadine.
Cyproterone acetateThe serum concentration of Enflurane can be decreased when it is combined with Cyproterone acetate.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapiprazole.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dapoxetine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desflurane.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dextropropoxyphene.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dezocine.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diazepam.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Diphenoxylate.
DisulfiramThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Disulfiram.
DopamineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Dopamine.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doxepin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Droperidol.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Dyclonine.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Efavirenz.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Entacapone.
EphedraEphedra may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Enflurane.
EphedrineEphedrine may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Enflurane.
EpinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Epinephrine.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Escitalopram.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Estazolam.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Eszopiclone.
EthanolEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Enflurane.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Enflurane.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etomidate.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Etorphine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fentanyl.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flupentixol.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluphenazine.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Flurazepam.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FormoterolEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Formoterol.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gabapentin.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Glutethimide.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halazepam.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Halothane.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hexobarbital.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hydrocodone.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hydromorphone.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Indalpine.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Isoflurane.
IsoniazidThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Isoniazid.
IsoprenalineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Isoprenaline.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketamine.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ketobemidone.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lamotrigine.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levobupivacaine.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomethadyl Acetate.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levorphanol.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lidocaine.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lithium.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lofentanil.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Enflurane.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Loxapine.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lu AA21004.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Medetomidine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melatonin.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mepivacaine.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Meprobamate.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Mesoridazine.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadone.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methadyl Acetate.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methohexital.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methotrimeprazine.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methoxyflurane.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenidateMethylphenidate may increase the hypertensive activities of Enflurane.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Methylphenobarbital.
MetyrosineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Midazolam.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
MirtazapineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Enflurane.
MivacuriumEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Mivacurium.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Morphine.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Enflurane.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nalbuphine.
NicotineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Nicotine.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NorepinephrineEnflurane may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Norepinephrine.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Olanzapine.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Olopatadine.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ondansetron.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Opium.
OrphenadrineEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Enflurane.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Osanetant.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxazepam.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxybuprocaine.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxycodone.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Oxymorphone.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paliperidone.
ParaldehydeEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Enflurane.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentazocine.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pentobarbital.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Perphenazine.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pethidine.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenobarbital.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pimozide.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Pregabalin.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prilocaine.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Primidone.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Procaine.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Prochlorperazine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Promazine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Proparacaine.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propofol.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with PSD502.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Quetiapine.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ramelteon.
RapacuroniumEnflurane may increase the neuromuscular blocking activities of Rapacuronium.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remifentanil.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Remoxipride.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Enflurane.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Risperidone.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ropivacaine.
RotigotineEnflurane may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Enflurane.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Secobarbital.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sevoflurane.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sodium oxybate.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sufentanil.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Sulpiride.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tasimelteon.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Temazepam.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideEnflurane may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Enflurane.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiamylal.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiopental.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thioridazine.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiagabine.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Enflurane can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Enflurane.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triazolam.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trifluoperazine.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triflupromazine.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Valproic Acid.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Xylazine.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zaleplon.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zolpidem.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zopiclone.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
positive allosteric modulator
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. Franks NP: Molecular targets underlying general anaesthesia. Br J Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;147 Suppl 1:S72-81. [PubMed:16402123 ]
  2. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
  3. Greenblatt EP, Meng X: Divergence of volatile anesthetic effects in inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors. Anesthesiology. 2001 Jun;94(6):1026-33. [PubMed:11465594 ]
  4. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Transmitter-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
The glycine receptor is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. Binding of glycine to its receptor increases the chloride conductance and thus produces hyperpolarization (inhibition of neuronal firing).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Glycine receptor subunit alpha-1P23415 Details
Glycine receptor subunit betaP48167 Details
References
  1. Grasshoff C, Antkowiak B: Effects of isoflurane and enflurane on GABAA and glycine receptors contribute equally to depressant actions on spinal ventral horn neurones in rats. Br J Anaesth. 2006 Nov;97(5):687-94. Epub 2006 Sep 13. [PubMed:16973644 ]
  2. ChEMBL Compound Report Card [Link]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Protein phosphatase binding
Specific Function:
Forms a voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium (PubMed:26148990). Activation is followed by membrane hyperpolarization which promotes calcium influx. Required for maximal calcium influx and proliferation during the reactivation of naive T-cells. The channel is blocked by clotrimazole and charybdotoxin but is insensitive to apamin (PubMed:17157250, PubMe...
Gene Name:
KCNN4
Uniprot ID:
O15554
Molecular Weight:
47695.12 Da
References
  1. Namba T, Ishii TM, Ikeda M, Hisano T, Itoh T, Hirota K, Adelman JP, Fukuda K: Inhibition of the human intermediate conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel, hIK1, by volatile anesthetics. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 28;395(2):95-101. [PubMed:10794813 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inducer
General Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel activity
Specific Function:
Voltage-gated potassium channel that mediates transmembrane potassium transport in excitable membranes, primarily in the brain and the central nervous system, but also in the kidney (PubMed:19903818). Contributes to the regulation of the membrane potential and nerve signaling, and prevents neuronal hyperexcitability (PubMed:17156368). Forms tetrameric potassium-selective channels through which ...
Gene Name:
KCNA1
Uniprot ID:
Q09470
Molecular Weight:
56465.01 Da
References
  1. Matchett GA, Allard MW, Martin RD, Zhang JH: Neuroprotective effect of volatile anesthetic agents: molecular mechanisms. Neurol Res. 2009 Mar;31(2):128-34. doi: 10.1179/174313209X393546. [PubMed:19298752 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Signal transducer activity
Specific Function:
This magnesium-dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of the calcium.
Gene Name:
ATP2C1
Uniprot ID:
P98194
Molecular Weight:
100576.42 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D: Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase as a target for volatile anesthetics. Adv Pharmacol. 1994;31:313-22. [PubMed:7873420 ]
  2. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Pdz domain binding
Specific Function:
Ionotropic glutamate receptor. L-glutamate acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter at many synapses in the central nervous system. Binding of the excitatory neurotransmitter L-glutamate induces a conformation change, leading to the opening of the cation channel, and thereby converts the chemical signal to an electrical impulse. The receptor then desensitizes rapidly and enters a transient inacti...
Gene Name:
GRIA1
Uniprot ID:
P42261
Molecular Weight:
101505.245 Da
References
  1. Dildy-Mayfield JE, Eger EI 2nd, Harris RA: Anesthetics produce subunit-selective actions on glutamate receptors. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Mar;276(3):1058-65. [PubMed:8786535 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
other/unknown
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mitochondrial membrane ATP synthase (F(1)F(0) ATP synthase or Complex V) produces ATP from ADP in the presence of a proton gradient across the membrane which is generated by electron transport complexes of the respiratory chain. F-type ATPases consist of two structural domains, F(1) - containing the extramembraneous catalytic core, and F(0) - containing the membrane proton channel, linked toget...
Gene Name:
ATP5D
Uniprot ID:
P30049
Molecular Weight:
17489.755 Da
References
  1. Kosk-Kosicka D, Roszczynska G: Inhibition of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity by volatile anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 1993 Oct;79(4):774-80. [PubMed:8214757 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular Weight:
56848.42 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxic substance binding
Specific Function:
Serum albumin, the main protein of plasma, has a good binding capacity for water, Ca(2+), Na(+), K(+), fatty acids, hormones, bilirubin and drugs. Its main function is the regulation of the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood. Major zinc transporter in plasma, typically binds about 80% of all plasma zinc.
Gene Name:
ALB
Uniprot ID:
P02768
Molecular Weight:
69365.94 Da
References
  1. Liu R, Eckenhoff RG: Weak polar interactions confer albumin binding site selectivity for haloether anesthetics. Anesthesiology. 2005 Apr;102(4):799-805. [PubMed:15791110 ]
  2. Sawas AH, Pentyala SN, Rebecchi MJ: Binding of volatile anesthetics to serum albumin: measurements of enthalpy and solvent contributions. Biochemistry. 2004 Oct 5;43(39):12675-85. [PubMed:15449957 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23