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Identification
NameCefoxitin
Accession NumberDB01331  (EXPT00897)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved
Description

Cefoxitin is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum cepha antibiotic for intravenous administration. It is derived from cephamycin C, which is produced by Streptomyces lactamdurans.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(6R,7S)-3-[(Carbamoyloxy)methyl]-7-methoxy-8-oxo-7-[(2-thienylacetyl)amino]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
Cefoxitin
Cefoxitina
Cefoxitine
Cefoxitinum
Ceftoxitin
Cephoxitin
CFX
Rephoxitin
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cefoxitin and Dextroseinjection, solution1 g/50mLintravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2006-03-10Not applicableUs
Cefoxitin and Dextroseinjection, solution2 g/50mLintravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2006-03-10Not applicableUs
Cefoxitin for Injectionpowder for solution10 gintramuscular; intravenousTeva Canada Limited2000-01-01Not applicableCanada
Cefoxitin for Injectionpowder for solution2 gintramuscular; intravenousTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cefoxitin for Injectionpowder for solution1 gintramuscular; intravenousTeva Canada Limited1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Cefoxitin for Injection, USPpowder for solution2 gintramuscular; intravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation2007-12-21Not applicableCanada
Cefoxitin for Injection, USPpowder for solution1 gintramuscular; intravenousHospira Healthcare Corporation2007-12-21Not applicableCanada
Mefoxin Inj 1gm/vial Add-vantagpowder for solution1 gintravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1991-12-311999-08-06Canada
Mefoxin Inj 2gm/vial Add-vantagpowder for solution2 gintravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1991-12-312000-08-03Canada
Mefoxin Pws 1gm/vialpowder for solution1 gintramuscular; intravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1987-12-312003-02-07Canada
Mefoxin Pws 2gm/vialpowder for solution2 gintramuscular; intravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1979-12-312002-07-29Canada
Mefoxin Pws Inj 10gm/vialpowder for solution10 gintravenousMerck Frosst Canada & Cie, Merck Frosst Canada & Co.1992-12-312002-07-29Canada
Approved Generic Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousApotex Corporation2006-02-13Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/10mLintravenousWest ward Pharmaceutical Corp2010-02-26Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution10 g/1intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2012-02-21Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousApotex Corporation2006-02-13Not applicableUs
Cefoxitinpowder, for solution2 g/1intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2011-07-06Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution10 g/1intravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2013-10-01Not applicableUs
Cefoxitinpowder, for solution1 g/1intravenousFresenius Kabi USA, LLC2011-07-06Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2015-02-18Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousREMEDYREPACK INC.2015-10-09Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousWG Critical Care, LLC2015-02-18Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousApotex Corporation2008-02-27Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution10 g/1intravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2010-08-12Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution100 g/1intravenousSamson Medical Technologies Llc2016-03-01Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousApotex Corporation2008-02-27Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2009-11-05Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2010-03-12Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution10 g/1intravenousApotex Corporation2006-02-13Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution1 g/1intravenousSagent Pharmaceuticals2009-11-05Not applicableUs
Cefoxitininjection, powder, for solution2 g/1intravenousWest Ward Pharmaceuticals Corp2010-03-12Not applicableUs
Mefoxininjection, solution1 g/50mLintravenousBioniche Pharma USA LLC2011-02-222016-03-15Us
Mefoxininjection, solution2 g/50mLintravenousBioniche Pharma USA LLC2011-02-222016-03-15Us
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
CefoctinTeva
CenomicinDaiichi-Seiyaku
MefoxitinMerck
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Cefoxitin sodium
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001211
Categories
UNII6OEV9DX57Y
CAS number35607-66-0
WeightAverage: 427.452
Monoisotopic: 427.050791293
Chemical FormulaC16H17N3O7S2
InChI KeyInChIKey=WZOZEZRFJCJXNZ-ZBFHGGJFSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C16H17N3O7S2/c1-25-16(18-10(20)5-9-3-2-4-27-9)13(23)19-11(12(21)22)8(6-26-15(17)24)7-28-14(16)19/h2-4,14H,5-7H2,1H3,(H2,17,24)(H,18,20)(H,21,22)/t14-,16+/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(6R,7S)-3-[(carbamoyloxy)methyl]-7-methoxy-8-oxo-7-[2-(thiophen-2-yl)acetamido]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
SMILES
[H][C@]12SCC(COC(N)=O)=C(N1C(=O)[C@]2(NC(=O)CC1=CC=CS1)OC)C(O)=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as cephalosporins. These are compounds containing a 1,2-thiazine fused to a 2-azetidinone to for a oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid moiety or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassLactams
Sub ClassBeta lactams
Direct ParentCephalosporins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Cephalosporin
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Meta-thiazine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Thiophene
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azetidine
  • Azacycle
  • Dialkylthioether
  • Hemithioaminal
  • Thioether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Enamine
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains microorganisms.
PharmacodynamicsCefoxitin is a cephamycin antibiotic often grouped with the second-generation cephalosporins. It is active against a broad range of gram-negative bacteria including anaerobes. The methoxy group in the 7a position provides cefoxitin with a high degree of stability in the presence of beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases, of gram-negative bacteria.
Mechanism of actionThe bactericidal action of cefoxitin results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Minimal (approximately 85 percent of cefoxitin is excreted unchanged by the kidneys over a 6-hour period).

Route of eliminationApproximately 85 percent of cefoxitin is excreted unchanged by the kidneys over a 6-hour period, resulting in high urinary concentrations. Cefoxitin passes into pleural and joint fluids and is detectable in antibacterial concentrations in bile.
Half lifeThe half-life after an intravenous dose is 41 to 59 minutes.
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityThe acute intravenous LD50 in the adult female mouse and rabbit was about 8.0 g/kg and greater than 1.0 g/kg, respectively. The acute intraperitoneal LD50 in the adult rat was greater than 10.0 g/kg.
Affected organisms
  • Enteric bacteria and other eubacteria
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.7203
Blood Brain Barrier-0.9952
Caco-2 permeable-0.7898
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8198
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.8831
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9715
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9085
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8655
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8241
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.5389
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.786
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8214
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8642
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7954
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9312
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.8753
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.6912
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9329
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.979
Rat acute toxicity1.6623 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9951
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.8518
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous1 g/10mL
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous1 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous10 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous100 g/1
Injection, powder, for solutionintravenous2 g/1
Powder, for solutionintravenous1 g/1
Powder, for solutionintravenous2 g/1
Injection, solutionintravenous1 g/50mL
Injection, solutionintravenous2 g/50mL
Powder for solutionintramuscular; intravenous1 g
Powder for solutionintramuscular; intravenous10 g
Powder for solutionintramuscular; intravenous2 g
Powder for solutionintravenous1 g
Powder for solutionintravenous2 g
Powder for solutionintravenous10 g
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Cefoxitin 10 gm vial112.25USD vial
Cefoxitin 2 gm vial26.28USD vial
Cefoxitin 2 gm piggyback bag22.56USD each
Cefoxitin 1 gm vial13.12USD vial
Cefoxitin 1 gm piggyback bag12.3USD each
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point165-167Christiansen, B.G. and Firestone, R.A.; US. Patent 3,775,410; November 27, 1973; assigned Hazen, G.C.; U.S. Patent 3,780,033; December 18, 1973; assigned to Merck & Company, Inc.
logP-0.02SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.195 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.22ALOGPS
logP0.29ChemAxon
logS-3.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area148.26 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity98.76 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.46 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Pandurang Deshpande, Bhausaheb Khadangale, “Process for the preparation of cefoxitin.” U.S. Patent US20060252928, issued November 09, 2006.

US20060252928
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesJ01DC01
AHFS Codes
  • 08:12.07.12
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (76.5 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
AcenocoumarolCefoxitin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Acenocoumarol.
AmikacinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Amikacin.
ArbekacinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Arbekacin.
DicoumarolCefoxitin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Dicoumarol.
FramycetinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Framycetin.
GentamicinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Gentamicin.
KanamycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Kanamycin.
NeomycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Neomycin.
NetilmicinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Netilmicin.
Picosulfuric acidThe therapeutic efficacy of Sodium picosulfate can be decreased when used in combination with Cefoxitin.
ProbenecidThe serum concentration of Cefoxitin can be increased when it is combined with Probenecid.
RibostamycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Ribostamycin.
SpectinomycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Spectinomycin.
StreptomycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Streptomycin.
TobramycinCefoxitin may increase the nephrotoxic activities of Tobramycin.
WarfarinCefoxitin may increase the anticoagulant activities of Warfarin.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Removes C-terminal D-alanyl residues from sugar-peptide cell wall precursors.
Gene Name:
dacC
Uniprot ID:
P08506
Molecular Weight:
43608.595 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Removes C-terminal D-alanyl residues from sugar-peptide cell wall precursors.
Gene Name:
dacA
Uniprot ID:
P0AEB2
Molecular Weight:
44443.62 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation. May play a specialized role in remodeling the cell wall. Specifically hydrolyzes the DD-diaminopimelate-alanine bonds in high-molecular-mass murein sacculi.
Gene Name:
pbpG
Uniprot ID:
P0AFI5
Molecular Weight:
33887.085 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not involved in transpeptidation but exclusively catalyzes a DD-carboxypeptidase and DD-endopeptidase reaction.
Gene Name:
dacB
Uniprot ID:
P24228
Molecular Weight:
51797.85 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid intermediates. The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan strands) and a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain (cross-linking of the peptide subunits).
Gene Name:
mrcA
Uniprot ID:
P02918
Molecular Weight:
93635.545 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation. Synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid intermediates. The enzyme has a penicillin-insensitive transglycosylase N-terminal domain (formation of linear glycan strands) and a penicillin-sensitive transpeptidase C-terminal domain (cross-linking of the peptide subunits).
Gene Name:
mrcB
Uniprot ID:
P02919
Molecular Weight:
94291.875 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Escherichia coli (strain K12)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Essential cell division protein that is required for the synthesis of peptidoglycan at the division septum (PubMed:1103132, PubMed:9614966). Catalyzes the synthesis of cross-linked peptidoglycan from the lipid-linked precursors (PubMed:7030331). Required for localization of FtsN (PubMed:9282742).
Gene Name:
ftsI
Uniprot ID:
P0AD68
Molecular Weight:
63876.925 Da
References
  1. Matsuhashi M, Tamaki S: Enzymatic studies on the mechanism of action of cefoxitin. Correlation between the affinities of cefoxitin to penicillin-binding proteins and its rates of inhibition of the respective penicillin-sensitive reactions in E. coli. J Antibiot (Tokyo). 1978 Dec;31(12):1292-5. [PubMed:368000 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Serine-type d-ala-d-ala carboxypeptidase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp3
Uniprot ID:
Q75Y35
Molecular Weight:
45209.84 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp1b
Uniprot ID:
Q7CRA4
Molecular Weight:
89479.92 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
pbp2a
Uniprot ID:
Q8DNB6
Molecular Weight:
80797.94 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Cell wall formation.
Gene Name:
pbpA
Uniprot ID:
Q8DR59
Molecular Weight:
79700.9 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Streptococcus pneumoniae (strain ATCC BAA-255 / R6)
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Penicillin binding
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
penA
Uniprot ID:
P0A3M6
Molecular Weight:
73872.305 Da
References
  1. Williamson R, Hakenbeck R, Tomasz A: In vivo interaction of beta-lactam antibiotics with the penicillin-binding proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1980 Oct;18(4):629-37. [PubMed:7447421 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Bacillus licheniformis
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Beta-lactamase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
penP
Uniprot ID:
P00808
Molecular Weight:
33995.36 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Song W, Lee KM, Kim HS, Kim JS, Kim J, Jeong SH, Roh KH: Clonal spread of both oxyimino-cephalosporin- and cefoxitin-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates co-producing SHV-2a and DHA-1 beta-lactamase at a burns intensive care unit. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2006 Dec;28(6):520-4. Epub 2006 Nov 13. [PubMed:17095195 ]
  4. d'Azevedo PA, Goncalves AL, Musskopf MI, Ramos CG, Dias CA: Laboratory tests in the detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase production: National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) screening test, the E-test, the double disk confirmatory test, and cefoxitin susceptibility testing. Braz J Infect Dis. 2004 Oct;8(5):372-7. Epub 2005 Mar 17. [PubMed:15798813 ]
  5. Ke YY, Lin TH: A theoretical study on the activation of Ser70 in the acylation mechanism of cephalosporin antibiotics. Biophys Chem. 2005 Apr 22;114(2-3):103-13. Epub 2004 Nov 30. [PubMed:15829343 ]
Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on April 03, 2014 10:01