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Identification
NameMycophenolate mofetil
Accession NumberDB00688  (APRD01602)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsapproved, investigational
Description

Mycophenolate mofetil is the 2-morpholinoethyl ester of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an immunosuppressive agent, inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
MMFNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
CellCeptGenentech USA, Inc.
CellCept Oral Suspension Genentech USA, Inc.
CellCept IntravenousGenentech USA, Inc.
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number128794-94-5
WeightAverage: 433.4947
Monoisotopic: 433.210052351
Chemical FormulaC23H31NO7
InChI KeyInChIKey=RTGDFNSFWBGLEC-SYZQJQIISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C23H31NO7/c1-15(5-7-19(25)30-13-10-24-8-11-29-12-9-24)4-6-17-21(26)20-18(14-31-23(20)27)16(2)22(17)28-3/h4,26H,5-14H2,1-3H3/b15-4+
IUPAC Name
2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl (4E)-6-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxy-7-methyl-3-oxo-1,3-dihydro-2-benzofuran-5-yl)-4-methylhex-4-enoate
SMILES
COC1=C(C\C=C(/C)CCC(=O)OCCN2CCOCC2)C(O)=C2C(=O)OCC2=C1C
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassHeterocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzofurans
SubclassBenzofuranones
Direct parentPhthalides
Alternative parentsHydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives; Methoxyphenols and Derivatives; Anisoles; Para Cresols; Fatty Acid Esters; Alkyl Aryl Ethers; Toluenes; Morpholines; Dicarboxylic Acids and Derivatives; Carboxylic Acid Esters; Tertiary Amines; Enolates; Dialkyl Ethers; Enols; Polyamines
Substituentsp-cresol; anisole; phenol ether; alkyl aryl ether; fatty acid ester; phenol derivative; toluene; oxazinane; benzene; morpholine; dicarboxylic acid derivative; carboxylic acid ester; tertiary amine; enol; ether; polyamine; dialkyl ether; enolate; carboxylic acid derivative; amine; organonitrogen compound
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the phthalides. These are compounds containing a 3-hydrocarbylidene-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one moiety,.
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving allogeneic renal, cardiac or hepatic transplants. Mycophenolate mofetil should be used concomitantly with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.
PharmacodynamicsMycophenolate mofetil is a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an antibiotic substance derived from Penicillium stoloniferum. It blocks de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides by inhibition of the enzyme inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is important because of its selective effects on the immune system. It prevents the proliferation of T-cells, lymphocytes, and the formation of antibodies from B-cells. It also may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatory sites.
Mechanism of actionMycophenolate mofetil is hydrolyzed to form mycophenolic acid (MPA), which is the active metabolite. MPA is a potent, selective, uncompetitive, and reversible inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), and therefore inhibits the de novo pathway of guanosine nucleotide synthesis without incorporation into DNA. Because T- and B-lymphocytes are critically dependent for their proliferation on de novo synthesis of purines, whereas other cell types can utilize salvage pathways, MPA has potent cytostatic effects on lymphocytes. MPA inhibits proliferative responses of T- and B-lymphocytes to both mitogenic and allospecific stimulation. Addition of guanosine or deoxyguanosine reverses the cytostatic effects of MPA on lymphocytes. MPA also suppresses antibody formation by B-lymphocytes. MPA prevents the glycosylation of lymphocyte and monocyte glycoproteins that are involved in intercellular adhesion to endothelial cells and may inhibit recruitment of leukocytes into sites of inflammation and graft rejection. Mycophenolate mofetil did not inhibit early events in the activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, such as the production of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2), but did block the coupling of these events to DNA synthesis and proliferation.
AbsorptionRapidly absorbed following oral administration. In 12 healthy volunteers, the mean absolute bioavailability of oral mycophenolate mofetil relative to intravenous mycophenolate mofetil (based on MPA AUC) was 94%. The absolute bioavailability of the delayed release tablet in stable renal transplant patients on cyclosporin is 72%. Food (27 g fat, 650 calories) has no effect on the extent of absorption (MPA AUC) of mycophenolate mofetil.
Volume of distribution
  • 3.6 ±1.5 L/kg [intravenous, healthy subjects, MPA]
  • 4 ±1.2 L/kg [oral administration, healthy subjects, MPA]
Protein bindingMPA (the active metabolite), at clinically relevant concentrations, is over 98% bound to plasma albumin. The phenolic glucuronide of MPA, mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG) has 82% protein bound.
Metabolism

Following oral and intravenous dosing, mycophenolate mofetil undergoes complete metabolism to MPA, the active metabolite. Metabolism to MPA occurs presystemically after oral dosing. MPA is metabolized principally by glucuronyl transferase to form the phenolic glucuronide of MPA (MPAG) which is not pharmacologically active. In vivo, MPAG is converted to MPA via enterohepatic recirculation. The following metabolites of the 2-hydroxyethyl-morpholino moiety are also recovered in the urine following oral administration of mycophenolate mofetil to healthy subjects: N-(2-carboxymethyl)-morpholine, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine, and the N-oxide of N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine. Cytochrome P450 isozymes, CYP3A4/5 and to a lesser extent by CYP2C8, is responsible for the biotransformation of MPA to 6-O-desmethyl-mycophenolic acid.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Mycophenolate mofetil
    Mycophenolic acid (MPA)Details
    Mycophenolate mofetil
      Mycophenolic acid glucuronideDetails
      Mycophenolate mofetil
        N-(2-carboxymethyl)-morpholineDetails
        Mycophenolate mofetil
          N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholineDetails
          Mycophenolate mofetil
            N-(2-hydroxyethyl)-morpholine N-oxideDetails
            Route of eliminationNegligible amount of drug is excreted as MPA (< 1% of dose) in the urine. When orally administered, mycophenolate mofetil was completely recovered with 93% of the dose found in the urine and 6% found in feces. 87% of the administered dose is excreted in the urine as MPAG.
            Half lifeThe mean elimination half-life for mycophenolic acid (the active metabolite) ranges from 8-16 hours, while that of the MPAG metabolite ranges from 13-17 hours.
            Clearance
            • 193 mL/min [plasma clearance, MPA, oral administration]
            • 177 mL/min [plasma clearance, MPA, IV administration]
            • 15.5 mL/min [renal clearance, MPAG, delayed-release tablet]
            ToxicityOral (LD50): Acute: 352 mg/kg [Rat], 1000 mg/kg [Mouse], and >6000 mg/kg [Rabbit]. Possible signs and symptoms of acute overdose could include the following: hematological abnormalities such as leukopenia and neutropenia, and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, and dyspepsia.
            Affected organisms
            • Humans and other mammals
            Pathways
            PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
            Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwayDrug metabolismSMP00652
            SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
            SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
            ADMET
            Predicted ADMET features
            Property Value Probability
            Human Intestinal Absorption + 0.8938
            Blood Brain Barrier + 0.8594
            Caco-2 permeable + 0.5904
            P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.8908
            P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.8381
            P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Inhibitor 0.8061
            Renal organic cation transporter Inhibitor 0.5379
            CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8528
            CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.602
            CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7646
            CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.6878
            CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9155
            CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.7684
            CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9122
            CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8316
            CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.8664
            Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.6484
            Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.953
            Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.658
            Rat acute toxicity 3.0412 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
            hERG inhibition (predictor I) Strong inhibitor 0.771
            hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7653
            Pharmacoeconomics
            Manufacturers
            • Roche palo alto llc
            • Accord healthcare inc usa
            • Apotex corp
            • Endo pharmaceuticals inc
            • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
            • Roxane laboratories inc
            • Sandoz inc
            • Strides arcolab ltd
            • Teva pharmaceuticals usa
            • Zydus pharmaceuticals usa inc
            • Accord healthcare inc
            • Apotex inc
            Packagers
            Dosage forms
            FormRouteStrength
            CapsuleOral250 mg
            Injection, powder, for solutionIntravenous500 mg
            SuspensionOral200 mg/mL
            TabletOral500 mg
            Tablet, delayed releaseOral180 mg, 360 mg
            Prices
            Unit descriptionCostUnit
            CellCept 200 mg/ml Suspension 175ml Bottle875.84USDbottle
            Cellcept 500 mg vial65.03USDvial
            Cellcept 500 mg tablet10.43USDtablet
            Mycophenolate Mofetil 500 mg tablet8.25USDtablet
            Mycophenolate 500 mg tablet7.93USDtablet
            CellCept 250 mg capsule5.21USDcapsule
            Mycophenolate Mofetil 250 mg capsule4.13USDcapsule
            DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
            Patents
            CountryPatent NumberApprovedExpires (estimated)
            United States56885291994-11-182014-11-18
            United States55434081993-09-152013-09-15
            Canada21725062007-07-172014-09-27
            Canada13332851994-11-292011-11-29
            Properties
            Statesolid
            Experimental Properties
            PropertyValueSource
            water solubilitySlightly soluble (43 mg/mL at pH 7.4)Not Available
            logP2.5Not Available
            Predicted Properties
            PropertyValueSource
            water solubility9.50e-02 g/lALOGPS
            logP2.17ALOGPS
            logP3.47ChemAxon
            logS-3.7ALOGPS
            pKa (strongest acidic)9.76ChemAxon
            pKa (strongest basic)6.19ChemAxon
            physiological charge0ChemAxon
            hydrogen acceptor count6ChemAxon
            hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
            polar surface area94.53ChemAxon
            rotatable bond count10ChemAxon
            refractivity117.1ChemAxon
            polarizability45.55ChemAxon
            number of rings3ChemAxon
            bioavailability1ChemAxon
            rule of fiveYesChemAxon
            Ghose filterYesChemAxon
            Veber's ruleNoChemAxon
            MDDR-like ruleYesChemAxon
            Spectra
            SpectraNot Available
            References
            Synthesis Reference

            Roger C. Fu, De-Mei Leung, Jeffrey S. Fleitman, Michele C. Rizzolio, Andrew R. Miksztal, “Process for preparing pharmaceutical compositions containing crystalline anhydrous mycophenolate mofetil salts.” U.S. Patent US5545637, issued November, 1988.

            US5545637
            General Reference
            1. Woodroffe R, Yao GL, Meads C, Bayliss S, Ready A, Raftery J, Taylor RS: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of newer immunosuppressive regimens in renal transplantation: a systematic review and modelling study. Health Technol Assess. 2005 May;9(21):1-179, iii-iv. Pubmed
            2. FDA label
            3. Picard N, Cresteil T, Premaud A, Marquet P: Characterization of a phase 1 metabolite of mycophenolic acid produced by CYP3A4/5. Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Dec;26(6):600-8. Pubmed
            External Links
            ResourceLink
            KEGG DrugD00752
            KEGG CompoundC07908
            PubChem Compound5281078
            PubChem Substance46505626
            ChemSpider4444535
            Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC000397
            PharmGKBPA450566
            Drug Product Database2240347
            RxListhttp://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic3/cellcept.htm
            Drugs.comhttp://www.drugs.com/cdi/mycophenolate-mofetil.html
            WikipediaMycophenolate_mofetil
            ATC CodesL04AA06
            AHFS Codes
            • 92:00.00
            PDB EntriesNot Available
            FDA labelshow(200 KB)
            MSDSshow(82.3 KB)
            Interactions
            Drug Interactions
            Drug
            BelataceptBelatacept increases the Cmax and AUC of mycophenolate mofetil.
            CalciumFormation of non-absorbable complexes
            IronOral iron decreases the absorption of mycophenolate-mofetil
            Iron DextranOral iron decreases the absorption of mycophenolate-mofetil
            RifampicinRifampin may decrease the serum concentration of mycophenolate. Concomitant therapy should be avoided.
            Rilonaceptresults in increased immunosuppressive effects; increases the risk of infection.
            TacrolimusTacrolimus may increase the plasma concentration of Mycophenolic acid. Monitor and adjust the dose of Mycophenolate mofetil to the therapeutic range.
            TrastuzumabTrastuzumab may increase the risk of neutropenia and anemia. Monitor closely for signs and symptoms of adverse events.
            ValganciclovirThe excretion rates of Valganciclovir and/or Mycophenolate mofetil may decrease. Monitor for increased serum concentrations and toxicity of both agents.
            Food Interactions
            • Do not take calcium, aluminium, magnesium or iron supplements within 2 hours of taking this medication.
            • Take on empty stomach: 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.

            1. Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 1 P20839 Details

            References:

            1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
            2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
            3. Bremer S, Rootwelt H, Bergan S: Real-time PCR determination of IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 expression in blood cells. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1023-9. Epub 2007 Apr 26. Pubmed
            4. Wang J, Yang JW, Zeevi A, Webber SA, Girnita DM, Selby R, Fu J, Shah T, Pravica V, Hutchinson IV, Burckart GJ: IMPDH1 Gene Polymorphisms and Association With Acute Rejection in Renal Transplant Patients. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Sep 12;. Pubmed
            5. Sanquer S, Maison P, Tomkiewicz C, Macquin-Mavier I, Legendre C, Barouki R, Lang P: Expression of Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase Type I and Type II After Mycophenolate Mofetil Treatment: A 2-year Follow-up in Kidney Transplantation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Aug 22;. Pubmed
            6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

            2. Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: yes

            Actions: inhibitor

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase 2 P12268 Details

            References:

            1. Vannozzi F, Filipponi F, Di Paolo A, Danesi R, Urbani L, Bocci G, Catalano G, De Simone P, Mosca F, Del Tacca M: An exploratory study on pharmacogenetics of inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase II in peripheral mononuclear cells from liver-transplant recipients. Transplant Proc. 2004 Nov;36(9):2787-90. Pubmed
            2. Bremer S, Rootwelt H, Bergan S: Real-time PCR determination of IMPDH1 and IMPDH2 expression in blood cells. Clin Chem. 2007 Jun;53(6):1023-9. Epub 2007 Apr 26. Pubmed
            3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

            1. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1 P22309 Details

            References:

            1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Pubmed

            2. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7 Q9HAW7 Details

            References:

            1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Pubmed

            3. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6 P19224 Details

            References:

            1. Miles KK, Kessler FK, Smith PC, Ritter JK: Characterization of rat intestinal microsomal UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward mycophenolic acid. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 Sep;34(9):1632-9. Epub 2006 Jun 21. Pubmed

            4. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9 O60656 Details

            References:

            1. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. Pubmed

            5. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7 P16662 Details

            References:

            1. Picard N, Ratanasavanh D, Premaud A, Le Meur Y, Marquet P: Identification of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms involved in mycophenolic acid phase II metabolism. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Jan;33(1):139-46. Epub 2004 Oct 6. Pubmed

            6. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8 Q9HAW9 Details

            References:

            1. Thervet E, Anglicheau D, Legendre C: [Pharmacology of mycophenolate mofetil: recent data and clinical consequences]. Nephrologie. 2001;22(7):331-7. Pubmed

            7. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10 Q9HAW8 Details

            References:

            1. Thervet E, Anglicheau D, Legendre C: [Pharmacology of mycophenolate mofetil: recent data and clinical consequences]. Nephrologie. 2001;22(7):331-7. Pubmed

            8. Liver carboxylesterase 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Liver carboxylesterase 1 P23141 Details

            References:

            1. Fujiyama N, Miura M, Kato S, Sone T, Isobe M, Satoh S: Involvement of carboxylesterase 1 and 2 in the hydrolysis of mycophenolate mofetil. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Dec;38(12):2210-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034249. Epub 2010 Sep 7. Pubmed

            9. Cocaine esterase

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cocaine esterase O00748 Details

            References:

            1. Fujiyama N, Miura M, Kato S, Sone T, Isobe M, Satoh S: Involvement of carboxylesterase 1 and 2 in the hydrolysis of mycophenolate mofetil. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Dec;38(12):2210-7. doi: 10.1124/dmd.110.034249. Epub 2010 Sep 7. Pubmed

            10. Cytochrome P450 3A4

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

            References:

            1. Picard N, Cresteil T, Premaud A, Marquet P: Characterization of a phase 1 metabolite of mycophenolic acid produced by CYP3A4/5. Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Dec;26(6):600-8. Pubmed

            11. Cytochrome P450 3A5

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 3A5 P20815 Details

            References:

            1. Picard N, Cresteil T, Premaud A, Marquet P: Characterization of a phase 1 metabolite of mycophenolic acid produced by CYP3A4/5. Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Dec;26(6):600-8. Pubmed

            12. Cytochrome P450 2C8

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Cytochrome P450 2C8 P10632 Details

            References:

            1. Picard N, Cresteil T, Premaud A, Marquet P: Characterization of a phase 1 metabolite of mycophenolic acid produced by CYP3A4/5. Ther Drug Monit. 2004 Dec;26(6):600-8. Pubmed

            1. Serum albumin

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Serum albumin P02768 Details

            References:

            1. FDA label

            1. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 Q9Y6L6 Details

            References:

            1. Miura M, Satoh S, Inoue K, Kagaya H, Saito M, Inoue T, Suzuki T, Habuchi T: Influence of SLCO1B1, 1B3, 2B1 and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;63(12):1161-9. Epub 2007 Sep 29. Pubmed

            2. Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 Q9NPD5 Details

            References:

            1. Michelon H, Konig J, Durrbach A, Quteineh L, Verstuyft C, Furlan V, Ferlicot S, Letierce A, Charpentier B, Fromm MF, Becquemont L: SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphism influences mycophenolic acid tolerance in renal transplant recipients. Pharmacogenomics. 2010 Dec;11(12):1703-13. doi: 10.2217/pgs.10.132. Pubmed
            2. Miura M, Satoh S, Inoue K, Kagaya H, Saito M, Inoue T, Suzuki T, Habuchi T: Influence of SLCO1B1, 1B3, 2B1 and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;63(12):1161-9. Epub 2007 Sep 29. Pubmed

            3. Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1 Q92887 Details

            References:

            1. Miura M, Satoh S, Inoue K, Kagaya H, Saito M, Inoue T, Suzuki T, Habuchi T: Influence of SLCO1B1, 1B3, 2B1 and ABCC2 genetic polymorphisms on mycophenolic acid pharmacokinetics in Japanese renal transplant recipients. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Dec;63(12):1161-9. Epub 2007 Sep 29. Pubmed

            4. ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 Q9UNQ0 Details

            References:

            1. Miura M, Kagaya H, Satoh S, Inoue K, Saito M, Habuchi T, Suzuki T: Influence of drug transporters and UGT polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of phenolic glucuronide metabolite of mycophenolic acid in Japanese renal transplant recipients. Ther Drug Monit. 2008 Oct;30(5):559-64. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181838063. Pubmed]

            5. Multidrug resistance protein 1

            Kind: protein

            Organism: Human

            Pharmacological action: unknown

            Actions: substrate

            Components

            Name UniProt ID Details
            Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

            References:

            1. Miura M, Kagaya H, Satoh S, Inoue K, Saito M, Habuchi T, Suzuki T: Influence of drug transporters and UGT polymorphisms on pharmacokinetics of phenolic glucuronide metabolite of mycophenolic acid in Japanese renal transplant recipients. Ther Drug Monit. 2008 Oct;30(5):559-64. doi: 10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181838063. Pubmed]

            Comments
            Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:11