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Identification
NameClomifene
Accession NumberDB00882  (APRD00880)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
ClomifeneNot AvailableNot Available
ClomifenoSpanishINN
ClomifenumLatinINN
ClomipheneNot AvailableUSAN
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Serophenetablet50 mgoralEMD Serono, Inc.1982-03-22Not AvailableUs 0a2ef1ad1c84951dc1392a8bbe1f3cb241c91ed59e44ad8268635315440d978c
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AndroxalNot Available
ClomidSanofi-Aventis
ClomifertNot Available
ClostilbegytEgis
OmifinSanofi
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Clomifene citrate
Thumb
  • InChI Key: PYTMYKVIJXPNBD-OQKDUQJOSA-N
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 597.21294484
  • Average Mass: 598.083
DBSALT000490
Categories
CAS number911-45-5
WeightAverage: 405.96
Monoisotopic: 405.18594223
Chemical FormulaC26H28ClNO
InChI KeyGKIRPKYJQBWNGO-OCEACIFDSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C26H28ClNO/c1-3-28(4-2)19-20-29-24-17-15-22(16-18-24)25(21-11-7-5-8-12-21)26(27)23-13-9-6-10-14-23/h5-18H,3-4,19-20H2,1-2H3/b26-25+
IUPAC Name
{2-[4-(2-chloro-1,2-diphenylethenyl)phenoxy]ethyl}diethylamine
SMILES
CCN(CC)CCOC1=CC=C(C=C1)C(=C(Cl)C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as stilbenes. These are organic compounds containing a 1,2-diphenylethylene moiety. Stilbenes (C6-C2-C6 ) are derived from the common phenylpropene (C6-C3) skeleton building block. The introduction of one or more hydroxyl groups to a phenyl ring lead to stilbenoids.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassStilbenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentStilbenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Stilbene
  • Diphenylmethane
  • Phenylpropene
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Chloroalkene
  • Haloalkene
  • Vinyl halide
  • Vinyl chloride
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed mainly in female infertility due to anovulation (e.g. due to polycystic ovary syndrome) to induce ovulation.
PharmacodynamicsClomifene (previously clomiphene) is an orally administered, non steroidal, ovulatory stimulant that acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Clomifene can lead to multiple ovulation, and hence increase the risk of conceiving twins. In comparison to purified FSH, the rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is low. There may be an increased risk of ovarian cancer and weight gain. Clomifene is capable of interacting with estrogen-receptor-containing tissues, including the hypothalamus, pituitary, ovary, endometrium, vagina, and cervix. It may compete with estrogen for estrogen-receptor-binding sites and may delay replenishment of intracellular estrogen receptors. Clomifene initiates a series of endocrine events culminating in a preovulatory gonadotropin surge and subsequent follicular rupture. The first endocrine event, in response to a course of clomifene therapy, is an increase in the release of pituitary gonadotropins. This initiates steroidogenesis and folliculogenesis resulting in growth of the ovarian follicle and an increase in the circulating level of estradiol. Following ovulation, plasma progesterone and estradiol rise and fall as they would in a normal ovulatory cycle.
Mechanism of actionClomifene has both estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties, but its precise mechanism of action has not been determined. Clomifene appears to stumulate the release of gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and leuteinizing hormone (LH), which leads to the development and maturation of ovarian follicle, ovulation, and subsequent development and function of the coprus luteum, thus resulting in pregnancy. Gonadotropin release may result from direct stimulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or from a decreased inhibitory influence of estrogens on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis by competing with the endogenous estrogens of the uterus, pituitary, or hypothalamus. Clomifene has no apparent progestational, androgenic, or antrandrogenic effects and does not appear to interfere with pituitary-adrenal or pituitary-thyroid function.
AbsorptionBased on early studies with 14 C-labeled clomifene, the drug was shown to be readily absorbed orally in humans.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic

Route of eliminationBased on early studies with 14C-labeled clomiphene citrate, the drug was shown to be readily absorbed orally in humans and excreted principally in the feces. Mean urinary excretion was approximately 8% with fecal excretion of about 42%.
Half life5-7 days
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe acute oral LD50 of clomifene is 1700 mg/kg in mice and 5750 mg/kg in rats. The toxic dose in humans is not known. Toxic effects accompanying acute overdosage of clomifene have not been reported. Signs and symptoms of overdosage as a result of the use of more than the recommended dose during clomifene therapy include nausea, vomiting, vasomotor flushes, visual blurring, spots or flashes, scotomata, ovarian enlargement with pelvic or abdominal pain.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.8723
Caco-2 permeable+0.7235
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7536
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.7799
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6476
Renal organic cation transporterInhibitor0.7021
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7972
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.6847
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7021
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.9332
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-inhibitor0.6036
CYP450 2D6 substrateInhibitor0.8315
CYP450 2C19 substrateInhibitor0.7004
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8089
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9254
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.621
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9895
Rat acute toxicity1.8805 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Strong inhibitor0.8038
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.8672
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Sanofi aventis us llc
  • Par pharmaceutical inc
  • Milex products inc
  • Emd serono inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral50 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
ClomiPHENE Citrate 30 50 mg tablet Box215.9USD box
Clomiphene citrate powder47.74USD g
Clomid 50 mg tablet17.1USD tablet
Serophene 50 mg tablet11.08USD tablet
Clomiphene citrate 50 mg tab6.86USD tablet
Clomid 50 mg Tablet6.09USD tablet
Serophene 50 mg Tablet5.52USD tablet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point116.5-118Allen, R.E., Palopoli, F.P., Schumann, E.L. and Van Carnpen, M.G. Jr.; US. Patent 2,914,563; November 24, 1959; assigned to The Wrn. S. Merrell Company.
water solubilitySlightly solubleNot Available
logP7.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000414 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.08ALOGPS
logP6.47ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.31ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area12.47 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity133.76 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.7 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Allen, R.E., Palopoli, F.P., Schumann, E.L. and Van Carnpen, M.G. Jr.; US. Patent 2,914,563; November 24, 1959; assigned to The Wrn. S. Merrell Company.

General Reference
  1. Purvin VA: Visual disturbance secondary to clomiphene citrate. Arch Ophthalmol. 1995 Apr;113(4):482-4. Pubmed
  2. Hayon T, Atlas L, Levy E, Dvilansky A, Shpilberg O, Nathan I: Multifactorial activities of nonsteroidal antiestrogens against leukemia. Cancer Detect Prev. 2003;27(5):389-96. Pubmed
  3. Fritz MA, Holmes RT, Keenan EJ: Effect of clomiphene citrate treatment on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor induction in women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991 Jul;165(1):177-85. Pubmed
  4. Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, Vanderkerchove P: Clomiphene citrate for unexplained subfertility in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD000057. Pubmed
  5. Brown J, Farquhar C, Beck J, Boothroyd C, Hughes E: Clomiphene and anti-oestrogens for ovulation induction in PCOS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD002249. Pubmed
  6. Use of clomiphene citrate in women. Fertil Steril. 2006 Nov;86(5 Suppl 1):S187-93. Pubmed
  7. Homburg R: Oral agents for ovulation induction—clomiphene citrate versus aromatase inhibitors. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2008 Mar;11(1):17-22. Pubmed
  8. Homburg R: Clomiphene citrate—end of an era? A mini-review. Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2043-51. Epub 2005 May 5. Pubmed
External Links
ATC CodesG03GB02
AHFS Codes
  • 68:16.12
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
OspemifeneMay enhance the adverse/toxic effect of Ospemifene. Ospemifene may also enhance adverse/toxic effects of other Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators may diminish the therapeutic effect of Ospemifene. Ospemifene may also diminish the therapeutic effects of other Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators.
Food Interactions
  • Take without regard to meals.

Targets

1. Estrogen receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: yes

Actions: antagonist agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estrogen receptor P03372 Details

References:

  1. Sasson S: Equilibrium binding analysis of estrogen agonists and antagonists: relation to the activation of the estrogen receptor. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1991 Jan;39(1):59-69. Pubmed
  2. Kurosawa T, Hiroi H, Momoeda M, Inoue S, Taketani Y: Clomiphene citrate elicits estrogen agonistic/antagonistic effects differentially via estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Endocr J. 2010;57(6):517-21. Epub 2010 Apr 6. Pubmed
  3. Hughes E, Brown J, Collins JJ, Vanderkerchove P: Clomiphene citrate for unexplained subfertility in women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010 Jan 20;(1):CD000057. Pubmed
  4. Brown J, Farquhar C, Beck J, Boothroyd C, Hughes E: Clomiphene and anti-oestrogens for ovulation induction in PCOS. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Oct 7;(4):CD002249. Pubmed
  5. Use of clomiphene citrate in women. Fertil Steril. 2006 Nov;86(5 Suppl 1):S187-93. Pubmed
  6. Overbeek A, Lambalk N: Pharmacogenomics of ovulation induction: facilitating decisions on who, when and how to treat. Pharmacogenomics. 2009 Sep;10(9):1377-9. Pubmed
  7. Homburg R: Oral agents for ovulation induction—clomiphene citrate versus aromatase inhibitors. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2008 Mar;11(1):17-22. Pubmed
  8. Homburg R: Clomiphene citrate—end of an era? A mini-review. Hum Reprod. 2005 Aug;20(8):2043-51. Epub 2005 May 5. Pubmed
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, mitochondrial P05108 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 19A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 19A1 P11511 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

3. Cytochrome P450 1A1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inducer

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A1 P04798 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

4. Cytochrome P450 1A2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 1A2 P05177 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

5. Cytochrome P450 2A6

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2A6 P11509 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

6. Cytochrome P450 2E1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 2E1 P05181 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

7. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Transporters

1. Multidrug resistance protein 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Multidrug resistance protein 1 P08183 Details

References:

  1. Rao US, Fine RL, Scarborough GA: Antiestrogens and steroid hormones: substrates of the human P-glycoprotein. Biochem Pharmacol. 1994 Jul 19;48(2):287-92. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 07, 2014 15:22