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NameAcetohydroxamic Acid
Accession NumberDB00551  (APRD00774, EXPT01688)
TypeSmall Molecule

Acetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly. It is used, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.

AcethydroxamsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
AcethydroxamsaureNot AvailableNot Available
Acetic acid, oximeNot AvailableNot Available
AcetohydroxamateNot AvailableNot Available
Acetohydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acetohydroximic acidNot AvailableINN
Acetyl hydroxyaminoNot AvailableNot Available
Acetylhydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acide acetohydroxamiqueNot AvailableNot Available
Acido acetohidroxamicoNot AvailableNot Available
Acidum acetohydroxamicumNot AvailableNot Available
AHANot AvailableNot Available
Cetohyroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
LithostatNot AvailableNot Available
Methylhydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
N-Acetyl hydroxyacetamideNot AvailableNot Available
N-AcetylhydroxylamineNot AvailableNot Available
N-HydroxyacetamideNot AvailableNot Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Lithostattablet250 mgoralMission Pharmacal Company1983-05-31Not AvailableUs
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CAS number546-88-3
WeightAverage: 75.0666
Monoisotopic: 75.032028409
Chemical FormulaC2H5NO2
Mass Specshow(7.83 KB)
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganic Acids and Derivatives
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
SubclassCarboxylic Acid Derivatives
Direct parentHydroxamic Acids
Alternative parentsPolyamines; Enolates
Substituentspolyamine; enolate; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the hydroxamic acids. These are compounds containing an hydroxamic acid functional group in which an hydroxylamine is inserted into a carboxylic acid. Its general structure is R-CO-NH-OH, with an R as an organic residue.
IndicationUsed, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.
PharmacodynamicsAcetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly.
Mechanism of actionAcetohydroxamic Acid reversibly inhibits the bacterial enzyme urease. This inhibits the hydrolysis of urea and production of ammonia in urine infected with urea-splitting organisms, leading to a decrease in pH and ammonia levels. As antimicrobial agents are more effective in such conditions, the effectiveness of these agents is amplified, resulting in a higher cure rate.
AbsorptionWell absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNo known binding

35-65% of oral dose excreted unchanged in urine (which provides the drug's therapeutic effect).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life5-10 hours in patients with normal renal function
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, rat: LD50 = 4.8gm/kg. Symptoms of overdose include anorexia, malaise, lethargy, diminished sense of wellbeing, tremor, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.9856
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9906
Caco-2 permeable - 0.5723
P-glycoprotein substrate Non-substrate 0.8815
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Non-inhibitor 0.9466
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9824
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.9583
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8167
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.8386
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-substrate 0.6646
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.912
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9364
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.91
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9083
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9757
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9735
Ames test AMES toxic 0.9108
Carcinogenicity Carcinogens 0.5892
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.6152
Rat acute toxicity 1.5791 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.9935
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.9644
  • Mission pharmacal co
Dosage forms
Tabletoral250 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lithostat 250 mg tablet1.66USDtablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point90.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/LNot Available
logP-1.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.7 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility509.0ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability6.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Teresio Tamietto, “Process for the preparation of an indole-3-acetohydroxamic acid.” U.S. Patent US4186133, issued November, 1971.

General Reference
  1. Link
External Links
KEGG DrugD00220
KEGG CompoundC06808
PubChem Compound1990
PubChem Substance46508546
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001277
ATC CodesG04BX03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(74 KB)
Drug InteractionsSearched, but no interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available


1. Urease subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Enterobacter aerogenes

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor


Name UniProt ID Details
Urease subunit alpha P18314 Details


  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Palinska KA, Jahns T, Rippka R, Tandeau De Marsac N: Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511, a picoplanktonic cyanobacterium, synthesizes the smallest urease. Microbiology. 2000 Dec;146 Pt 12:3099-107. Pubmed
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Macrophage metalloelastase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor


Name UniProt ID Details
Macrophage metalloelastase P39900 Details


  1. Mannino C, Nievo M, Machetti F, Papakyriakou A, Calderone V, Fragai M, Guarna A: Synthesis of bicyclic molecular scaffolds (BTAa): an investigation towards new selective MMP-12 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Nov 15;14(22):7392-403. Epub 2006 Aug 8. Pubmed
  2. Bertini I, Calderone V, Cosenza M, Fragai M, Lee YM, Luchinat C, Mangani S, Terni B, Turano P: Conformational variability of matrix metalloproteinases: beyond a single 3D structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12;102(15):5334-9. Epub 2005 Apr 4. Pubmed
  3. Bertini I, Calderone V, Fragai M, Giachetti A, Loconte M, Luchinat C, Maletta M, Nativi C, Yeo KJ: Exploring the subtleties of drug-receptor interactions: the case of matrix metalloproteinases. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Mar 7;129(9):2466-75. Epub 2007 Feb 2. Pubmed
  4. Fukuda M, Peppas NA, McGinity JW: Floating hot-melt extruded tablets for gastroretentive controlled drug release system. J Control Release. 2006 Oct 10;115(2):121-9. Epub 2006 Jul 21. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11