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Identification
NameInulin
Accession NumberDB00638  (APRD01034)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, nutraceutical
Description

A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to fructose, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
Inulin from Jerusalem artichokesNot Available
Inulin USP 27Not Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
CAS number9005-80-5
WeightAverage: 6179.3581
Monoisotopic: 6176.017855026
Chemical FormulaC228H382O191
InChI KeyInChIKey=JYJIGFIDKWBXDU-MNNPPOADSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C228H382O191/c229-1-76-114(268)152(306)153(307)191(381-76)419-228(190(344)151(305)113(38-266)418-228)75-380-227(189(343)150(304)112(37-265)417-227)74-379-226(188(342)149(303)111(36-264)416-226)73-378-225(187(341)148(302)110(35-263)415-225)72-377-224(186(340)147(301)109(34-262)414-224)71-376-223(185(339)146(300)108(33-261)413-223)70-375-222(184(338)145(299)107(32-260)412-222)69-374-221(183(337)144(298)106(31-259)411-221)68-373-220(182(336)143(297)105(30-258)410-220)67-372-219(181(335)142(296)104(29-257)409-219)66-371-218(180(334)141(295)103(28-256)408-218)65-370-217(179(333)140(294)102(27-255)407-217)64-369-216(178(332)139(293)101(26-254)406-216)63-368-215(177(331)138(292)100(25-253)405-215)62-367-214(176(330)137(291)99(24-252)404-214)61-366-213(175(329)136(290)98(23-251)403-213)60-365-212(174(328)135(289)97(22-250)402-212)59-364-211(173(327)134(288)96(21-249)401-211)58-363-210(172(326)133(287)95(20-248)400-210)57-362-209(171(325)132(286)94(19-247)399-209)56-361-208(170(324)131(285)93(18-246)398-208)55-360-207(169(323)130(284)92(17-245)397-207)54-359-206(168(322)129(283)91(16-244)396-206)53-358-205(167(321)128(282)90(15-243)395-205)52-357-204(166(320)127(281)89(14-242)394-204)51-356-203(165(319)126(280)88(13-241)393-203)50-355-202(164(318)125(279)87(12-240)392-202)49-354-201(163(317)124(278)86(11-239)391-201)48-353-200(162(316)123(277)85(10-238)390-200)47-352-199(161(315)122(276)84(9-237)389-199)46-351-198(160(314)121(275)83(8-236)388-198)45-350-197(159(313)120(274)82(7-235)387-197)44-349-196(158(312)119(273)81(6-234)386-196)43-348-195(157(311)118(272)80(5-233)385-195)42-347-194(156(310)117(271)79(4-232)384-194)41-346-193(155(309)116(270)78(3-231)383-193)40-345-192(39-267)154(308)115(269)77(2-230)382-192/h76-191,229-344H,1-75H2/t76-,77-,78-,79-,80-,81-,82-,83-,84-,85-,86-,87-,88-,89-,90-,91-,92-,93-,94-,95-,96-,97-,98-,99-,100-,101-,102-,103-,104-,105-,106-,107-,108-,109-,110-,111-,112-,113-,114-,115-,116-,117-,118-,119-,120-,121-,122-,123-,124-,125-,126-,127-,128-,129-,130-,131-,132-,133-,134-,135-,136-,137-,138-,139-,140-,141-,142-,143-,144-,145-,146-,147-,148-,149-,150-,151-,152+,153-,154+,155+,156+,157+,158+,159+,160+,161+,162+,163+,164+,165+,166+,167+,168+,169+,170+,171+,172+,173+,174+,175+,176+,177+,178+,179+,180+,181+,182+,183+,184+,185+,186+,187+,188+,189+,190+,191-,192-,193-,194-,195-,196-,197-,198-,199-,200-,201-,202-,203-,204-,205-,206-,207-,208-,209-,210-,211-,212-,213-,214-,215-,216-,217-,218-,219-,220-,221-,222-,223-,224-,225-,226-,227-,228+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-{[(2S,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-2-({[(2R,3S,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-2,5-bis(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}methyl)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]oxy}-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@@](CO)(OC[C@@]2(OC[C@@]3(OC[C@@]4(OC[C@@]5(OC[C@@]6(OC[C@@]7(OC[C@@]8(OC[C@@]9(OC[C@@]%10(OC[C@@]%11(OC[C@@]%12(OC[C@@]%13(OC[C@@]%14(OC[C@@]%15(OC[C@@]%16(OC[C@@]%17(OC[C@@]%18(OC[C@@]%19(OC[C@@]%20(OC[C@@]%21(OC[C@@]%22(OC[C@@]%23(OC[C@@]%24(OC[C@@]%25(OC[C@@]%26(OC[C@@]%27(OC[C@@]%28(OC[C@@]%29(OC[C@@]%30(OC[C@@]%31(OC[C@@]%32(OC[C@@]%33(OC[C@@]%34(OC[C@@]%35(OC[C@@]%36(OC[C@@]%37(O[C@H]%38O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]%38O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%37O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%36O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%35O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%34O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%33O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%32O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%31O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%30O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%29O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%28O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%27O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%26O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%25O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%24O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%23O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%22O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%21O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%20O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%19O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%18O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%17O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%16O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%15O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%14O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%13O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%12O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%11O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]%10O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]9O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]8O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]7O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]6O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]5O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]4O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]3O)O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]2O)[C@@H](O)[C@@H]1O
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassOrganooxygen Compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
SubclassPolysaccharides
Direct parentMixed Pentose/Hexose Polysaccharides
Alternative parentsC-glycosyl Compounds; O-glycosyl Compounds; Oxanes; Tetrahydrofurans; Oxolanes; 1,2-Diols; Secondary Alcohols; Primary Alcohols; Acetals; Polyamines
Substituentsc-glycosyl compound; glycosyl compound; o-glycosyl compound; oxane; tetrahydrofuran; oxolane; polyol; secondary alcohol; 1,2-diol; primary alcohol; ether; acetal; polyamine; alcohol
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the mixed pentose/hexose polysaccharides. These are polysaccharides containing both an hexose and a pentose.
Pharmacology
IndicationHistorically used in an important medical test of renal function, specifically a measure of glomerular filtration rate. Sometimes used to help relieve symptoms of diabetes mellitus - a condition characterised by hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia.
PharmacodynamicsThe inulin test is a procedure by which the filtering capacity of the glomeruli (the main filtering structures of the kidney) is determined by measuring the rate at which inulin, the test substance, is cleared from blood plasma. Inulin is one of the more suitable and accurate substance to measure because it is a small, inert polysaccharide molecule that readily passes through the glomeruli. The inulin clearance test is performed by injecting inulin, waiting for it to be distributed, and then measuring plasma and urine inulin concentrations by various assays. As nutraceutical agents inulins may have antitumor, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic actions. They may also help to improve mineral absorption and balance and may have antiosteoporotic activity.
Mechanism of actionAs a diagnostic agent, inulin is readily soluble and essentially indigestible. It readily passes through the blood and into the urine. It is neither secreted nor resorbed by the kidney making it an excellent indicator for renal clearance rates. The inulin clearance test has largely been succeeded by the creatinine clearance test as a measure of glomerular filtration rate. As a hypoglycemic agent, inulin is not digestible by human enzymes ptyalin and amylase, which are designed to digest starch. As a result, inulin passes through much of the digestive system intact. It is only in the colon that bacteria metabolise inulin, with the release of significant quantities of carbon dioxide and/or methane. Because inulin is not broken down into simple sugars (monosaccharides) by normal digestion, it does not elevate blood sugar levels, hence, helping diabetics regulate blood sugar levels.
AbsorptionPoorly absorbed, passes through to urine unmetabolized
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNone
Metabolism

Metabolized into carbon dioxide and methane by colonic bacteria

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Inulin
    MethaneDetails
    Route of eliminationNot Available
    Half life2-4 hours
    ClearanceNot Available
    ToxicityNot Available
    Affected organisms
    • Humans and other mammals
    PathwaysNot Available
    SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
    SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
    ADMET
    Predicted ADMET features
    Property Value Probability
    Human Intestinal Absorption Not Available Not Available
    Blood Brain Barrier Not Available Not Available
    Caco-2 permeable Not Available Not Available
    P-glycoprotein substrate Not Available Not Available
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Not Available Not Available
    P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Not Available Not Available
    Renal organic cation transporter Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 1A2 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 2C9 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 2D6 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 2C19 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 3A4 substrate Not Available Not Available
    CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Not Available Not Available
    Ames test Not Available Not Available
    Carcinogenicity Not Available Not Available
    Biodegradation Not Available Not Available
    Rat acute toxicity Not Available Not applicable
    hERG inhibition (predictor I) Not Available Not Available
    hERG inhibition (predictor II) Not Available Not Available
    Pharmacoeconomics
    Manufacturers
    • Iso tex diagnostics inc
    Packagers
    Dosage formsNot Available
    PricesNot Available
    PatentsNot Available
    Properties
    Statesolid
    Experimental Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    melting point178 °CNot Available
    water solubility280 mg/mL (at 80 °C), insoluble at room temperatureNot Available
    Predicted Properties
    PropertyValueSource
    logP-62ChemAxon
    pKa (strongest acidic)11.27ChemAxon
    pKa (strongest basic)-4ChemAxon
    physiological charge0ChemAxon
    hydrogen acceptor count191ChemAxon
    hydrogen donor count116ChemAxon
    polar surface area3038.93ChemAxon
    rotatable bond count149ChemAxon
    refractivity1251.4ChemAxon
    number of rings38ChemAxon
    bioavailability0ChemAxon
    rule of fiveNoChemAxon
    Ghose filterNoChemAxon
    Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
    MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
    Spectra
    SpectraNot Available
    References
    Synthesis Reference

    Ernst Hoehn, Curtis J. McKay, E. Donald Murray, “Production of high fructose syrup from inulin involving ultrafiltration.” U.S. Patent US4421852, issued July, 1981.

    US4421852
    General Reference
    1. Abrams SA, Griffin IJ, Hawthorne KM, Liang L, Gunn SK, Darlington G, Ellis KJ: A combination of prebiotic short- and long-chain inulin-type fructans enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralization in young adolescents. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):471-6. Pubmed
    2. Coudray C, Demigne C, Rayssiguier Y: Effects of dietary fibers on magnesium absorption in animals and humans. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):1-4. Pubmed
    3. Coussement PA: Inulin and oligofructose: safe intakes and legal status. J Nutr. 1999 Jul;129(7 Suppl):1412S-7S. Pubmed
    4. Roberfroid MB: Introducing inulin-type fructans. Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93 Suppl 1:S13-25. Pubmed
    External Links
    ResourceLink
    KEGG DrugD00171
    KEGG CompoundC03323
    PubChem Compound24763
    PubChem Substance46508287
    ChemSpider23149
    ChEBI15443
    ChEMBLCHEMBL1201646
    Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDAP001304
    PharmGKBPA450043
    Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cons/inulin-intravenous.html
    PDRhealthhttp://www.pdrhealth.com/drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/inu_0299.shtml
    WikipediaInulin
    ATC CodesV04CH01
    AHFS CodesNot Available
    PDB EntriesNot Available
    FDA labelNot Available
    MSDSshow(71.2 KB)
    Interactions
    Drug InteractionsNot Available
    Food InteractionsNot Available

    1. Cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase

    Kind: protein

    Organism: Paenibacillus macerans

    Pharmacological action: no

    Actions: binder

    Components

    Name UniProt ID Details
    Cycloinulo-oligosaccharide fructanotransferase Q9F0I5 Details

    References:

    1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
    2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
    3. Kawamura M, Uchiyama T, Kuramoto T, Tamura Y, Mizutani K: Formation of a cycloinulo-oligosaccharide from inulin by an extracellular enzyme of Bacillus circulans OKUMZ 31B. Carbohydr Res. 1989 Oct 23;192:83-90. Pubmed
    4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

    Comments
    Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11