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NameAcetohydroxamic Acid
Accession NumberDB00551  (APRD00774, EXPT01688)
TypeSmall Molecule

Acetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly. It is used, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.

AcethydroxamsaeureNot AvailableNot Available
AcethydroxamsaureNot AvailableNot Available
Acetic acid, oximeNot AvailableNot Available
AcetohydroxamateNot AvailableNot Available
Acetohydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acetohydroximic acidNot AvailableINN
Acetyl hydroxyaminoNot AvailableNot Available
Acetylhydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
Acide acetohydroxamiqueNot AvailableNot Available
Acido acetohidroxamicoNot AvailableNot Available
Acidum acetohydroxamicumNot AvailableNot Available
AHANot AvailableNot Available
Cetohyroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
LithostatNot AvailableNot Available
Methylhydroxamic acidNot AvailableNot Available
N-Acetyl hydroxyacetamideNot AvailableNot Available
N-AcetylhydroxylamineNot AvailableNot Available
N-HydroxyacetamideNot AvailableNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Lithostattablet250 mgoralMission Pharmacal Company1983-05-31Not applicableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CAS number546-88-3
WeightAverage: 75.0666
Monoisotopic: 75.032028409
Chemical FormulaC2H5NO2
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acetohydroxamic acids. These are organic compounds that contain a hydroxamic acid group carrying a methyl group attached to its carbon center.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassCarboxylic acid derivatives
Direct ParentAcetohydroxamic acids
Alternative Parents
  • Acetohydroxamic acid
  • Acetamide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
IndicationUsed, in addition to antibiotics or medical procedures, to treat chronic urea-splitting urinary infections.
PharmacodynamicsAcetohydroxamic Acid, a synthetic drug derived from hydroxylamine and ethyl acetate, is similar in structure to urea. In the urine, it acts as an antagonist of the bacterial enzyme urease. Acetohydroxamic Acid has no direct antimicrobial action and does not acidify urine directly.
Mechanism of actionAcetohydroxamic Acid reversibly inhibits the bacterial enzyme urease. This inhibits the hydrolysis of urea and production of ammonia in urine infected with urea-splitting organisms, leading to a decrease in pH and ammonia levels. As antimicrobial agents are more effective in such conditions, the effectiveness of these agents is amplified, resulting in a higher cure rate.
AbsorptionWell absorbed from the GI tract following oral administration.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNo known binding

35-65% of oral dose excreted unchanged in urine (which provides the drug's therapeutic effect).

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life5-10 hours in patients with normal renal function
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, rat: LD50 = 4.8gm/kg. Symptoms of overdose include anorexia, malaise, lethargy, diminished sense of wellbeing, tremor, anxiety, nausea, and vomiting.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9856
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9906
Caco-2 permeable-0.5723
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8815
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9466
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9824
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9583
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8167
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8386
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6646
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.912
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9364
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.91
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9083
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9757
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9735
Ames testAMES toxic0.9108
CarcinogenicityCarcinogens 0.5892
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.6152
Rat acute toxicity1.5791 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9935
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9644
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
  • Mission pharmacal co
Dosage forms
Tabletoral250 mg
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Lithostat 250 mg tablet1.66USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point90.5 °CPhysProp
water solubility1E+006 mg/LNot Available
logP-1.59HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa8.7 (at 25 °C)SERJEANT,EP & DEMPSEY,B (1979)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility509.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.33 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity16.23 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability6.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.83 KB)
SpectraNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Teresio Tamietto, “Process for the preparation of an indole-3-acetohydroxamic acid.” U.S. Patent US4186133, issued November, 1971.

General References
  1. Link
External Links
ATC CodesG04BX03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (74 KB)
Drug InteractionsNo interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available


1. Urease subunit alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Enterobacter aerogenes

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: inhibitor


Name UniProt ID Details
Urease subunit alpha P18314 Details


  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Palinska KA, Jahns T, Rippka R, Tandeau De Marsac N: Prochlorococcus marinus strain PCC 9511, a picoplanktonic cyanobacterium, synthesizes the smallest urease. Microbiology. 2000 Dec;146 Pt 12:3099-107. Pubmed
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

2. Macrophage metalloelastase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor


Name UniProt ID Details
Macrophage metalloelastase P39900 Details


  1. Mannino C, Nievo M, Machetti F, Papakyriakou A, Calderone V, Fragai M, Guarna A: Synthesis of bicyclic molecular scaffolds (BTAa): an investigation towards new selective MMP-12 inhibitors. Bioorg Med Chem. 2006 Nov 15;14(22):7392-403. Epub 2006 Aug 8. Pubmed
  2. Bertini I, Calderone V, Cosenza M, Fragai M, Lee YM, Luchinat C, Mangani S, Terni B, Turano P: Conformational variability of matrix metalloproteinases: beyond a single 3D structure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Apr 12;102(15):5334-9. Epub 2005 Apr 4. Pubmed
  3. Bertini I, Calderone V, Fragai M, Giachetti A, Loconte M, Luchinat C, Maletta M, Nativi C, Yeo KJ: Exploring the subtleties of drug-receptor interactions: the case of matrix metalloproteinases. J Am Chem Soc. 2007 Mar 7;129(9):2466-75. Epub 2007 Feb 2. Pubmed
  4. Fukuda M, Peppas NA, McGinity JW: Floating hot-melt extruded tablets for gastroretentive controlled drug release system. J Control Release. 2006 Oct 10;115(2):121-9. Epub 2006 Jul 21. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 /Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11