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Identification
NamePodofilox
Accession NumberDB01179  (APRD01189, DB08417)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

A lignan (lignans) found in podophyllin resin from the roots of podophyllum plants. It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-Podophyllotoxin
9-HYDROXY-5-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-5,8,8a,9-tetrahydrofuro[3',4':6,7]naphtho[2,3-D][1,3]dioxol-6(5ah)-one
Condylox
Podofilox
Podophyllinic acid lactone
Podophyllotoxin
Podophyllotoxin 7
PPT
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Condylinesolution0.5 %topicalSanofi Aventis Canada Inc1992-12-31Not applicableCanada
Condyloxsolution5 mg/mLtopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1990-12-132016-04-05Us
Condyloxgel5 mg/gtopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1997-03-132016-04-05Us
Podofiloxsolution5 mg/mLtopicalActavis Pharma, Inc.1990-12-132016-04-23Us
Podofiloxsolution5 mg/mLtopicalPhysicians Total Care, Inc.2010-11-122016-04-05Us
Wartecliquid5 mgtopicalStiefel Laboratories (Ireland) Limited1995-12-312015-04-30Canada
Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Podofiloxsolution5 mg/mLtopicalPaddock Laboratories, LLC2002-01-292016-04-23Us
Podofiloxsolution5 mg/mLtopicalOceanside Pharmaceuticals2010-07-212016-04-01Us
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
PodophyllotoxinNot Available
Podophyllotoxin 7Not Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNIIL36H50F353
CAS number518-28-5
WeightAverage: 414.4053
Monoisotopic: 414.13146768
Chemical FormulaC22H22O8
InChI KeyInChIKey=YJGVMLPVUAXIQN-KJYZGMDISA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C22H22O8/c1-25-16-4-10(5-17(26-2)21(16)27-3)18-11-6-14-15(30-9-29-14)7-12(11)20(23)13-8-28-22(24)19(13)18/h4-7,13,18-20,23H,8-9H2,1-3H3/t13-,18-,19-,20-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(10S,11R,15R,16R)-16-hydroxy-10-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-4,6,13-trioxatetracyclo[7.7.0.0³,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]hexadeca-1,3(7),8-trien-12-one
SMILES
[H][C@]12COC(=O)[C@]1([H])[C@@H](C1=CC(OC)=C(OC)C(OC)=C1)C1=CC3=C(OCO3)C=C1[C@@H]2O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as podophyllotoxins. These are tetralin lignans in which the benzene moiety of the tetralin skeleton is fused to a 1,3-dioxolane and the cyclohexane is fused to a butyrolactone (pyrrolidin-2-one).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLignans, neolignans and related compounds
ClassLignan lactones
Sub ClassPodophyllotoxins
Direct ParentPodophyllotoxins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Podophyllotoxin
  • 1-aryltetralin lignan
  • Tetralin
  • Benzodioxole
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Phenol ether
  • Anisole
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Lactone
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Acetal
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor treatment of external genital warts (Condyloma acuminatum).
PharmacodynamicsPodofilox, also called podophyllotoxin, is a purer and more stable form of podophyllin in which only the biologically active portion of the compound is present. Podofilox is used to remove certain types of warts on the outside skin of the genital areas.
Mechanism of actionThe exact mechanism of action is not well understood. It does appear, however, that it and its derivatives may bind and inhibit topoisomerase II during the late S and early G2 stage. The drug may bind and stabilize the temporary break caused by the enzyme. This disrupts the reparation of the break through which the double-stranded DNA passes, and consequently stops DNA unwinding and replication
Related Articles
AbsorptionTopical application of 0.05 mL of 0.5% podofilox solution to external genitalia did not result in detectable serum levels. Applications of 0.1 to 1.5 mL resulted in peak serum levels of 1 to 17 ng/mL one to two hours after application.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life1.0 to 4.5 hours.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Condyloma acuminatum
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9939
Blood Brain Barrier-0.5388
Caco-2 permeable+0.849
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5382
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5455
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6709
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8403
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8241
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8911
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9046
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorInhibitor0.8948
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9231
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorInhibitor0.8994
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorInhibitor0.7959
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityHigh CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7468
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9133
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.91
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8596
Rat acute toxicity3.0013 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9871
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9081
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Solutiontopical0.5 %
Geltopical5 mg/g
Solutiontopical5 mg/mL
Liquidtopical5 mg
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Podofilox 0.5% Solution 3.5ml Bottle105.99USD bottle
Condylox 0.5% gel97.73USD g
Wartec 0.5 % Solution14.26USD solution
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point228 °CPhysProp
water solubility100 mg/L (at 25 °C)MERCK INDEX (1996)
logP1.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.114 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.37ALOGPS
logP1.62ChemAxon
logS-3.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.02ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.68 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity103.91 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability42 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesD06BB04
AHFS Codes
  • 84:92.00
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (55.9 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNo interactions found.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin binding
Specific Function:
Control of topological states of DNA by transient breakage and subsequent rejoining of DNA strands. Topoisomerase II makes double-strand breaks. Essential during mitosis and meiosis for proper segregation of daughter chromosomes. May play a role in regulating the period length of ARNTL/BMAL1 transcriptional oscillation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
TOP2A
Uniprot ID:
P11388
Molecular Weight:
174383.88 Da
References
  1. Iida A, Kano M, Kubota Y, Koga K, Tomioka K: Podophyllotoxin aza-analogue, a novel DNA topoisomerase II inhibitor. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Apr;48(4):486-9. [PubMed:10783066 ]
  2. Zhang YL, Shen YC, Wang ZQ, Chen HX, Guo X, Cheng YC, Lee KH: Antitumor agents, 130, Novel 4 beta-arylamino derivatives of 3',4'-didemethoxy-3',4'-dioxo-4-deoxypodophyllotoxin as potent inhibitors of human DNA topoisomerase II. J Nat Prod. 1992 Aug;55(8):1100-11. [PubMed:1331331 ]
  3. Terada T, Fujimoto K, Nomura M, Yamashita J, Kobunai T, Takeda S, Wierzba K, Yamada Y, Yamaguchi H: Antitumor agents. I. DNA topoisomerase II inhibitory activity and the structural relationship of podophyllotoxin derivatives as antitumor agents. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Oct;40(10):2720-7. [PubMed:1334447 ]
  4. Kamal A, Gayatri NL, Reddy DR, Mohan Reddy PS, Arifuddin M, Dastidar SG, Kondapi AK, Rajkumar M: Synthesis and biological evaluation of new 4beta-anilino- and 4beta-imido-substituted podophyllotoxin congeners. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Nov 15;13(22):6218-25. Epub 2005 Aug 2. [PubMed:16061385 ]
  5. Ruckdeschel JC: Etoposide in the management of non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer. 1991 Jan 1;67(1 Suppl):250-3. [PubMed:1845848 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Structural constituent of cytoskeleton
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBA4A
Uniprot ID:
P68366
Molecular Weight:
49923.995 Da
References
  1. Labruere R, Gautier B, Testud M, Seguin J, Lenoir C, Desbene-Finck S, Helissey P, Garbay C, Chabot GG, Vidal M, Giorgi-Renault S: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of the first podophyllotoxin analogues as potential vascular-disrupting agents. ChemMedChem. 2010 Dec 3;5(12):2016-25. doi: 10.1002/cmdc.201000305. [PubMed:20979080 ]
  2. Li CM, Lu Y, Ahn S, Narayanan R, Miller DD, Dalton JT: Competitive mass spectrometry binding assay for characterization of three binding sites of tubulin. J Mass Spectrom. 2010 Oct;45(10):1160-6. doi: 10.1002/jms.1804. [PubMed:20814887 ]
  3. Kim ND, Park ES, Kim YH, Moon SK, Lee SS, Ahn SK, Yu DY, No KT, Kim KH: Structure-based virtual screening of novel tubulin inhibitors and their characterization as anti-mitotic agents. Bioorg Med Chem. 2010 Oct 1;18(19):7092-100. doi: 10.1016/j.bmc.2010.07.072. Epub 2010 Aug 6. [PubMed:20810285 ]
  4. Screpanti E, Santaguida S, Nguyen T, Silvestri R, Gussio R, Musacchio A, Hamel E, De Wulf P: A screen for kinetochore-microtubule interaction inhibitors identifies novel antitubulin compounds. PLoS One. 2010 Jul 15;5(7):e11603. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0011603. [PubMed:20657644 ]
  5. Alam MA, Naik PK: Applying linear interaction energy method for binding affinity calculations of podophyllotoxin analogues with tubulin using continuum solvent model and prediction of cytotoxic activity. J Mol Graph Model. 2009 Jun-Jul;27(8):930-43. doi: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2009.02.003. Epub 2009 Feb 20. [PubMed:19286405 ]
  6. Clark PI: Clinical pharmacology and schedule dependency of the podophyllotoxin derivatives. Semin Oncol. 1992 Apr;19(2 Suppl 6):20-7. [PubMed:1411635 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function:
Tubulin is the major constituent of microtubules. It binds two moles of GTP, one at an exchangeable site on the beta chain and one at a non-exchangeable site on the alpha chain.
Gene Name:
TUBB
Uniprot ID:
P07437
Molecular Weight:
49670.515 Da
References
  1. Wolff J, Knipling L, Cahnmann HJ, Palumbo G: Direct photoaffinity labeling of tubulin with colchicine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 1;88(7):2820-4. [PubMed:2011590 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular Weight:
55930.545 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on December 02, 2014 18:08