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Identification
NameGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid
Accession NumberDB01440
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Illicit
DescriptionGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid, commonly abbreviated GHB, is a therapeutic drug which is illegal in multiple countries. It is currently regulated in the US and sold by Jazz Pharmaceuticals under the name Xyrem. However, it is important to note that GHB is a designated Orphan drug (in 1985). Today Xyrem is a Schedule III drug; however GHB remains a Schedule I drug and the illicit use of Xyrem falls under penalties of Schedule I. GHB is a naturally occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits and almost all other living creatures in small amounts. It is used illegally under the street names Juice, Liquid Ecstasy or simply G, either as an intoxicant, or as a date rape drug. Xyrem is a central nervous system depressant that reduces excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy in patients with narcolepsy.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-carboxypropoxy acid
4-hydroxy-butyric acid
4-hydroxybutanoate
4-hydroxybutanoic acid
4-Hydroxybutyric acid
gamma-Hydroxybutyrate
gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid
GHB
oxy-n-butyric acid
γ-Hydroxybutyric acid
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII30IW36W5B2
CAS number591-81-1
WeightAverage: 103.0966
Monoisotopic: 103.03951909
Chemical FormulaC4H7O3
InChI KeyInChIKey=SJZRECIVHVDYJC-UHFFFAOYSA-M
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H8O3/c5-3-1-2-4(6)7/h5H,1-3H2,(H,6,7)/p-1
IUPAC Name
4-hydroxybutanoate
SMILES
OCCCC([O-])=O
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic anion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationUsed as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance.
PharmacodynamicsGHB has at least two distinct binding sites in the central nervous system. GHB is an agonist at the newly-characterized GHB receptor, which is excitatory, and it is a weak agonist at the GABAB receptor, which is inhibitory. GHB is a naturally-occurring substance that acts in a similar fashion to some neurotransmitters in the mammalian brain. GHB is probably synthesized from GABA in GABAergic neurons, and released when the neurons fire.
Mechanism of actionGHB reaches much higher concentrations in the brain and activates GABAB receptors, which are primarily responsible for its sedative effects. GHB receptors are densely expressed in many areas of the brain, including the cortex and hippocampus, and these are the receptors that GHB displays the highest affinity for. There has been somewhat limited research into the GHB receptor; however, there is evidence that activation of the GHB receptor in some brain areas results in the release of glutamate, the principal excitatory neurotransmitter. Activation of both the GHB receptor and GABA(B) is responsible for the addictive profile of GHB. GHB's effect on dopamine release is biphasic,[19] low concentrations stimulate dopamine release via the GHB receptor.[20] Higher concentrations inhibit dopamine release via GABA(B) receptors as do other GABA(B) agonists such as baclofen and phenibut.[21] After an initial phase of inhibition, dopamine release is then increased via the GHB receptor. This explains the paradoxical mix of sedative and stimulatory properties of GHB, as well as the so-called "rebound" effect, experienced by individuals using GHB as a sleeping agent, wherein they awake suddenly after several hours of GHB-induced deep sleep. That is to say that, over time, the concentration of GHB in the system decreases below the threshold for significant GABAB receptor activation and activates predominantly the GHB receptor, leading to wakefulness.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distribution
  • 190 to 384 mL/kg
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationAnimal studies indicate that metabolism is the major elimination pathway for sodium oxybate, producing carbon dioxide and water via the tricarboxylic acid (Krebs) cycle and secondarily by beta-oxidation. Succinic acid enters the Krebs cycle where it is metabolized to carbon dioxide and water. Fecal and renal excretion is negligible. 5% renal elimination.
Half life30 to 60 minutes
Clearance
  • apparent oral cl=9.1 mL/min/kg [healthy adults receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
  • 4.5 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients without ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
  • 4.1 mL/min/kg [cirrhotic patients with ascites receiving a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg]
ToxicityAt higher doses, GHB may induce nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, agitation, visual disturbances, depressed breathing, amnesia, unconsciousness, and death.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.7851
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9171
Caco-2 permeable+0.5539
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.8415
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.981
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9783
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9223
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8341
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9043
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7878
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8141
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9518
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9541
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9642
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9721
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9884
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9331
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.7478
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.9967
Rat acute toxicity1.7448 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9579
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.97
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage formsNot Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Xyrem 500 mg/ml oral solution5.33USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
CA2355293 No2005-08-162019-12-22Canada
US6780889 No2000-07-042020-07-04Us
US7765106 No2004-06-162024-06-16Us
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility711.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.6ALOGPS
logP-0.51ChemAxon
logS0.77ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.44ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area60.36 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability9.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.17 KB)
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Joseph Klosa, “Production of nonhygroscopic salts of 4-hydroxybutyric acid.” U.S. Patent US4393236, issued March, 1963.

US4393236
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
7-NitroindazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with 7-Nitroindazole.
AcepromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Acepromazine.
AceprometazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Aceprometazine.
adipiplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with adipiplon.
AgomelatineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Agomelatine.
AlfaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Alfaxalone.
AlfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alfentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
AlphacetylmethadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Alphacetylmethadol.
AlprazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Alprazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
AmisulprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amisulpride.
AmitriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amitriptyline.
AmobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Amobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
AmoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amoxapine.
AmperozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Amperozide.
AripiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Aripiprazole is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ArticaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Articaine.
AsenapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Asenapine.
AzaperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Azaperone.
AzelastineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Azelastine.
AzelastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Azelastine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
BaclofenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Baclofen.
BarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Barbital.
BenzocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Benzocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Benzyl alcoholThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Benzyl alcohol.
BrexpiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brexpiprazole.
BrimonidineBrimonidine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
BrimonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brimonidine.
BromazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Bromazepam.
BrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brompheniramine.
BrotizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Brotizolam.
BupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Bupivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
BuprenorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buprenorphine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
BuspironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Buspirone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ButabarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butabarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ButacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butacaine.
ButalbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butalbital.
ButambenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Butamben.
ButethalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butethal is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ButorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Butorphanol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CarbamazepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Carbamazepine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CarbinoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carbinoxamine.
CarfentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carfentanil.
CarisoprodolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Carisoprodol.
CetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cetirizine.
Chloral hydrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chloral hydrate.
ChlordiazepoxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlordiazepoxide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ChlormezanoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlormezanone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ChloroprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chloroprocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ChlorphenamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chlorphenamine.
ChlorpromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorpromazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ChlorprothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Chlorprothixene is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ChlorzoxazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Chlorzoxazone.
CinchocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cinchocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Citalopram.
ClemastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clemastine.
ClidiniumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clidinium.
ClobazamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clobazam.
clomethiazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with clomethiazole.
ClomipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clomipramine.
ClonazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clonazepam.
ClonidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Clonidine.
ClorazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clorazepate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Clozapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Codeine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CyclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cyclizine.
CyclobenzaprineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclobenzaprine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
CyproheptadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Cyproheptadine.
DantroleneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dantrolene.
DapiprazoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapiprazole is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DapoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dapoxetine.
deramciclaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with deramciclane.
DesfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Desflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DesipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Desipramine.
DesloratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Desloratadine.
DetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Detomidine.
DexbrompheniramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dexbrompheniramine.
DexmedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dexmedetomidine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DextromoramideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dextromoramide.
DextropropoxypheneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dextropropoxyphene is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DezocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dezocine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DifenoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Difenoxin.
DihydrocodeineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydrocodeine.
DihydroetorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydroetorphine.
DihydromorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dihydromorphine.
DimenhydrinateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Dimenhydrinate.
DiphenhydramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenhydramine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DiphenoxylateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Diphenoxylate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DoramectinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Doramectin.
DoxepinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Doxepin.
DoxylamineDoxylamine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DoxylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Doxylamine.
DPDPEThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with DPDPE.
DronabinolDronabinol may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DroperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Droperidol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
DrotebanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Drotebanol.
DyclonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dyclonine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EcgonineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ecgonine.
ECGONINE METHYL ESTERThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with ECGONINE METHYL ESTER.
EfavirenzThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Efavirenz.
EnfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Enflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EntacaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Entacapone.
EscitalopramThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Escitalopram.
EstazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Estazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EszopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eszopiclone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EthanolGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Ethanol.
EthanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethanol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EthchlorvynolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ethchlorvynol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EthosuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethosuximide.
EthotoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethotoin.
Ethyl carbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethyl carbamate.
Ethyl loflazepateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethyl loflazepate.
EthylmorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ethylmorphine.
EtidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etidocaine.
EtifoxineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etifoxine.
EtizolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etizolam.
EtomidateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etomidate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
EtoperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etoperidone.
EtorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Etorphine.
EzogabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ezogabine.
FelbamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Felbamate.
FencamfamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fencamfamine.
FenfluramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fenfluramine.
FentanylThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fentanyl is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
FexofenadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fexofenadine.
FlibanserinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flibanserin.
FludiazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fludiazepam.
FlunarizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flunarizine.
FlunitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Flunitrazepam.
FluoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluoxetine.
FlupentixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flupentixol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
FluphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Fluphenazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
FlurazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Flurazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
FluspirileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluspirilene.
Fluticasone PropionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluticasone Propionate.
FluvoxamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fluvoxamine.
FosphenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fosphenytoin.
FospropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Fospropofol.
GabapentinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gabapentin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
gabapentin enacarbilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with gabapentin enacarbil.
GlutethimideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Glutethimide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
GuanfacineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Guanfacine.
HalazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HaloperidolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Haloperidol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HalothaneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Halothane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HeroinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Heroin.
HexobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hexobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydrocodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrocodone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydromorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydromorphone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydroxyzineHydroxyzine may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
HydroxyzineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Hydroxyzine.
IloperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Iloperidone.
ImipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Imipramine.
IndalpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Indalpine.
IsofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Isoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
KetamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ketamine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
KetazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ketazolam.
KetobemidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ketobemidone.
LamotrigineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lamotrigine.
LevetiracetamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levetiracetam.
LevobupivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levobupivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LevocabastineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levocabastine.
LevocetirizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levocetirizine.
LevodopaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levodopa.
Levomethadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levomethadyl Acetate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LevomilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Levomilnacipran.
LevorphanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Levorphanol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LidocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lidocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LithiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lithium is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LofentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lofentanil.
LoratadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Loratadine.
LorazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Lorazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
LoxapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Loxapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Lu AA21004The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lu AA21004.
LurasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Lurasidone.
Magnesium SulfateMagnesium Sulfate may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Magnesium SulfateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Magnesium Sulfate.
MaprotilineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Maprotiline.
MeclizineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Meclizine.
MedetomidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Medetomidine.
MelatoninThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Melatonin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MelperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Melperone.
MepivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mepivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MeprobamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meprobamate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MesoridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mesoridazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MetaxaloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Metaxalone.
MethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Methadyl AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methadyl Acetate is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MethapyrileneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methapyrilene.
MethaqualoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methaqualone.
MethocarbamolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methocarbamol.
MethohexitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methohexital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MethotrimeprazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methotrimeprazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MethoxyfluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methoxyflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MethsuximideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Methsuximide.
MethylphenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Methylphenobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MetyrosineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Metyrosine.
MidazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Midazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MilnacipranThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Milnacipran.
MinocyclineMinocycline may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MirtazapineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Mirtazapine.
MirtazapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Mirtazapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
MolindoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Molindone.
MorphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Morphine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
NabiloneNabilone may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
NabiloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nabilone.
NalbuphineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Nalbuphine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
NitrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nitrazepam.
Nitrous oxideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nitrous oxide.
NormethadoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Normethadone.
NortriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Nortriptyline.
OlanzapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Olanzapine.
OlopatadineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Olopatadine.
OndansetronThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ondansetron is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
OpiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Opium.
OrphenadrineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Orphenadrine.
OrphenadrineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Orphenadrine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
OsanetantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Osanetant.
OxazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
OxprenololThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Oxprenolol.
OxybuprocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxybuprocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
OxycodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxycodone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
OxymorphoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Oxymorphone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PaliperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paliperidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ParaldehydeGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Paraldehyde.
ParaldehydeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paraldehyde is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ParoxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Paroxetine.
PentazocineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentazocine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PentobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pentobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PerampanelThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Perampanel.
PerospironeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Perospirone.
PerphenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Perphenazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PethidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pethidine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PhenobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Phenobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PhenoxyethanolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Phenoxyethanol.
PhenytoinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Phenytoin.
PimozideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pimozide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PipamperoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pipamperone.
PipotiazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pipotiazine.
PizotifenThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pizotifen.
PomalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pomalidomide.
PramipexoleGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Pramipexole.
PramocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Pramocaine.
PrazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Prazepam.
PregabalinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Pregabalin is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PrilocaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prilocaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PrimidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Primidone.
ProcaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Procaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ProchlorperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Prochlorperazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Promazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PromethazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Promethazine.
ProparacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Proparacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PropofolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Propofol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
PropoxycaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Propoxycaine.
ProtriptylineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Protriptyline.
PSD502The risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with PSD502.
QuazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Quazepam.
QuetiapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Quetiapine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
RamelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ramelteon.
RemifentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remifentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
RemoxiprideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Remoxipride is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ReserpineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Reserpine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
RisperidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Risperidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
RomifidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Romifidine.
RopiniroleGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Ropinirole.
RopivacaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ropivacaine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
RotigotineGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the sedative activities of Rotigotine.
RufinamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Rufinamide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
S-EthylisothioureaThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with S-Ethylisothiourea.
ScopolamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Scopolamine.
SecobarbitalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Secobarbital is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
SertindoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sertindole.
SertralineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sertraline.
SevofluraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sevoflurane is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Sodium oxybateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Sodium oxybate.
StiripentolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Stiripentol.
SufentanilThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sufentanil is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
SulpirideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Sulpiride is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
SuvorexantThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Suvorexant.
TapentadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tapentadol.
TasimelteonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tasimelteon.
TemazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Temazepam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
TetrabenazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetrabenazine.
TetracaineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetracaine.
TetrodotoxinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tetrodotoxin.
ThalidomideGamma Hydroxybutyric Acid may increase the central nervous system depressant (CNS depressant) activities of Thalidomide.
ThalidomideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thalidomide is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ThiamylalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiamylal is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ThiopentalThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thiopental is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ThioridazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Thioridazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ThiothixeneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Thiothixene.
TiagabineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tiagabine.
TiletamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tiletamine.
TizanidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tizanidine.
TolcaponeThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Tolcapone.
TopiramateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Topiramate.
TramadolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tramadol is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
Trans-2-PhenylcyclopropylamineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Trans-2-Phenylcyclopropylamine.
TranylcypromineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tranylcypromine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
TrazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Trazodone.
TriazolamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triazolam is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
TrifluoperazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trifluoperazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
TriflupromazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triflupromazine is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
TrimipramineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Trimipramine.
TriprolidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Triprolidine.
Valproic AcidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Valproic Acid is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
VigabatrinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Vigabatrin.
VilazodoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Vilazodone.
VortioxetineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Vortioxetine.
XylazineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Xylazine.
ZaleplonThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zaleplon is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ZiconotideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Ziconotide.
ZimelidineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zimelidine.
ZiprasidoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ziprasidone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ZolazepamThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zolazepam.
ZolpidemThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zolpidem is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ZonisamideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zonisamide.
ZopicloneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Zopiclone is combined with Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid.
ZotepineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zotepine.
ZuclopenthixolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Gamma Hydroxybutyric Acid is combined with Zuclopenthixol.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Virus receptor activity
Specific Function:
Riboflavin transporter. Riboflavin transport is Na(+)-independent but moderately pH-sensitive. Activity is strongly inhibited by riboflavin analogs, such as lumiflavin. Weakly inhibited by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN). In case of infection by retroviruses, acts as a cell receptor to retroviral envelopes similar to the porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV-A).
Gene Name:
SLC52A2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAB3
Molecular Weight:
45776.61 Da
References
  1. Castelli MP, Mocci I, Pistis M, Peis M, Berta D, Gelain A, Gessa GL, Cignarella G: Stereoselectivity of NCS-382 binding to gamma-hydroxybutyrate receptor in the rat brain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Jun 20;446(1-3):1-5. [PubMed:12098579 ]
  2. Castelli MP, Ferraro L, Mocci I, Carta F, Carai MA, Antonelli T, Tanganelli S, Cignarella G, Gessa GL: Selective gamma-hydroxybutyric acid receptor ligands increase extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus, but fail to activate G protein and to produce the sedative/hypnotic effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid. J Neurochem. 2003 Nov;87(3):722-32. [PubMed:14535954 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By si...
Gene Name:
GABRB1
Uniprot ID:
P18505
Molecular Weight:
54234.085 Da
References
  1. Maitre M, Humbert JP, Kemmel V, Aunis D, Andriamampandry C: [A mechanism for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) as a drug and a substance of abuse]. Med Sci (Paris). 2005 Mar;21(3):284-9. [PubMed:15745703 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Functions as high-affinity pyruvate transporter.
Gene Name:
SLC16A7
Uniprot ID:
O60669
Molecular Weight:
52199.745 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-coupled monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate. Depending on the tissue and on cicumstances, mediates the import or export of lactic acid and ketone bod...
Gene Name:
SLC16A1
Uniprot ID:
P53985
Molecular Weight:
53943.685 Da
References
  1. Lin RY, Vera JC, Chaganti RS, Golde DW: Human monocarboxylate transporter 2 (MCT2) is a high affinity pyruvate transporter. J Biol Chem. 1998 Oct 30;273(44):28959-65. [PubMed:9786900 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter. Catalyzes the rapid transport across the plasma membrane of many monocarboxylates such as lactate, pyruvate, branched-chain oxo acids derived from leucine, valine and isoleucine, and the ketone bodies acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A3
Uniprot ID:
O15427
Molecular Weight:
49468.9 Da
References
  1. Manning Fox JE, Meredith D, Halestrap AP: Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. J Physiol. 2000 Dec 1;529 Pt 2:285-93. [PubMed:11101640 ]
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Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:09 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23