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Identification
NameSulfasalazine
Accession NumberDB00795  (APRD00152, DB08518)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A drug that is used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. Its activity is generally considered to lie in its metabolic breakdown product, 5-aminosalicylic acid (see mesalamine) released in the colon. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p907)

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
2-Hydroxy-5-((4-((2-pyridinylamino)sulfonyl)phenyl)azo)benzoic acid
2-Hydroxy-5-[4-(pyridin-2-ylsulfamoyl)-phenylazo]-benzoic acid
4-(Pyridyl-2-amidosulfonyl)-3'-carboxy-4'-hydroxyazobenzene
5-((P-(2-Pyridylsulfamoyl)phenyl)azo)salicylic acid
5-(4-(2-Pyridylsulfamoyl)phenylazo)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
5-(P-(2-Pyridylsulfamyl)phenylazo)salicylic acid
Azopyrin
Azulfidine
Salazosulfapiridina
Salazosulfapyridine
Salazosulfapyridinum
Salicylazosulfapyridine
Sulfasalazin
Sulfasalazina
Sulfasalazine
Sulfasalazinum
External Identifiers
  • SSZ
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Azulfidinetablet500 mg/1oralPharmacia and Upjohn Company1950-06-20Not applicableUs
Azulfidine En-tabstablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralPharmacia and Upjohn Company1950-06-20Not applicableUs
Orb-sulfasalazine ECtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralOrbus Pharma IncNot applicableNot applicableCanada
PMS-sulfasalazine 500mg/tab USPtablet500 mgoralPharmascience Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
PMS-sulfasalazine-E.C. Tab 500mgtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPharmascience Inc1984-12-31Not applicableCanada
Ratio-sulfasalazine Entablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1986-12-312008-08-01Canada
Ratio-sulfasalazine Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited1986-12-312008-08-01Canada
S.A.S. Enteric 500mgtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralIcn Canada Ltd.1979-12-312005-04-26Canada
Salazopyrin En-tabs 500 mgtablet (enteric-coated)500 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Salazopyrin Enema 3.0gm/100mlsuspension3 grectalKabi Pharmacia Canada Inc.1994-12-311996-09-10Canada
Salazopyrin Enema 3gm/100mlenema3 grectalPfizer Canada Inc1996-12-312006-08-02Canada
Salazopyrin Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralPfizer Canada Inc1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sas Enema 3gm/100mlenema3 grectalIcn Canada Ltd.1984-12-312005-04-26Canada
Sas Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralIcn Canada Ltd.1973-12-312005-04-26Canada
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2003-07-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralA S Medication Solutions Llc2003-07-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralAphena Pharma Solutions Tennessee, Llc2003-07-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralMajor Pharmaceuticals2000-08-18Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralKAISER FOUNDATION HOSPITALS2015-04-07Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2003-07-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralGreenstone LLC2005-05-05Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Apo Sulfasalazine Tab 500mgtablet500 mgoralApotex Inc1978-12-31Not applicableCanada
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralWatson Laboratories, Inc.1982-10-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-04-19Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2010-11-15Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralPreferred Pharmaceuticals, Inc2010-06-09Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralAidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC2002-01-11Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralPd Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2002-01-11Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralBlenheim Pharmacal, Inc.2013-11-18Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-05-15Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-01-14Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2002-01-11Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazinetablet500 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2011-12-01Not applicableUs
Sulfasalazine Delayed-releasetablet, delayed release500 mg/1oralQualitest Pharmaceuticals2002-01-11Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AsasurfanChoseido Pharmaceutical
AzulfdidinaPfizer
AzulfinApsen
BomeconFu Seng
Colo-PleonSanofi-Aventis
DisalazinAC Farma
EminapyrinTaiyo Pharmaceutical
FlogostopIvax
IwataCadila
LanofenTaisho Yakuhin
LazafinNovell
PleonSanofi-Aventis
Pyralin ENPfizer
ReumazinAristopharma
SaazIpca
Saaz-DSIpca
SalasopyrineUpjohn
SalazarCadila
SalazidinHelcor
SalazineOpsonin
SalazopirinaJaba Recordati
SalazoprinCazi
SalazopyrinPfizer
Salazopyrin ENPfizer
Salazopyrin EN-TabsPharmacia
SulcolonBernofarm
SulfacolDrug International
WeiliufenSunve
ZopyrinHan Lim
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII3XC8GUZ6CB
CAS number599-79-1
WeightAverage: 398.393
Monoisotopic: 398.068490268
Chemical FormulaC18H14N4O5S
InChI KeyInChIKey=NCEXYHBECQHGNR-QZQOTICOSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H14N4O5S/c23-16-9-6-13(11-15(16)18(24)25)21-20-12-4-7-14(8-5-12)28(26,27)22-17-3-1-2-10-19-17/h1-11,23H,(H,19,22)(H,24,25)/b21-20+
IUPAC Name
2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-2-{4-[(pyridin-2-yl)sulfamoyl]phenyl}diazen-1-yl]benzoic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)C1=CC(=CC=C1O)\N=N\C1=CC=C(C=C1)S(=O)(=O)NC1=NC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as azobenzenes. These are organonitrogen aromatic compounds that contain a central azo group, where each nitrogen atom is conjugated to a bezene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzobenzenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAzobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Azobenzene
  • Salicylic acid
  • Salicylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzenesulfonamide
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol
  • Aminopyridine
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Sulfonyl
  • Sulfonic acid derivative
  • Sulfonamide
  • Azo compound
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis as a second-line agent.
PharmacodynamicsSulfasalazine is an anti-inflammatory indicated for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.
Mechanism of actionThe mode of action of Sulfasalazine or its metabolites, 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) and sulfapyridine (SP), is still under investigation, but may be related to the anti-inflammatory and/or immunomodulatory properties that have been observed in animal and in vitro models, to its affinity for connective tissue, and/or to the relatively high concentration it reaches in serous fluids, the liver and intestinal walls, as demonstrated in autoradiographic studies in animals. In ulcerative colitis, clinical studies utilizing rectal administration of Sulfasalazine, SP and 5-ASA have indicated that the major therapeutic action may reside in the 5-ASA moiety. The relative contribution of the parent drug and the major metabolites in rheumatoid arthritis is unknown.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 7.5 ± 1.6 L
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationThe majority of 5-ASA stays within the colonic lumen and is excreted as 5-ASA and acetyl-5-ASA with the feces.
Half life5-10 hours
Clearance
  • 1 L/h [IV administration]
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9156
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7294
Caco-2 permeable-0.6893
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8405
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9096
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.853
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8956
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.6445
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7557
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8948
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.923
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8895
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6468
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9472
Rat acute toxicity1.4383 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.939
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.821
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Pharmacia and upjohn co
  • Vintage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Watson laboratories inc
  • Solvay pharmaceuticals
  • Heritage pharmaceuticals inc
  • Mutual pharmaceutical co inc
  • Sandoz inc
  • Superpharm corp
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral500 mg/1
Tablet, delayed releaseoral500 mg/1
Tablet (enteric-coated)oral500 mg
Suspensionrectal3 g
Enemarectal3 g
Tabletoral500 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Sulfasalazine powder2.14USD g
Azulfidine EN-tabs 500 mg Enteric Coated Tabs0.73USD tab
Azulfidine entab 500 mg0.69USD tablet
Azulfidine 500 mg tablet0.59USD tablet
Salazopyrin En-Tabs 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.45USD tablet
Sulfasalazine 500 mg Enteric Coated Tabs0.4USD tab
Pms-Sulfasalazine 500 mg Enteric-Coated Tablet0.34USD tablet
Salazopyrin 500 mg Tablet0.28USD tablet
Sulfasalazine 500 mg tablet0.25USD tablet
Sulfazine 500 mg tablet0.25USD tablet
Pms-Sulfasalazine 500 mg Tablet0.22USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point220 dec °CPhysProp
logP2.5Not Available
Caco2 permeability-6.33ADME Research, USCD
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0464 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.92ALOGPS
logP3.94ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area141.31 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity104.6 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesA07EC01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.20
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (796 KB)
MSDSDownload (72.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
Folic AcidThe serum concentration of Folic Acid can be decreased when it is combined with Sulfasalazine.
MecamylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulfasalazine is combined with Mecamylamine.
MethotrexateSulfasalazine may increase the hepatotoxic activities of Methotrexate.
Food Interactions
  • May take Vitamin D.
  • Take with a full glass of water No iron, zinc or fluoride within 2 hours of taking this medication.
  • Take with food.

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name:
ALOX5
Uniprot ID:
P09917
Molecular Weight:
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Nielsen OH, Bukhave K, Elmgreen J, Ahnfelt-Ronne I: Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism in human neutrophils by sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid. Dig Dis Sci. 1987 Jun;32(6):577-82. [PubMed:2882965 ]
  2. Allgayer H, Eisenburg J, Paumgartner G: Soybean lipoxygenase inhibition: studies with the sulphasalazine metabolites N-acetylaminosalicylic acid, 5-aminosalicylic acid and sulphapyridine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1984;26(4):449-51. [PubMed:6428914 ]
  3. Sircar JC, Schwender CF, Carethers ME: Inhibition of soybean lipoxygenase by sulfasalazine and 5-aminosalicylic acid: a possible mode of action in ulcerative colitis. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Jan 1;32(1):170-2. [PubMed:6131674 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Mifflin RC, Saada JI, Di Mari JF, Valentich JD, Adegboyega PA, Powell DW: Aspirin-mediated COX-2 transcript stabilization via sustained p38 activation in human intestinal myofibroblasts. Mol Pharmacol. 2004 Feb;65(2):470-8. [PubMed:14742690 ]
  2. Generini S, Fiori G, Matucci Cerinic M: Therapy of spondylarthropathy in inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2002 Nov-Dec;20(6 Suppl 28):S88-94. [PubMed:12463455 ]
  3. Distrutti E, Sediari L, Mencarelli A, Renga B, Orlandi S, Russo G, Caliendo G, Santagada V, Cirino G, Wallace JL, Fiorucci S: 5-Amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid 4-(5-thioxo-5H-[1,2]dithiol-3yl)-phenyl ester (ATB-429), a hydrogen sulfide-releasing derivative of mesalamine, exerts antinociceptive effects in a model of postinflammatory hypersensitivity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006 Oct;319(1):447-58. Epub 2006 Jul 19. [PubMed:16855178 ]
  4. Cipolla G, Crema F, Sacco S, Moro E, de Ponti F, Frigo G: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and inflammatory bowel disease: current perspectives. Pharmacol Res. 2002 Jul;46(1):1-6. [PubMed:12208114 ]
  5. Pruzanski W, Stefanski E, Vadas P, Ramamurthy NS: Inhibition of extracellular release of proinflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) by sulfasalazine: a novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 15;53(12):1901-7. [PubMed:9256165 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [PubMed:12950415 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation...
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Rousseaux C, Lefebvre B, Dubuquoy L, Lefebvre P, Romano O, Auwerx J, Metzger D, Wahli W, Desvergne B, Naccari GC, Chavatte P, Farce A, Bulois P, Cortot A, Colombel JF, Desreumaux P: Intestinal antiinflammatory effect of 5-aminosalicylic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. J Exp Med. 2005 Apr 18;201(8):1205-15. Epub 2005 Apr 11. [PubMed:15824083 ]
  2. Schwab M, Reynders V, Loitsch S, Shastri YM, Steinhilber D, Schroder O, Stein J: PPARgamma is involved in mesalazine-mediated induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth in colon cancer cells. Carcinogenesis. 2008 Jul;29(7):1407-14. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgn118. Epub 2008 Jun 9. [PubMed:18544567 ]
  3. Linard C, Gremy O, Benderitter M: Reduction of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma expression by gamma-irradiation as a mechanism contributing to inflammatory response in rat colon: modulation by the 5-aminosalicylic acid agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):911-20. Epub 2007 Dec 12. [PubMed:18077625 ]
  4. Desreumaux P, Ghosh S: Review article: mode of action and delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid - new evidence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;24 Suppl 1:2-9. [PubMed:16939423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses. Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on serine residues. These modifications...
Gene Name:
CHUK
Uniprot ID:
O15111
Molecular Weight:
84638.88 Da
References
  1. Weber CK, Liptay S, Wirth T, Adler G, Schmid RM: Suppression of NF-kappaB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IkappaB kinases alpha and beta. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1209-18. [PubMed:11054378 ]
  2. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [PubMed:12950415 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Scaffold protein binding
Specific Function:
Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses. Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on 2 critical serine residues. These mo...
Gene Name:
IKBKB
Uniprot ID:
O14920
Molecular Weight:
86563.245 Da
References
  1. Weber CK, Liptay S, Wirth T, Adler G, Schmid RM: Suppression of NF-kappaB activity by sulfasalazine is mediated by direct inhibition of IkappaB kinases alpha and beta. Gastroenterology. 2000 Nov;119(5):1209-18. [PubMed:11054378 ]
  2. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [PubMed:12950415 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Cystine:glutamate antiporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity exchange of anionic amino acids with high specificity for anionic form of cystine and glutamate.
Gene Name:
SLC7A11
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPY5
Molecular Weight:
55422.44 Da
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Gout PW, Buckley AR, Simms CR, Bruchovsky N: Sulfasalazine, a potent suppressor of lymphoma growth by inhibition of the x(c)- cystine transporter: a new action for an old drug. Leukemia. 2001 Oct;15(10):1633-40. [PubMed:11587223 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Metal ion binding
Specific Function:
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name:
ACAT1
Uniprot ID:
P24752
Molecular Weight:
45199.2 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Faison LD, White HL: Sulfasalazine inhibits lyso-PAF: acetyl-COA acetyltransferase. Prostaglandins. 1992 Sep;44(3):245-9. [PubMed:1357724 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Thromboxane-a synthase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
TBXAS1
Uniprot ID:
P24557
Molecular Weight:
60517.69 Da
References
  1. Stenson WF, Lobos E: Inhibition of platelet thromboxane synthetase by sulfasalazine. Biochem Pharmacol. 1983 Jul 15;32(14):2205-9. [PubMed:6135423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Receptor binding
Specific Function:
PA2 catalyzes the calcium-dependent hydrolysis of the 2-acyl groups in 3-sn-phosphoglycerides, this releases glycerophospholipids and arachidonic acid that serve as the precursors of signal molecules.
Gene Name:
PLA2G1B
Uniprot ID:
P04054
Molecular Weight:
16359.535 Da
References
  1. Pruzanski W, Stefanski E, Vadas P, Ramamurthy NS: Inhibition of extracellular release of proinflammatory secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) by sulfasalazine: a novel mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1997 Jun 15;53(12):1901-7. [PubMed:9256165 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Xenobiotic-transporting atpase activity
Specific Function:
High-capacity urate exporter functioning in both renal and extrarenal urate excretion. Plays a role in porphyrin homeostasis as it is able to mediates the export of protoporhyrin IX (PPIX) both from mitochondria to cytosol and from cytosol to extracellular space, and cellular export of hemin, and heme. Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from t...
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular Weight:
72313.47 Da
References
  1. Karlsson JE, Heddle C, Rozkov A, Rotticci-Mulder J, Tuvesson O, Hilgendorf C, Andersson TB: High-activity p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 2, and breast cancer resistance protein membrane vesicles prepared from transiently transfected human embryonic kidney 293-epstein-barr virus nuclear antigen cells. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010 Apr;38(4):705-14. doi: 10.1124/dmd.109.028886. Epub 2010 Jan 13. [PubMed:20071452 ]
  2. Shukla S, Zaher H, Hartz A, Bauer B, Ware JA, Ambudkar SV: Curcumin inhibits the activity of ABCG2/BCRP1, a multidrug resistance-linked ABC drug transporter in mice. Pharm Res. 2009 Feb;26(2):480-7. doi: 10.1007/s11095-008-9735-8. Epub 2008 Oct 9. [PubMed:18841445 ]
  3. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [PubMed:19541926 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Organic anion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Mediates hepatobiliary excretion of numerous organic anions. May function as a cellular cisplatin transporter.
Gene Name:
ABCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q92887
Molecular Weight:
174205.64 Da
References
  1. Dahan A, Amidon GL: Small intestinal efflux mediated by MRP2 and BCRP shifts sulfasalazine intestinal permeability from high to low, enabling its colonic targeting. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009 Aug;297(2):G371-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00102.2009. Epub 2009 Jun 18. [PubMed:19541926 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Methotrexate transporter activity
Specific Function:
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton-coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithelial cells. The iron is then released from heme and may be transported into the bloodstream. Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron. Shows a higher affinity for folate than heme.
Gene Name:
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96NT5
Molecular Weight:
49770.04 Da
References
  1. Nakai Y, Inoue K, Abe N, Hatakeyama M, Ohta KY, Otagiri M, Hayashi Y, Yuasa H: Functional characterization of human proton-coupled folate transporter/heme carrier protein 1 heterologously expressed in mammalian cells as a folate transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Aug;322(2):469-76. Epub 2007 May 2. [PubMed:17475902 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12