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Identification
NameMinaprine
Accession NumberDB00805  (APRD00735)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Minaprine is a psychotropic drug which has proved to be effective in the treatment of various depressive states. Like most antidepressants minaprine antagonizes behavioral despair. Minaprine is an amino-phenylpyridazine antidepressant reported to be relatively free of cardiotoxicity, drowsiness, and weight gain.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
4-(2-((4-Methyl-6-phenyl-3-pyridazinyl)amino)ethyl)morpholine
4-Methyl-3-(2-morpholinoethylamino)-6-phenylpyridazin
Minaprina
Minaprinum
N-(4-Methyl-6-phenyl-3-pyridazinyl)-4-morpholineethanamine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CantorSanofi-Aventis
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Minaprine Dihydrochloride
25953-17-7
Thumb
  • InChI Key: GNUCGROXDZMCJI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 370.132716824
  • Average Mass: 371.305
DBSALT000305
Categories
UNII00U7GX0NLM
CAS number25905-77-5
WeightAverage: 298.3828
Monoisotopic: 298.179361346
Chemical FormulaC17H22N4O
InChI KeyInChIKey=LDMWSLGGVTVJPG-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H22N4O/c1-14-13-16(15-5-3-2-4-6-15)19-20-17(14)18-7-8-21-9-11-22-12-10-21/h2-6,13H,7-12H2,1H3,(H,18,20)
IUPAC Name
4-methyl-N-[2-(morpholin-4-yl)ethyl]-6-phenylpyridazin-3-amine
SMILES
CC1=CC(=NN=C1NCCN1CCOCC1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpyridazines. These are organic compounds containing a pyridazine ring substituted by a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassDiazines
Sub ClassPyridazines and derivatives
Direct ParentPhenylpyridazines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylpyridazine
  • Secondary aliphatic/aromatic amine
  • Aminopyridazine
  • Imidolactam
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxazinane
  • Morpholine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Secondary amine
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of depression
PharmacodynamicsMinaprine is an amino-phenylpyridazine antidepressant reported to be relatively free of cardiotoxicity, drowsiness, and weight gain. Similar to other antidepressant treatments, minaprine attenuates the beta-adrenergic receptor function. Studies have also shown that minaprine improves memory consolidation and that repeated drug administration leads to potentiation of this effect. Moreover, the effects of minaprine on memory consolidation are related to its dopaminergic action.
Mechanism of actionMinaprine binds to serotonin type 2 receptors and to dopamine D1 and D2 type receptors. It also binds to the serotonin reuptake pump. Therefore, minaprine blocks the reuptake of both dopamine and serotonin. It is also, to a slight degree, cholinomimetic. Thus it may exhibit both mood-brightening and nootropic properties. It also acts as a reversible inhibitor of MAO-A (RIMA).It has also been found to inhibit acetylcholinesterase.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. Cytochrome P4502D is responsible for the 4-hydroxylation of minaprine to 4-hydroxyminaprine.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9843
Caco-2 permeable+0.5161
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7122
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5884
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6707
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.5938
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8053
CYP450 2D6 substrateSubstrate0.8918
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5794
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9106
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9071
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorInhibitor0.576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.5741
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7642
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7084
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9972
Rat acute toxicity2.4667 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.7911
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6866
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point122 °CPhysProp
water solubility2360 mg/LNot Available
logP2.03HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0701 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.15ALOGPS
logP2.19ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.25ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.28ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area50.28 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity91.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability33.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesN06AX07
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular Weight:
59681.27 Da
References
  1. Kan JP, Mouget-Goniot C, Worms P, Biziere K: Effect of the antidepressant minaprine on both forms of monoamine oxidase in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Mar 15;35(6):973-8. [PubMed:3954800 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various ergot alkaloid derivatives and psychoactive substances. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors. Beta-arrestin family members inhibit signaling via G proteins ...
Gene Name:
HTR2B
Uniprot ID:
P41595
Molecular Weight:
54297.41 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kodama K, Shibata S, Ueki S: Protective effect of minaprine against the abnormal changes of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat hippocampal slices induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 Sep;60(1):33-8. [PubMed:1361012 ]
  4. Muramatsu M, Tamaki-Ohashi J, Usuki C, Araki H, Chaki S, Aihara H: 5-HT2 antagonists and minaprine block the 5-HT-induced inhibition of dopamine release from rat brain striatal slices. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug 9;153(1):89-95. [PubMed:2975224 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including mescaline, psilocybin, 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates...
Gene Name:
HTR2A
Uniprot ID:
P28223
Molecular Weight:
52602.58 Da
References
  1. Kodama K, Shibata S, Ueki S: Protective effect of minaprine against the abnormal changes of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat hippocampal slices induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 Sep;60(1):33-8. [PubMed:1361012 ]
  2. Nabeshima T, Kawashima K, Kameyama T: Effect of minaprine on cycloheximide-induced amnesia in mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Oct 10;169(2-3):249-57. [PubMed:2530096 ]
  3. Muramatsu M, Tamaki-Ohashi J, Usuki C, Araki H, Chaki S, Aihara H: 5-HT2 antagonists and minaprine block the 5-HT-induced inhibition of dopamine release from rat brain striatal slices. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug 9;153(1):89-95. [PubMed:2975224 ]
  4. Biziere K, Worms P, Kan JP, Mandel P, Garattini S, Roncucci R: Minaprine, a new drug with antidepressant properties. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1985;11(12):831-40. [PubMed:3836113 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Serotonin receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor for 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin). Also functions as a receptor for various drugs and psychoactive substances, including ergot alkaloid derivatives, 1-2,5,-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-2-aminopropane (DOI) and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modul...
Gene Name:
HTR2C
Uniprot ID:
P28335
Molecular Weight:
51820.705 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Kodama K, Shibata S, Ueki S: Protective effect of minaprine against the abnormal changes of 2-deoxyglucose uptake by rat hippocampal slices induced by hypoxia/hypoglycemia. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1992 Sep;60(1):33-8. [PubMed:1361012 ]
  4. Muramatsu M, Tamaki-Ohashi J, Usuki C, Araki H, Chaki S, Aihara H: 5-HT2 antagonists and minaprine block the 5-HT-induced inhibition of dopamine release from rat brain striatal slices. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988 Aug 9;153(1):89-95. [PubMed:2975224 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine hydrolase activity
Specific Function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular Weight:
67795.525 Da
References
  1. Duarte CD, Barreiro EJ, Fraga CA: Privileged structures: a useful concept for the rational design of new lead drug candidates. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Nov;7(11):1108-19. [PubMed:18045214 ]
  2. Contreras JM, Rival YM, Chayer S, Bourguignon JJ, Wermuth CG: Aminopyridazines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. J Med Chem. 1999 Feb 25;42(4):730-41. [PubMed:10052979 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serotonin:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function:
Serotonin transporter whose primary function in the central nervous system involves the regulation of serotonergic signaling via transport of serotonin molecules from the synaptic cleft back into the pre-synaptic terminal for re-utilization. Plays a key role in mediating regulation of the availability of serotonin to other receptors of serotonergic systems. Terminates the action of serotonin an...
Gene Name:
SLC6A4
Uniprot ID:
P31645
Molecular Weight:
70324.165 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
References
  1. Duarte CD, Barreiro EJ, Fraga CA: Privileged structures: a useful concept for the rational design of new lead drug candidates. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Nov;7(11):1108-19. [PubMed:18045214 ]
  2. Worms P, Kan JP, Steinberg R, Terranova JP, Perio A, Biziere K: Cholinomimetic activities of minaprine. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1989 Oct;340(4):411-8. [PubMed:2586634 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
  2. Drug Interactions: Cytochrome P450 Drug Interaction Table [Link]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:12