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Identification
NameReboxetine
Accession NumberDB00234  (APRD00198)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Reboxetine is an antidepressant drug used in the treatment of clinical depression, panic disorder and ADD/ADHD. Its mesylate (i.e. methanesulfonate) salt is sold under tradenames including Edronax, Norebox, Prolift, Solvex, Davedax or Vestra. Reboxetine has two chiral centers, but it only exists as two enantiomers, (R,R)-(-)- and (S,S)-(+)-reboxetine.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
DavedaxNot Available
EdronaxNot Available
NoreboxNot Available
ProliftNot Available
SolvexNot Available
VestraNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Reboxetine mesilate
98769-84-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: CGTZMJIMMUNLQD-STYNFMPRSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 409.155908767
  • Average Mass: 409.5
DBSALT000890
Categories
UNII947S0YZ36I
CAS number71620-89-8
WeightAverage: 313.397
Monoisotopic: 313.167793605
Chemical FormulaC19H23NO3
InChI KeyCBQGYUDMJHNJBX-RTBURBONSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H23NO3/c1-2-21-16-10-6-7-11-17(16)23-19(15-8-4-3-5-9-15)18-14-20-12-13-22-18/h3-11,18-20H,2,12-14H2,1H3/t18-,19-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R)-2-[(R)-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)(phenyl)methyl]morpholine
SMILES
[H][C@@](OC1=CC=CC=C1OCC)(C1=CC=CC=C1)[C@@]1([H])CNCCO1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenol ethers
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Morpholine
  • Oxazinane
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Ether
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of clinical depression.
PharmacodynamicsReboxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NaRI), the first drug of new antidepressant class. Reboxetine is an a-ariloxybenzyl derivative of morpholine. Reboxetine is primarily used to treat depression but has also been found useful in the treatment of narcolepsy and panic disorders.
Mechanism of actionReboxetine is a selective inhibitor of noradrenaline reuptake. It inhibits noradrenaline reuptake in vitro to a similar extent to the tricyclic antidepressant desmethylimipramine. Reboxetine does not affect dopamine or serotonin reuptake and it has low in vivo and in vitro affinity for adrenergic, cholinergic, histaminergic, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors.
Related Articles
AbsorptionReboxetine is rapidly and extensively absorbed following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding98%
Metabolism

Reboxetine is metabolized by dealkylation, hydroxylation and oxidation followed by glucuronide or sulphate conjugation. It is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 CYP isoenzyme 3A4.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life12.5 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityReports of seizures (rare) have been reported
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9968
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9381
Caco-2 permeable+0.575
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7914
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8825
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.5968
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5581
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8237
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5402
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9045
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8063
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.5687
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9026
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.6318
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5218
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9141
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9083
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9372
Rat acute toxicity2.0972 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.7754
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.717
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point170-171 °C (Mesylate salt)Not Available
water solubility8 mg/mL (Mesylate salt)Not Available
logP3.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0223 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.06ALOGPS
logP3.28ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.91ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area39.72 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity89.48 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Fleishaker JC: Clinical pharmacokinetics of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of patients with depression. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2000 Dec;39(6):413-27. [PubMed:11192474 ]
  2. Edwards DM, Pellizzoni C, Breuel HP, Berardi A, Castelli MG, Frigerio E, Poggesi I, Rocchetti M, Dubini A, Strolin Benedetti M: Pharmacokinetics of reboxetine in healthy volunteers. Single oral doses, linearity and plasma protein binding. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 1995 Aug;16(6):443-60. [PubMed:7579027 ]
  3. Wienkers LC, Allievi C, Hauer MJ, Wynalda MA: Cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of the individual enantiomers of the antidepressant agent reboxetine in human liver microsomes. Drug Metab Dispos. 1999 Nov;27(11):1334-40. [PubMed:10534319 ]
  4. Kasper S, el Giamal N, Hilger E: Reboxetine: the first selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 May;1(4):771-82. [PubMed:11249515 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN06AX18
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
IobenguaneThe therapeutic efficacy of Iobenguane can be decreased when used in combination with Reboxetine.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Norepinephrine:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Amine transporter. Terminates the action of noradrenaline by its high affinity sodium-dependent reuptake into presynaptic terminals.
Gene Name:
SLC6A2
Uniprot ID:
P23975
Molecular Weight:
69331.42 Da
References
  1. Rauhut AS, Mullins SN, Dwoskin LP, Bardo MT: Reboxetine: attenuation of intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Nov;303(2):664-72. [PubMed:12388649 ]
  2. Wilson AA, Johnson DP, Mozley D, Hussey D, Ginovart N, Nobrega J, Garcia A, Meyer J, Houle S: Synthesis and in vivo evaluation of novel radiotracers for the in vivo imaging of the norepinephrine transporter. Nucl Med Biol. 2003 Feb;30(2):85-92. [PubMed:12623106 ]
  3. Lin KS, Ding YS, Kim SW, Kil KE: Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography. Nucl Med Biol. 2005 May;32(4):415-22. [PubMed:15878511 ]
  4. Spivak B, Strous RD, Shaked G, Shabash E, Kotler M, Weizman A: Reboxetine versus fluvoxamine in the treatment of motor vehicle accident-related posttraumatic stress disorder: a double-blind, fixed-dosage, controlled trial. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2006 Apr;26(2):152-6. [PubMed:16633143 ]
  5. Mitchell HA, Ahern TH, Liles LC, Javors MA, Weinshenker D: The effects of norepinephrine transporter inactivation on locomotor activity in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov 15;60(10):1046-52. Epub 2006 Aug 7. [PubMed:16893531 ]
  6. Kasper S, el Giamal N, Hilger E: Reboxetine: the first selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2000 May;1(4):771-82. [PubMed:11249515 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitorinducer
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells.
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular Weight:
141477.255 Da
References
  1. Weiss J, Dormann SM, Martin-Facklam M, Kerpen CJ, Ketabi-Kiyanvash N, Haefeli WE: Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by newer antidepressants. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003 Apr;305(1):197-204. [PubMed:12649369 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23