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Identification
NameLevodopa
Accession NumberDB01235  (APRD00309, EXPT01107)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
DescriptionThe naturally occurring form of dihydroxyphenylalanine and the immediate precursor of dopamine. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to dopamine. It is used for the treatment of parkinsonian disorders and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system. [PubChem]
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(-)-3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
(-)-Dopa
(−)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
(−)-dopa
3-Hydroxy-L-tyrosine
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
3,4-DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine
beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
Dopar
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine
L-beta-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
L-DOPA
Levodopa
Levodopum
β-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)alanine
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Carbidopa and Levodopatablet25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-02-27Not applicableUs
Carbidopa and Levodopatablet25 mg/1oralREMEDYREPACK INC.2013-03-25Not applicableUs
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
BidopalGlaxoSmithKline
DoparNot Available
DoparlKyowa Hakko Kirin
DopasolDaiichi Sankyo
DopastonOhara Yakuhin
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
Apo-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgApotex Inc
Apo-levocarb - Tab 25mg/250mgApotex Inc
Apo-levocarb CRApotex Inc
Apo-levocarb-tab 25mg/100mgApotex Inc
Carbidopa and LevodopaTeva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc
Carbidopa, Levodopa and EntacaponeMylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Carbidopa, Levodopa, and EntacaponeSandoz Inc
Dom-levo-carbidopaDominion Pharmacal
DuodopaAbbvie Corporation
DuopaAbb Vie Inc.
Nu-levocarb - Tab 10mg/100mgNu Pharm Inc
Nu-levocarb - Tab 25 Mg/100 mgNu Pharm Inc
Nu-levocarb - Tablets 25 Mg/250 mgNu Pharm Inc
ParcopaJazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
PMS-levocarb CRPharmascience Inc
Pro-lecarb-100/10 - TabPro Doc Limitee
Pro-lecarb-100/25 - TabPro Doc Limitee
Pro-levocarb - 100/25Pro Doc Limitee
Ratio-levodopa/carbidopaRatiopharm Inc Division Of Teva Canada Limited
RytaryImpax Specialty Pharma
SinemetMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Sinemet 100/10Merck Canada Inc
Sinemet 100/25Merck Canada Inc
Sinemet 250/25Merck Canada Inc
Sinemet CRMerck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
Sinemet CR 100/25Merck Canada Inc
Sinemet CR 200/50Merck Canada Inc
StalevoNovartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation
Teva-levocarbidopaTeva Canada Limited
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII46627O600J
CAS number59-92-7
WeightAverage: 197.1879
Monoisotopic: 197.068807845
Chemical FormulaC9H11NO4
InChI KeyInChIKey=WTDRDQBEARUVNC-LURJTMIESA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C9H11NO4/c10-6(9(13)14)3-5-1-2-7(11)8(12)4-5/h1-2,4,6,11-12H,3,10H2,(H,13,14)/t6-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
SMILES
N[C@@H](CC1=CC(O)=C(O)C=C1)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as catecholamines and derivatives. These are compounds containing 4-(2-Aminoethyl)pyrocatechol [4-(2-aminoethyl)benzene-1,2-diol] or a derivative thereof formed by substitution.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenols and derivatives
Direct ParentCatecholamines and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Catecholamine
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Amino fatty acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Paralysis Agitans), postencephalitic parkinsonism, symptomatic parkinsonism which may follow injury to the nervous system by carbon monoxide intoxication, and manganese intoxication.
PharmacodynamicsLevodopa (L-dopa) is used to replace dopamine lost in Parkinson's disease because dopamine itself cannot cross the blood-brain barrier where its precursor can. However, L-DOPA is converted to dopamine in the periphery as well as in the CNS, so it is administered with a peripheral DDC (dopamine decarboxylase) inhibitor such as carbidopa, without which 90% is metabolised in the gut wall, and with a COMT inhibitor if possible; this prevents about a 5% loss. The form given therapeutically is therefore a prodrug which avoids decarboxylation in the stomach and periphery, can cross the blood-brain barrier, and once in the brain is converted to the neurotransmitter dopamine by the enzyme aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase.
Mechanism of actionStriatal dopamine levels in symptomatic Parkinson's disease are decreased by 60 to 80%, striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission may be enhanced by exogenous supplementation of dopamine through administration of dopamine's precursor, levodopa. A small percentage of each levodopa dose crosses the blood-brain barrier and is decarboxylated to dopamine. This newly formed dopamine then is available to stimulate dopaminergic receptors, thus compensating for the depleted supply of endogenous dopamine.
Related Articles
AbsorptionLevodopa is rapidly absorbed from the proximal small intestine by the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) transport carrier system.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingHigh
Metabolism

95% of an administered oral dose of levodopa is pre-systemically decarboxylated to dopamine by the L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD) enzyme in the stomach, lumen of the intestine, kidney, and liver. Levodopa also may be methoxylated by the hepatic catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme system to 3-O-methyldopa (3-OMD), which cannot be converted to central dopamine.

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Levodopa
Not Available
DOPA sulfateDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life50 to 90 minutes
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityOral, mouse: LD50 = 2363 mg/kg; Oral, rabbit: LD50 = 609 mg/kg; Oral, rat: LD50 = 1780 mg/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00170
Catecholamine BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00012
Tyrosinemia Type IDiseaseSMP00218
Disulfiram Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00429
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00497
Tyrosine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00006
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornDiseaseSMP00494
AlkaptonuriaDiseaseSMP00169
HawkinsinuriaDiseaseSMP00190
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00498
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)DiseaseSMP00533
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8715
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9264
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5734
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.989
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.988
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9211
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8236
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8514
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7117
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9467
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9765
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9576
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9504
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.914
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9713
Ames testAMES toxic0.9106
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.941
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7332
Rat acute toxicity2.0131 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9872
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9524
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Tabletoral25 mg/1
Tablet, orally disintegratingoral
Gelintraintestinal (upper)
Suspensionenteral
Capsuleoral
Capsule, extended releaseoral
Tabletoral
Tablet, extended releaseoral
Tablet (extended-release)oral
Tablet, film coatedoral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-dopa powder15.19USD g
Levodopa powder7.31USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6500867 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US6797732 No2000-06-292020-06-29Us
US7094427 No2002-05-292022-05-29Us
US8377474 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8454998 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US8557283 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9089607 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
US9089608 No2008-12-262028-12-26Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point284-285U.S. Patent 3,253,023.
water solubility5000 mg/L (at 20 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-2.39SANGSTER (1993)
logS-1.6ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.32 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-1.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.06ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.78 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity49.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.91 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.19 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0790000000-b2f7f063a2c8197c7eddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-014i-0690000000-622497b3104c6082a45dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (4 TMS)splash10-00xr-9350000000-b0cc4636931d2de64d81View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-014i-0590000000-4474e81e4226bb4e1d4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0uea-0900000000-8eb71aa0cc8622f097a2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a59-2900000000-bf63b9b719959b82b543View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-056r-9300000000-a78b0b31dd33fe8479a7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0f6t-0911000000-15affa616923dfb9c45aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-0900000000-22d8267801d0eb0b73c2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2c310034a1a871502b4cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udi-0900000000-5e6020c952f741531fcbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0007-0970100000-49594dae82ce73e734e6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-2183a68f58b951f3f1c7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-0030db588fbd92c5b761View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-0090000000-544615463a975baae9e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0729111000-0a20b01f58fff8ad7ef0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-c8095a31ed4b3dbbc646View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-03di-0190000000-41515cba3a6929721859View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-8074c509ef5bae1129fcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0502193020-497bfad7ba247159ca00View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-0b0d4b6dcb7f1fa24e1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-004i-0029800000-05f40324c8c1fec7963aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0006-0000090000-c0cd80185ce47b30e5feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-df116b84981cf4a1371aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) 30V, Positivesplash10-0f6t-0900000000-1c1c39a8880442ea18dfView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Vincenzo Cannata, Giancarlo Tamerlani, Mauro Morotti, “Process for the synthesis of the levodopa.” U.S. Patent US4962223, issued December, 1986.

US4962223
General References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428 ]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012 ]
External Links
ATC CodesN04BA03N04BA02N04BA01
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (37.5 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when 7-Nitroindazole is combined with Levodopa.
7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with 7,8-DICHLORO-1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDROISOQUINOLINE.
AbirateroneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Abiraterone.
AcebutololAcebutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Acepromazine is combined with Levodopa.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aceprometazine is combined with Levodopa.
AcetazolamideAcetazolamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when adipiplon is combined with Levodopa.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Agomelatine is combined with Levodopa.
AldesleukinAldesleukin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfaxalone is combined with Levodopa.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Levodopa.
AliskirenAliskiren may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alphacetylmethadol is combined with Levodopa.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Levodopa.
AmilorideAmiloride may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AmiodaroneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Amiodarone.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amisulpride is combined with Levodopa.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amitriptyline is combined with Levodopa.
AmlodipineAmlodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amperozide is combined with Levodopa.
Amyl NitriteAmyl Nitrite may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ApraclonidineApraclonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Levodopa.
ArtemetherThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Artemether.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Articaine is combined with Levodopa.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Asenapine is combined with Levodopa.
AtenololAtenolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
AtomoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Atomoxetine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azaperone is combined with Levodopa.
AzelastineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Levodopa.
Azilsartan medoxomilAzilsartan medoxomil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Baclofen is combined with Levodopa.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Barbital is combined with Levodopa.
BenazeprilBenazepril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BenmoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Benmoxin.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Levodopa.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzyl alcohol is combined with Levodopa.
BetaxololBetaxolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BisoprololBisoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BretyliumBretylium may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bromazepam is combined with Levodopa.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Brotizolam is combined with Levodopa.
BumetanideBumetanide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Levodopa.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buprenorphine is combined with Levodopa.
BupropionThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Bupropion.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Levodopa.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Levodopa.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butacaine is combined with Levodopa.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butalbital is combined with Levodopa.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butamben is combined with Levodopa.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Levodopa.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Levodopa.
CanagliflozinCanagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CandesartanCandesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CaptoprilCaptopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Levodopa.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbinoxamine is combined with Levodopa.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carfentanil is combined with Levodopa.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carisoprodol is combined with Levodopa.
CaroxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Caroxazone.
CarteololCarteolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CarvedilolCarvedilol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CelecoxibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Celecoxib.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cetirizine is combined with Levodopa.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloral hydrate is combined with Levodopa.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Levodopa.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Levodopa.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Levodopa.
ChloroquineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Chloroquine.
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorphenamine is combined with Levodopa.
ChlorpromazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Chlorpromazine.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Levodopa.
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorzoxazone is combined with Levodopa.
CholecalciferolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cholecalciferol.
CilazaprilCilazapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
CimetidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cimetidine.
CinacalcetThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Cinacalcet.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Levodopa.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Citalopram.
CitalopramThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clemastine.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clemastine.
ClevidipineClevidipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clidinium is combined with Levodopa.
ClobazamThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clobazam.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when clomethiazole is combined with Levodopa.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clomipramine.
ClomipramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clonazepam is combined with Levodopa.
ClonidineClonidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clonidine.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Levodopa.
ClotrimazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clotrimazole.
ClozapineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Clozapine.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Clozapine.
CobicistatThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Cobicistat.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Levodopa.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Levodopa.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclizine is combined with Levodopa.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Levodopa.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyproheptadine is combined with Levodopa.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dantrolene is combined with Levodopa.
DapagliflozinDapagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Levodopa.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dapoxetine.
DarifenacinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Darifenacin.
DarunavirThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be increased when it is combined with Darunavir.
DelavirdineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Delavirdine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when deramciclane is combined with Levodopa.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Levodopa.
DesipramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Desipramine.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desloratadine is combined with Levodopa.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Detomidine is combined with Levodopa.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexbrompheniramine is combined with Levodopa.
DexmedetomidineDexmedetomidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Dexmedetomidine.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextromoramide is combined with Levodopa.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Levodopa.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Levodopa.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Levodopa.
DiclofenamideDiclofenamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydrocodeine is combined with Levodopa.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydroetorphine is combined with Levodopa.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dihydromorphine is combined with Levodopa.
DiltiazemDiltiazem may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dimenhydrinate is combined with Levodopa.
DinutuximabDinutuximab may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DiphenhydramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Diphenhydramine.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Levodopa.
DipyridamoleDipyridamole may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doramectin is combined with Levodopa.
DoxazosinDoxazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxepin is combined with Levodopa.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when DPDPE is combined with Levodopa.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
DronedaroneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Dronedarone.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Levodopa.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Drotebanol is combined with Levodopa.
DuloxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Duloxetine.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Levodopa.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ecgonine is combined with Levodopa.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when ECGONINE METHYL ESTER is combined with Levodopa.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Efavirenz is combined with Levodopa.
EliglustatThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Eliglustat.
EmpagliflozinEmpagliflozin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EnalaprilEnalapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Levodopa.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Entacapone is combined with Levodopa.
EplerenoneEplerenone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EprosartanEprosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Escitalopram.
EsmololEsmolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Levodopa.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Levodopa.
Etacrynic acidEtacrynic acid may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
EthanolLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Levodopa.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Levodopa.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethosuximide is combined with Levodopa.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethotoin is combined with Levodopa.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl carbamate is combined with Levodopa.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethyl loflazepate is combined with Levodopa.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethylmorphine is combined with Levodopa.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etidocaine is combined with Levodopa.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etifoxine is combined with Levodopa.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etizolam is combined with Levodopa.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Levodopa.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etorphine is combined with Levodopa.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Felbamate is combined with Levodopa.
FelodipineFelodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fencamfamine is combined with Levodopa.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Levodopa.
Ferric CarboxymaltoseThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric Carboxymaltose.
Ferric CitrateThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric Citrate.
Ferric pyrophosphateThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Ferric pyrophosphate.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fexofenadine is combined with Levodopa.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fludiazepam is combined with Levodopa.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flunitrazepam is combined with Levodopa.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fluoxetine.
FluoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Levodopa.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Levodopa.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Levodopa.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluspirilene is combined with Levodopa.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluticasone Propionate is combined with Levodopa.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FluvoxamineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosinoprilFosinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
FosphenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Fosphenytoin.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fospropofol is combined with Levodopa.
FurazolidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Furazolidone.
FurosemideFurosemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Levodopa.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
Gamma Hydroxybutyric AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levodopa.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Levodopa.
GlycopyrroniumThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Glycopyrronium.
GuanfacineGuanfacine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Levodopa.
HaloperidolThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Haloperidol.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Haloperidol.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Levodopa.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Heroin is combined with Levodopa.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
HydracarbazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hydracarbazine.
HydralazineHydralazine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocodone is combined with Levodopa.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Levodopa.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Imipramine.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Indalpine.
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
IndinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Indinavir.
IproclozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproclozide.
IproniazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Iproniazid.
IrbesartanIrbesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
IronThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron.
Iron DextranThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron Dextran.
Iron sucroseThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Iron sucrose.
IsocarboxazidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Isocarboxazid.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Levodopa.
IsoniazidThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Isoniazid.
Isosorbide DinitrateIsosorbide Dinitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
Isosorbide MononitrateIsosorbide Mononitrate may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
IsoxsuprineIsoxsuprine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
IsradipineIsradipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Levodopa.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketazolam is combined with Levodopa.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketobemidone is combined with Levodopa.
KetoconazoleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ketoconazole.
L-MethionineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with L-Methionine.
LabetalolLabetalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lamotrigine is combined with Levodopa.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levetiracetam is combined with Levodopa.
LevobunololLevobunolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Levodopa.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levocabastine is combined with Levodopa.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levocetirizine.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Levodopa.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Levodopa.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Levodopa.
LisinoprilLisinopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Levodopa.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lofentanil is combined with Levodopa.
LopinavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lopinavir.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loratadine is combined with Levodopa.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Levodopa.
LorcaserinThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lorcaserin.
LosartanLosartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Levodopa.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Lu AA21004.
LumefantrineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Lumefantrine.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lurasidone is combined with Levodopa.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MannitolMannitol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Maprotiline is combined with Levodopa.
MebanazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Mebanazine.
MecamylamineMecamylamine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meclizine is combined with Levodopa.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Medetomidine is combined with Levodopa.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Levodopa.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melperone is combined with Levodopa.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Levodopa.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Levodopa.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Levodopa.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metaxalone is combined with Levodopa.
MethadoneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Methadone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methadone.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Levodopa.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methapyrilene is combined with Levodopa.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methaqualone is combined with Levodopa.
MethazolamideMethazolamide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methocarbamol is combined with Levodopa.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Levodopa.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Levodopa.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Levodopa.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methsuximide.
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MethyldopaMethyldopa may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
Methylene blueThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Methylene blue.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
MetipranololMetipranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MetoprololMetoprolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MetyrosineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Levodopa.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Milnacipran.
MinaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Minaprine.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
MinoxidilMinoxidil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MirabegronThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Mirabegron.
MirtazapineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Levodopa.
MoclobemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Moclobemide.
MoexiprilMoexipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Molindone is combined with Levodopa.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Levodopa.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Levodopa.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nabilone.
NadololNadolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Levodopa.
NebivololNebivolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NesiritideNesiritide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NevirapineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nevirapine.
NialamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Nialamide.
NicardipineNicardipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NifedipineNifedipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NilotinibThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Nilotinib.
NimodipineNimodipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NisoldipineNisoldipine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrazepam is combined with Levodopa.
NitroglycerinNitroglycerin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
NitroprussideNitroprusside may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nitrous oxide is combined with Levodopa.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Normethadone is combined with Levodopa.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nortriptyline is combined with Levodopa.
OctamoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Octamoxin.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Olanzapine.
OlmesartanOlmesartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Olopatadine is combined with Levodopa.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Levodopa.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Opium is combined with Levodopa.
OrphenadrineLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Levodopa.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Osanetant is combined with Levodopa.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Levodopa.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxprenolol is combined with Levodopa.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Levodopa.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Levodopa.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Levodopa.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Levodopa.
PanobinostatThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Panobinostat.
PapaverinePapaverine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ParaldehydeLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Levodopa.
PargylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pargyline.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Paroxetine.
ParoxetineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Paroxetine.
Peginterferon alfa-2bThe serum concentration of Levodopa can be decreased when it is combined with Peginterferon alfa-2b.
PenbutololPenbutolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Levodopa.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Perampanel.
PerindoprilPerindopril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perospirone is combined with Levodopa.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Levodopa.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Levodopa.
PhenelzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenelzine.
PheniprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pheniprazine.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenoxyethanol is combined with Levodopa.
PhenoxypropazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenoxypropazine.
PhenytoinThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Phenytoin.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Levodopa.
PindololPindolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pipamperone is combined with Levodopa.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pipotiazine.
PirlindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pirlindole.
PivhydrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pivhydrazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pramocaine is combined with Levodopa.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prazepam is combined with Levodopa.
PrazosinPrazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Levodopa.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Levodopa.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Primidone is combined with Levodopa.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Levodopa.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Levodopa.
PromazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Promazine.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Promazine.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promethazine is combined with Levodopa.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Levodopa.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Levodopa.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propoxycaine is combined with Levodopa.
PropranololPropranolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Protriptyline is combined with Levodopa.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when PSD502 is combined with Levodopa.
PyridoxineThe therapeutic efficacy of Levodopa can be decreased when used in combination with Pyridoxine.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quazepam is combined with Levodopa.
QuetiapineQuetiapine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Quetiapine.
QuinaprilQuinapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
QuinidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinidine.
QuinineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Quinine.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ramelteon is combined with Levodopa.
RamiprilRamipril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
RanolazineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ranolazine.
RasagilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Rasagiline.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Levodopa.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Levodopa.
ReserpineReserpine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Reserpine.
RiociguatRiociguat may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Levodopa.
RitonavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ritonavir.
RolapitantThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Rolapitant.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Romifidine is combined with Levodopa.
RopiniroleLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopiniroleThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Levodopa.
RotigotineLevodopa may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Levodopa.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when S-Ethylisothiourea is combined with Levodopa.
SafrazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Safrazine.
SapropterinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sapropterin is combined with Levodopa.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Scopolamine is combined with Levodopa.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Levodopa.
SelegilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Selegiline.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sertindole is combined with Levodopa.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Sertraline.
SertralineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Levodopa.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sodium oxybate is combined with Levodopa.
SotalolSotalol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
SpironolactoneSpironolactone may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Levodopa.
SulpirideThe therapeutic efficacy of Sulpiride can be decreased when used in combination with Levodopa.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Levodopa.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tasimelteon.
TelmisartanTelmisartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Levodopa.
TerazosinTerazosin may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TerbinafineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Terbinafine.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetracaine is combined with Levodopa.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tetrodotoxin is combined with Levodopa.
ThalidomideLevodopa may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Levodopa.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Levodopa.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Levodopa.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Levodopa.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiothixene is combined with Levodopa.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiagabine is combined with Levodopa.
TiclopidineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ticlopidine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tiletamine is combined with Levodopa.
TimololTimolol may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TipranavirThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Tipranavir.
TizanidineTizanidine may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolcapone is combined with Levodopa.
ToloxatoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Toloxatone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Topiramate is combined with Levodopa.
TorasemideTorasemide may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Levodopa.
TrandolaprilTrandolapril may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine is combined with Levodopa.
TranylcypromineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Tranylcypromine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Tranylcypromine.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Trazodone.
TriamtereneTriamterene may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Levodopa.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Levodopa.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Levodopa.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trimipramine is combined with Levodopa.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triprolidine is combined with Levodopa.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Levodopa.
ValsartanValsartan may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
VenlafaxineThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Venlafaxine.
VerapamilVerapamil may increase the orthostatic hypotensive activities of Levodopa.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Vigabatrin is combined with Levodopa.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Xylazine is combined with Levodopa.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Levodopa.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe metabolism of Levodopa can be decreased when combined with Ziprasidone.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levodopa is combined with Ziprasidone.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolazepam is combined with Levodopa.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Levodopa.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zonisamide is combined with Levodopa.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Levodopa.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zotepine is combined with Levodopa.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zuclopenthixol is combined with Levodopa.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD1
Uniprot ID:
P21728
Molecular Weight:
49292.765 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD5
Uniprot ID:
P21918
Molecular Weight:
52950.5 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
References
  1. Dupre KB, Eskow KL, Negron G, Bishop C: The differential effects of 5-HT(1A) receptor stimulation on dopamine receptor-mediated abnormal involuntary movements and rotations in the primed hemiparkinsonian rat. Brain Res. 2007 Jul 16;1158:135-43. Epub 2007 May 8. [PubMed:17553470 ]
  2. Mori A, Ohashi S, Nakai M, Moriizumi T, Mitsumoto Y: Neural mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction as detected by the tail suspension test in MPTP-treated C57BL/6 mice. Neurosci Res. 2005 Mar;51(3):265-74. Epub 2005 Jan 8. [PubMed:15710490 ]
  3. Zappia M, Annesi G, Nicoletti G, Arabia G, Annesi F, Messina D, Pugliese P, Spadafora P, Tarantino P, Carrideo S, Civitelli D, De Marco EV, Ciro-Candiano IC, Gambardella A, Quattrone A: Sex differences in clinical and genetic determinants of levodopa peak-dose dyskinesias in Parkinson disease: an exploratory study. Arch Neurol. 2005 Apr;62(4):601-5. [PubMed:15824260 ]
  4. Kovoor A, Seyffarth P, Ebert J, Barghshoon S, Chen CK, Schwarz S, Axelrod JD, Cheyette BN, Simon MI, Lester HA, Schwarz J: D2 dopamine receptors colocalize regulator of G-protein signaling 9-2 (RGS9-2) via the RGS9 DEP domain, and RGS9 knock-out mice develop dyskinesias associated with dopamine pathways. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 23;25(8):2157-65. [PubMed:15728856 ]
  5. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347 ]
  6. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145 ]
  7. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Sh3 domain binding
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor responsible for neuronal signaling in the mesolimbic system of the brain, an area of the brain that regulates emotion and complex behavior. Its activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Modulates the circadian rhythm of contrast sensitivity by regulating the rhythmic expression of NPAS2 in the retinal ganglion cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DRD4
Uniprot ID:
P21917
Molecular Weight:
48359.86 Da
References
  1. Onofrj M, Bonanni L, Thomas A: An expert opinion on safinamide in Parkinson's disease. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008 Jul;17(7):1115-25. doi: 10.1517/13543784.17.7.1115 . [PubMed:18549347 ]
  2. Deleu D, Northway MG, Hanssens Y: Clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(4):261-309. [PubMed:11978145 ]
  3. Koller WC, Rueda MG: Mechanism of action of dopaminergic agents in Parkinson's disease. Neurology. 1998 Jun;50(6 Suppl 6):S11-4; discussion S44-8. [PubMed:9633680 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) to dopamine, L-5-hydroxytryptophan to serotonin and L-tryptophan to tryptamine.
Gene Name:
DDC
Uniprot ID:
P20711
Molecular Weight:
53925.815 Da
References
  1. BIRKMAYER W, HORNYKIEWICZ O: [The L-3,4-dioxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-effect in Parkinson-akinesia]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1961 Nov 10;73:787-8. [PubMed:13869404 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular Weight:
55768.94 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Proton-dependent oligopeptide secondary active transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled intake of oligopeptides of 2 to 4 amino acids with a preference for dipeptides. May constitute a major route for the absorption of protein digestion end-products.
Gene Name:
SLC15A1
Uniprot ID:
P46059
Molecular Weight:
78805.265 Da
References
  1. Han HK, Rhie JK, Oh DM, Saito G, Hsu CP, Stewart BH, Amidon GL: CHO/hPEPT1 cells overexpressing the human peptide transporter (hPEPT1) as an alternative in vitro model for peptidomimetic drugs. J Pharm Sci. 1999 Mar;88(3):347-50. [PubMed:10052994 ]
  2. Tamai I, Nakanishi T, Nakahara H, Sai Y, Ganapathy V, Leibach FH, Tsuji A: Improvement of L-dopa absorption by dipeptidyl derivation, utilizing peptide transporter PepT1. J Pharm Sci. 1998 Dec;87(12):1542-6. [PubMed:10189264 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide antigen binding
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of large neutral amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Involved in cellular amino acid uptake. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Involved in the transport of L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier, and that of thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) across the ...
Gene Name:
SLC7A5
Uniprot ID:
Q01650
Molecular Weight:
55009.62 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428 ]
  2. Kageyama T, Nakamura M, Matsuo A, Yamasaki Y, Takakura Y, Hashida M, Kanai Y, Naito M, Tsuruo T, Minato N, Shimohama S: The 4F2hc/LAT1 complex transports L-DOPA across the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res. 2000 Oct 6;879(1-2):115-21. [PubMed:11011012 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Toxin transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent, high-affinity transport of small and large neutral amino acids such as alanine, serine, threonine, cysteine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, arginine and tryptophan, when associated with SLC3A2/4F2hc. Acts as an amino acid exchanger. Has higher affinity for L-phenylalanine than LAT1 but lower affinity for glutamine and serine. L-alanine is transported at physiological conc...
Gene Name:
SLC7A8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHI5
Molecular Weight:
58381.12 Da
References
  1. Pinho MJ, Serrao MP, Gomes P, Hopfer U, Jose PA, Soares-da-Silva P: Over-expression of renal LAT1 and LAT2 and enhanced L-DOPA uptake in SHR immortalized renal proximal tubular cells. Kidney Int. 2004 Jul;66(1):216-26. [PubMed:15200428 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 29, 2016 02:28