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Identification
NameBalsalazide
Accession NumberDB01014  (APRD00141)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Investigational
DescriptionBalsalazide is an anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. It is sold under the name "Colazal" in the US and "Colazide" in the UK. The chemical name is (E)-5-[[-4-(2-carboxyethyl) aminocarbonyl] phenyl]azo] -2-hydroxybenzoic acid. It is usually administered as the disodium salt. Balsalazide releases mesalazine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid, or 5-ASA, in the large intestine. Its advantage over that drug in the treatment of Ulcerative colitis is believed to be the delivery of the active agent past the small intestine to the large intestine, the active site of ulcerative colitis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(e)-5-((4-(((2-Carboxyethyl)amino)carbonyl)phenyl)azo)-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
(e)-5-({p-[(2-carboxyethyl)carbamoyl]phenyl}azo)-2-salicylic acid
3-(2-{4-[(2-carboxyethyl)carbamoyl]phenyl}hydrazinylidene)-6-oxocyclohexa-1,4-diene-1-carboxylic acid
5-[4-(2-Carboxy-ethylcarbamoyl)-phenylazo]-2-hydroxy-benzoic acid
Balsalazida
Balsalazido
Balsalazidum
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralOceanside Pharmaceuticals2000-07-18Not applicableUs
Colazalcapsule750 mg/1oralCardinal Health2000-07-18Not applicableUs
Colazalcapsule750 mg/1oralSalix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2000-07-18Not applicableUs
Giazotablet, film coated1.1 g/1oralSalix Pharmaceuticals, Inc.2012-02-02Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Balsalazide Disodiumtablet1.1 g/1oralPar Pharmaceutical Inc.2015-07-01Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralRoxane Laboratories, Inc2007-12-28Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralClinical Solutions Wholesale2007-12-28Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.2007-12-28Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralApotex Corp.2007-12-28Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralAv Pak2014-11-06Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralAmerican Health Packaging2014-07-31Not applicableUs
Balsalazide Disodiumcapsule750 mg/1oralPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-08-18Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
ColazideNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Balsalazide disodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT000835
Categories
UNIIP80AL8J7ZP
CAS number80573-04-2
WeightAverage: 357.3175
Monoisotopic: 357.096085227
Chemical FormulaC17H15N3O6
InChI KeyInChIKey=IPOKCKJONYRRHP-FMQUCBEESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C17H15N3O6/c21-14-6-5-12(9-13(14)17(25)26)20-19-11-3-1-10(2-4-11)16(24)18-8-7-15(22)23/h1-6,9,21H,7-8H2,(H,18,24)(H,22,23)(H,25,26)/b20-19+
IUPAC Name
5-[(E)-2-{4-[(2-carboxyethyl)carbamoyl]phenyl}diazen-1-yl]-2-hydroxybenzoic acid
SMILES
OC(=O)CCNC(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)\N=N\C1=CC=C(O)C(=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as azobenzenes. These are organonitrogen aromatic compounds that contain a central azo group, where each nitrogen atom is conjugated to a bezene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzobenzenes
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAzobenzenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Azobenzene
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Salicylic acid
  • Salicylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzamide
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azo compound
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis.
PharmacodynamicsBalsalazide is a prodrug that has little or no pharmacologic activity until it is enzymatically cleaved in the colon to produce mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid), an anti inflammatory drug indicated for the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis. Balsalazide disodium is delivered intact to the colon where it is cleaved by bacterial azoreduction to release equimolar quantities of mesalamine, which is the therapeutically active portion of the molecule, and the intert 4-aminobenzoyl-(beta)-alanine. As a result, the spectrum of pharmacologic activity of balsalazide is similar to that of mesalamine.
Mechanism of actionThe mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid is unknown, but appears exert its anti-inflammatory effects locally (in the GI tract) rather than systemically. Mucosal production of arachidonic acid metabolites, both through the cyclooxygenase pathways (catalyzes the formation of prostaglandin precursors from arachidonic acid), and through the lipoxygenase pathways (catalyzes the formation of leukotrienes and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids from arachidonic acid and its metabolites), is increased in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Therefore, it is possible that 5-aminosalicylic acid diminishes inflammation by blocking production of arachidonic acid metabolites in the colon through both the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase.
Related Articles
AbsorptionLow and variable, intact balsalazide is poorly absorbed systemically.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding≥99%
Metabolism

Cleaved in the colon via bacterial azoreduction to 5–aminosalicylic acid (5–ASA) and 4–aminobenzoyl-beta-alanine, the inactive carrier moiety.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Balsalazide
5-aminosalicylic acidDetails
Balsalazide
Not Available
4-aminobenzoyl-(beta)-alanineDetails
Route of eliminationThe products of the azoreduction of this compound, 5-ASA and 4-aminobenzoyl-ß-alanine, and their N-acetylated metabolites have been identified in plasma, urine and feces. Following single-dose administration of 2.25 g COLAZAL (three 750 mg capsules) under fasting conditions in healthy subjects, mean urinary recovery of balsalazide, 5-ASA, and N-Ac-5-ASA was 0.20%, 0.22% and 10.2%, respectively.
Half lifeHalf-life could not be determined.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityA single oral dose of balsalazide disodium at 5 grams/kg or 4-aminobenzoyl-(beta)-alanine, a metabolite of balsalazide disodium, at 1 gram/kg was non-lethal in mice and rats. No symptoms of acute toxicity were seen at these doses.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8947
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7807
Caco-2 permeable-0.6455
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6247
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.7877
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.7615
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8312
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7932
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8255
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5523
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.7689
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7883
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8726
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8153
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9537
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9196
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.5593
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.75
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.5575
Rat acute toxicity1.9986 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9148
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7772
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
Manufacturers
  • Apotex inc etobicoke site
  • Mylan pharmaceuticals inc
  • Roxane laboratories inc
  • Salix pharmaceuticals inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsuleoral750 mg/1
Tabletoral1.1 g/1
Tablet, film coatedoral1.1 g/1
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Colazal 750 mg capsule2.82USD capsule
Balsalazide disodium 750 mg capsule1.54USD capsule
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6197341 No1998-03-132018-03-13Us
US7452872 Yes2007-02-242027-02-24Us
US7625884 Yes2007-02-242027-02-24Us
US8497256 No2011-06-232031-06-23Us
US9192616 No2006-08-022026-08-02Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityFreely soluble as disodium saltNot Available
logP1.3Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0621 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.37ALOGPS
logP3.17ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.06ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.033ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area148.65 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity94.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability35.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Eckardt C. G. Wolf, Nageib Mohamed, Bhaskar Reddy Guntoori, “Safe process for the preparation of balsalazide.” U.S. Patent US07271253, issued September 18, 2007.

US07271253
General References
  1. Wiggins JB, Rajapakse R: Balsalazide: a novel 5-aminosalicylate prodrug for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Oct;5(10):1279-84. doi: 10.1517/17425250903206996. [PubMed:19743890 ]
  2. Ragunath K, Williams JG: Review article: balsalazide therapy in ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Oct;15(10):1549-54. [PubMed:11563993 ]
External Links
ATC CodesA07EC04
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelDownload (44.9 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AbciximabBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Abciximab.
AcebutololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Acebutolol.
AceclofenacAceclofenac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
AceclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Aceclofenac.
AcenocoumarolBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AcetyldigitoxinThe serum concentration of Acetyldigitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
Acetylsalicylic acidAcetylsalicylic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Acetylsalicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Acetylsalicylic acid.
AdapaleneAdapalene may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
AdapaleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Adapalene.
Alendronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Alendronic acid.
AliskirenBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Aliskiren.
AlprenololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Alprenolol.
AlprostadilThe therapeutic efficacy of Alprostadil can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
AmikacinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Amikacin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
AmilorideBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Amiloride.
AncrodBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ancrod.
AntipyrineAntipyrine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
AntipyrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Antipyrine.
Antithrombin III humanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Antithrombin III human.
ApixabanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Apixaban.
ApremilastApremilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ApremilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Apremilast.
ArdeparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ardeparin.
ArgatrobanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Argatroban.
ArotinololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Arotinolol.
AtenololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Atenolol.
AzapropazoneAzapropazone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
AzapropazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Azapropazone.
AzathioprineThe metabolism of Azathioprine can be decreased when combined with Balsalazide.
AzelastineAzelastine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Azelastine.
Azilsartan medoxomilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azilsartan medoxomil is combined with Balsalazide.
BecaplerminBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Becaplermin.
BefunololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Befunolol.
BemiparinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Bemiparin.
BenazeprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benazepril is combined with Balsalazide.
BendroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Bendroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
BenoxaprofenBenoxaprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
BenoxaprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Benoxaprofen.
BetaxololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Betaxolol.
BevantololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bevantolol.
BimatoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Bimatoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
BisoprololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bisoprolol.
BivalirudinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Bivalirudin.
BopindololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bopindolol.
BromfenacBromfenac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
BromfenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Bromfenac.
BufuralolBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bufuralol.
BumetanideBalsalazide may decrease the diuretic activities of Bumetanide.
BupranololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Bupranolol.
CandesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candesartan is combined with Balsalazide.
CandoxatrilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Candoxatril is combined with Balsalazide.
CaptoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Captopril is combined with Balsalazide.
Carboprost TromethamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Carboprost Tromethamine can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
CarprofenCarprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
CarprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Carprofen.
CarteololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carteolol.
CarvedilolBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Carvedilol.
CastanospermineCastanospermine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
CastanospermineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Castanospermine.
CelecoxibCelecoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
CelecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Celecoxib.
CeliprololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Celiprolol.
CertoparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Certoparin.
ChloroquineChloroquine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ChloroquineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
ChlorthalidoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Chlorthalidone can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
CholestyramineCholestyramine can cause a decrease in the absorption of Balsalazide resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CilazaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cilazapril is combined with Balsalazide.
Citric AcidBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Citric Acid.
ClodronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Clodronate.
ClonixinClonixin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ClonixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Clonixin.
CloprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Cloprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
ColesevelamColesevelam can cause a decrease in the absorption of Balsalazide resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
ColestipolColestipol can cause a decrease in the absorption of Balsalazide resulting in a reduced serum concentration and potentially a decrease in efficacy.
CyclosporineBalsalazide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Cyclosporine.
D-LimoneneD-Limonene may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
D-LimoneneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with D-Limonene.
Dabigatran etexilateBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dabigatran etexilate.
DalteparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dalteparin.
DanaparoidBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Danaparoid.
DaunorubicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Daunorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DeferasiroxThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Deferasirox.
DesirudinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Desirudin.
DeslanosideThe serum concentration of Deslanoside can be decreased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
DesmopressinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Desmopressin.
DexketoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexketoprofen is combined with Balsalazide.
DextranBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran.
Dextran 40Balsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 40.
Dextran 70Balsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 70.
Dextran 75Balsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dextran 75.
DiclofenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diclofenac is combined with Balsalazide.
DicoumarolBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
DiflunisalDiflunisal may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
DiflunisalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Diflunisal.
DigitoxinThe serum concentration of Digitoxin can be decreased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
DigoxinThe serum concentration of Digoxin can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
DihydrostreptomycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Dihydrostreptomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DinoprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Dinoprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
DoxorubicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Doxorubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
DrospirenoneBalsalazide may increase the hyperkalemic activities of Drospirenone.
DroxicamDroxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
DroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Droxicam.
Edetic AcidBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edetic Acid.
EdoxabanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Edoxaban.
EnalaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalapril is combined with Balsalazide.
EnalaprilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enalaprilat is combined with Balsalazide.
EnoxaparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Enoxaparin.
EpirizoleEpirizole may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
EpirizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Epirizole.
EpirubicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Epirubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
EplerenoneBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Eplerenone.
EpoprostenolThe therapeutic efficacy of Epoprostenol can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
EprosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eprosartan is combined with Balsalazide.
EsmololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Esmolol.
Etacrynic acidBalsalazide may decrease the diuretic activities of Etacrynic acid.
EtanerceptEtanercept may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
EtanerceptThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Etanercept.
Ethyl biscoumacetateBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ethyl biscoumacetate.
Etidronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Etidronic acid.
EtodolacEtodolac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
EtodolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Etodolac.
EtofenamateEtofenamate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
EtofenamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Etofenamate.
EtoricoxibEtoricoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
EtoricoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Etoricoxib.
Evening primrose oilEvening primrose oil may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Evening primrose oilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Evening primrose oil.
exisulindexisulind may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
exisulindThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with exisulind.
FenbufenFenbufen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
FenbufenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Fenbufen.
FenoprofenFenoprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
FenoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Fenoprofen.
FloctafenineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Floctafenine is combined with Balsalazide.
FlunixinFlunixin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
FlunixinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Flunixin.
FlurbiprofenFlurbiprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
FlurbiprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Flurbiprofen.
Folic AcidThe therapeutic efficacy of Folic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
Fondaparinux sodiumBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Fondaparinux sodium.
ForasartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Forasartan is combined with Balsalazide.
FosinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fosinopril is combined with Balsalazide.
FramycetinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Framycetin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
FurosemideBalsalazide may decrease the diuretic activities of Furosemide.
GemeprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Gemeprost can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
GentamicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Gentamicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Haloperidol.
HeparinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Heparin.
HirulogBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Hirulog.
HMPL-004HMPL-004 may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
HMPL-004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with HMPL-004.
HydralazineBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Hydralazine.
HydrochlorothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydrochlorothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
HydroflumethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Hydroflumethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
Hygromycin BBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Hygromycin B which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IbandronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Ibandronate.
IbuprofenIbuprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IbuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Ibuprofen.
IbuproxamIbuproxam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IbuproxamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Ibuproxam.
IcatibantIcatibant may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IcatibantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Icatibant.
IdarubicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Idarubicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
IloprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Iloprost can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
IndapamideThe therapeutic efficacy of Indapamide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
IndenololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Indenolol.
IndomethacinIndomethacin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IndomethacinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Indomethacin.
IndoprofenIndoprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IndoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Indoprofen.
IrbesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Irbesartan is combined with Balsalazide.
IsoxicamIsoxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
IsoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Isoxicam.
KanamycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Kanamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
KebuzoneKebuzone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
KebuzoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Kebuzone.
KetoprofenKetoprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
KetoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Ketoprofen.
KetorolacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketorolac is combined with Balsalazide.
LabetalolBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Labetalol.
LeflunomideLeflunomide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
LeflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Leflunomide.
LepirudinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Lepirudin.
LevobunololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Levobunolol.
LisinoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lisinopril is combined with Balsalazide.
LithiumThe serum concentration of Lithium can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
LornoxicamLornoxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
LornoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Lornoxicam.
LosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Losartan is combined with Balsalazide.
LoxoprofenLoxoprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
LoxoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Loxoprofen.
LubiprostoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Lubiprostone can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
LumiracoxibLumiracoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
LumiracoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Lumiracoxib.
Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Magnesium salicylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Magnesium salicylate.
MasoprocolMasoprocol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
MasoprocolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Masoprocol.
Meclofenamic acidMeclofenamic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Meclofenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Meclofenamic acid.
Mefenamic acidMefenamic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Mefenamic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Mefenamic acid.
MeloxicamMeloxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
MeloxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Meloxicam.
MercaptopurineThe metabolism of Mercaptopurine can be decreased when combined with Balsalazide.
MesalazineMesalazine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
MetamizoleMetamizole may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Metamizole.
MethotrexateThe serum concentration of Methotrexate can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
MethyclothiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Methyclothiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
MetipranololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metipranolol.
MetolazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Metolazone can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
MetoprololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Metoprolol.
MetrizamideBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Metrizamide which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
MisoprostolThe therapeutic efficacy of Misoprostol can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
MoexiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Moexipril is combined with Balsalazide.
MorniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morniflumate is combined with Balsalazide.
Mycophenolate mofetilMycophenolate mofetil may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Mycophenolate mofetilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Mycophenolate mofetil.
Mycophenolic acidMycophenolic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Mycophenolic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Mycophenolic acid.
NabumetoneNabumetone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NabumetoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Nabumetone.
NadololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Nadolol.
NadroparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Nadroparin.
NaftifineNaftifine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NaftifineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Naftifine.
NaproxenNaproxen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NaproxenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Naproxen.
NCX 4016NCX 4016 may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NCX 4016The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with NCX 4016.
NeomycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Neomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
NepafenacNepafenac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NepafenacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Nepafenac.
NetilmicinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Netilmicin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Niflumic AcidNiflumic Acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Niflumic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Niflumic Acid.
NimesulideNimesulide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
NimesulideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Nimesulide.
OlmesartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olmesartan is combined with Balsalazide.
OlopatadineOlopatadine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Olopatadine.
OlsalazineBalsalazide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Olsalazine.
Omacetaxine mepesuccinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Omacetaxine mepesuccinate.
OmapatrilatThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Omapatrilat is combined with Balsalazide.
OrgoteinOrgotein may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
OrgoteinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Orgotein.
OtamixabanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Otamixaban.
OuabainThe serum concentration of Ouabain can be decreased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
OxaprozinOxaprozin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
OxaprozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Oxaprozin.
OxprenololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Oxprenolol.
OxyphenbutazoneOxyphenbutazone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
OxyphenbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Oxyphenbutazone.
PamidronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Pamidronate.
ParecoxibParecoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ParecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Parecoxib.
ParnaparinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Parnaparin.
ParomomycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Paromomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PenbutololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Penbutolol.
Pentosan PolysulfateBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Pentosan Polysulfate.
PerindoprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perindopril is combined with Balsalazide.
PhenindioneBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenindione.
PhenprocoumonBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Phenprocoumon.
PhenylbutazonePhenylbutazone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PhenylbutazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Phenylbutazone.
PimecrolimusPimecrolimus may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PimecrolimusThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Pimecrolimus.
PindololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Pindolol.
PiretanideBalsalazide may decrease the diuretic activities of Piretanide.
PirfenidonePirfenidone may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PirfenidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Pirfenidone.
PiroxicamPiroxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PiroxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Piroxicam.
PlicamycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Plicamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
PolythiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Polythiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
PractololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Practolol.
PralatrexateThe serum concentration of Pralatrexate can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Balsalazide can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
PropacetamolPropacetamol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PropacetamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Propacetamol.
PropranololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Propranolol.
Prostaglandin D2The therapeutic efficacy of Prostaglandin D2 can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
Protein CBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protein C.
ProtocatechualdehydeBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Protocatechualdehyde.
PTC299PTC299 may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
PTC299The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with PTC299.
PuromycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Puromycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
QuinaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quinapril is combined with Balsalazide.
QuinethazoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Quinethazone can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
RamiprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramipril is combined with Balsalazide.
RescinnamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rescinnamine is combined with Balsalazide.
ResveratrolResveratrol may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ResveratrolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Resveratrol.
ReviparinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Reviparin.
RibostamycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Ribostamycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
RisedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Risedronate.
RivaroxabanBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Rivaroxaban.
RofecoxibRofecoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
RofecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Rofecoxib.
SalicylamideSalicylamide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SalicylamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Salicylamide.
Salicylic acidSalicylic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Salicylic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Salicylic acid.
SalsalateSalsalate may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SalsalateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Salsalate.
SaprisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saprisartan is combined with Balsalazide.
SaralasinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Saralasin is combined with Balsalazide.
SeratrodastSeratrodast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SeratrodastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Seratrodast.
SotalolBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Sotalol.
SpectinomycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Spectinomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SpiraprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Spirapril is combined with Balsalazide.
SpironolactoneBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Spironolactone.
SRT501SRT501 may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SRT501The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with SRT501.
StreptomycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Streptomycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
StreptozocinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Streptozocin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
SulfasalazineSulfasalazine may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SulindacSulindac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SulindacThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Sulindac.
SulodexideBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Sulodexide.
SuprofenSuprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
SuprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Suprofen.
TacrolimusBalsalazide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tacrolimus.
TalniflumateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Talniflumate is combined with Balsalazide.
TasosartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tasosartan is combined with Balsalazide.
Technetium Tc-99m MedronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Technetium Tc-99m Medronate.
TelmisartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Telmisartan is combined with Balsalazide.
TemocaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temocapril is combined with Balsalazide.
TenofovirThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tenofovir.
TenoxicamTenoxicam may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
TenoxicamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tenoxicam.
TepoxalinTepoxalin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
TepoxalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tepoxalin.
TeriflunomideTeriflunomide may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
TeriflunomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Teriflunomide.
Tiaprofenic acidTiaprofenic acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Tiaprofenic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tiaprofenic acid.
TiludronateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tiludronate.
TimololBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Timolol.
TinzaparinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tinzaparin.
TioguanineThe metabolism of Tioguanine can be decreased when combined with Balsalazide.
TobramycinBalsalazide may decrease the excretion rate of Tobramycin which could result in a lower serum level and potentially a reduction in efficacy.
Tolfenamic AcidTolfenamic Acid may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Tolfenamic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tolfenamic Acid.
TolmetinTolmetin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
TolmetinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tolmetin.
TorasemideBalsalazide may decrease the diuretic activities of Torasemide.
TrandolaprilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trandolapril is combined with Balsalazide.
TranilastTranilast may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
TranilastThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Tranilast.
TravoprostThe therapeutic efficacy of Travoprost can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
TreprostinilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Treprostinil is combined with Balsalazide.
TriamtereneBalsalazide may decrease the antihypertensive activities of Triamterene.
TrichlormethiazideThe therapeutic efficacy of Trichlormethiazide can be decreased when used in combination with Balsalazide.
Trisalicylate-cholineTrisalicylate-choline may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
Trisalicylate-cholineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Trisalicylate-choline.
ValdecoxibValdecoxib may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ValdecoxibThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Valdecoxib.
ValsartanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valsartan is combined with Balsalazide.
VancomycinThe serum concentration of Vancomycin can be increased when it is combined with Balsalazide.
WarfarinBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
XimelagatranBalsalazide may increase the anticoagulant activities of Ximelagatran.
ZaltoprofenZaltoprofen may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ZaltoprofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Zaltoprofen.
ZileutonZileuton may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ZileutonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Zileuton.
Zoledronic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Zoledronic acid.
ZomepiracZomepirac may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Balsalazide.
ZomepiracThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Balsalazide is combined with Zomepirac.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE) and modulates the transcription of its target genes, such as acyl-CoA oxidase. It therefore controls the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fatty acids. Key regulator of adipocyte differentiation...
Gene Name:
PPARG
Uniprot ID:
P37231
Molecular Weight:
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Tursi A: Balsalazide in treating colonic diseases. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Dec;5(12):1555-63. doi: 10.1517/17425250903228842. [PubMed:19708827 ]
  2. Iacucci M, de Silva S, Ghosh S: Mesalazine in inflammatory bowel disease: a trendy topic once again? Can J Gastroenterol. 2010 Feb;24(2):127-33. [PubMed:20151072 ]
  3. Desreumaux P, Ghosh S: Review article: mode of action and delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid - new evidence. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;24 Suppl 1:2-9. [PubMed:16939423 ]
  4. Linard C, Gremy O, Benderitter M: Reduction of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma expression by gamma-irradiation as a mechanism contributing to inflammatory response in rat colon: modulation by the 5-aminosalicylic acid agonist. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Mar;324(3):911-20. Epub 2007 Dec 12. [PubMed:18077625 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Constitutively expressed in some tissues in physiological conditions, such as the endothelium, kidney and brain, and in pathological conditions, such as in cancer. PTGS2 is responsible for production of inflammatory prostaglandins. Up-regulation of PTGS2 is also associated with increased cell adhesion, p...
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular Weight:
68995.625 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wiggins JB, Rajapakse R: Balsalazide: a novel 5-aminosalicylate prodrug for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Oct;5(10):1279-84. doi: 10.1517/17425250903206996. [PubMed:19743890 ]
  4. Stolfi C, Fina D, Caruso R, Caprioli F, Sarra M, Fantini MC, Rizzo A, Pallone F, Monteleone G: Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent and -independent inhibition of proliferation of colon cancer cells by 5-aminosalicylic acid. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 1;75(3):668-76. Epub 2007 Sep 29. [PubMed:17981262 ]
  5. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [PubMed:12950415 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity
Specific Function:
Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive production of prostanoids in particular in the stomach and platelets. In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. In platelets, it is involved in the gener...
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular Weight:
68685.82 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wiggins JB, Rajapakse R: Balsalazide: a novel 5-aminosalicylate prodrug for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Oct;5(10):1279-84. doi: 10.1517/17425250903206996. [PubMed:19743890 ]
  4. Allgayer H: Review article: mechanisms of action of mesalazine in preventing colorectal carcinoma in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2003 Sep;18 Suppl 2:10-4. [PubMed:12950415 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Iron ion binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name:
ALOX5
Uniprot ID:
P09917
Molecular Weight:
77982.595 Da
References
  1. Wiggins JB, Rajapakse R: Balsalazide: a novel 5-aminosalicylate prodrug for the treatment of active ulcerative colitis. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2009 Oct;5(10):1279-84. doi: 10.1517/17425250903206996. [PubMed:19743890 ]
  2. Rask-Madsen J, Bukhave K, Laursen LS, Lauritsen K: 5-Lipoxygenase inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Agents Actions. 1992;Spec No:C37-46. [PubMed:1359745 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus sp. (strain OY1-2)
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Azobenzene reductase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the reductive cleavage of azo bond in aromatic azo compounds to the corresponding amines. Requires NADPH as an electron donor for its activity. Compounds with paired naphthalene groups coupled with the azo group are good substrates, with the following preference order: Rocceline > Sumifix Black B > Solar Orange.
Gene Name:
azr
Uniprot ID:
Q9FAW5
Molecular Weight:
19293.155 Da
References
  1. Ragunath K, Williams JG: Review article: balsalazide therapy in ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001 Oct;15(10):1549-54. [PubMed:11563993 ]
  2. Ryan A, Laurieri N, Westwood I, Wang CJ, Lowe E, Sim E: A novel mechanism for azoreduction. J Mol Biol. 2010 Jul 2;400(1):24-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jmb.2010.04.023. Epub 2010 Apr 24. [PubMed:20417637 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 26, 2016 03:28