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Identification
NameCarfentanil
Accession NumberDB01535
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsIllicit, Vet Approved
Description

Carfentanil or carfentanyl (Wildnil) is an analogue of the popular synthetic opioid analgesic fentanyl, and is one of the most potent opioids known (also the most potent opioid used commercially). Carfentanil was first synthesized in 1974 by a team of chemists at Janssen Pharmaceutica which included Paul Janssen. It has a quantitative potency approximately 10,000 times that of morphine and 100 times that of fentanyl, with activity in humans starting at about 1 microgram. It is marketed under the trade name Wildnil as a general anaesthetic agent for large animals. Carfentanil is intended for large-animal use only as its extreme potency makes it inappropriate for use in humans. Currently sufentanil, approximately 10–20 times less potent (500 to 1000 times the efficacy of morphine per weight) than carfentanil, is the maximum strength fentanyl analog for use in humans.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
Carfentanyl
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Salts
Name/CASStructureProperties
Carfentanil citrate
ThumbNot applicableDBSALT001611
Categories
UNIILA9DTA2L8F
CAS number59708-52-0
WeightAverage: 394.5066
Monoisotopic: 394.225642836
Chemical FormulaC24H30N2O3
InChI KeyYDSDEBIZUNNPOB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C24H30N2O3/c1-3-22(27)26(21-12-8-5-9-13-21)24(23(28)29-2)15-18-25(19-16-24)17-14-20-10-6-4-7-11-20/h4-13H,3,14-19H2,1-2H3
IUPAC Name
methyl 1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-(N-phenylpropanamido)piperidine-4-carboxylate
SMILES
CCC(=O)N(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1(CCN(CCC2=CC=CC=C2)CC1)C(=O)OC
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as fentanyls. These are compounds containing the fentanyl moiety or a derivative, which is based on a N-(1-(2-phenylethyl)-4-piperidinyl)-N-phenylpropanamide skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPiperidines
Sub ClassFentanyls
Direct ParentFentanyls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Fentanyl
  • Alpha-amino acid or derivatives
  • Anilide
  • Piperidinecarboxylic acid
  • Phenethylamine
  • Aralkylamine
  • 4-aminopiperidine
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Methyl ester
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationCarfentanil is similar (but more potent) to the opioid analgesic fentanyl. It is used as a tranquilizer for large animals.
PharmacodynamicsCarfentanil acts primarily on the mu (some kappa and delta) opioid receptors as an agonist. It will induce similar effects of analgesia as other opioids, however, due to its potency, it will also induce strong side effects such as sedation. Consequently, that is why it is used as a tranquilizer for large animals. Carfentanil interacts predominately with the opioid mu-receptor. These mu-binding sites are discretely distributed in the brain, spinal cord, and other tissues. It exerts its principal pharmacologic effects on the central nervous system. Its primary actions of therapeutic value are analgesia and sedation. Carfentanil also depresses the respiratory centers, depresses the cough reflex, and constricts the pupils.
Mechanism of actionCarfentanil binds very strongly to mu opioid receptors and acts as a competitive agonist. Opiate receptors are coupled with G-protein receptors and function as both positive and negative regulators of synaptic transmission via G-proteins that activate effector proteins. Binding of the opiate stimulates the exchange of GTP for GDP on the G-protein complex. As the effector system is adenylate cyclase and cAMP located at the inner surface of the plasma membrane, opioids decrease intracellular cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Subsequently, the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline is inhibited. Opioids also inhibit the release of vasopressin, somatostatin, insulin and glucagon. Opioids close N-type voltage-operated calcium channels (OP2-receptor agonist) and open calcium-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium channels (OP3 and OP1 receptor agonist). This results in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Carfentanil Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00414
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8605
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9762
Caco-2 permeable-0.5069
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7011
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.8424
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6298
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.6504
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8368
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8791
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.6667
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9279
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7664
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8561
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7325
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.6284
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.6023
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7779
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.869
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9474
Rat acute toxicity2.9219 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9613
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.6716
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0259 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.7ALOGPS
logP3.67ChemAxon
logS-4.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.05ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.85 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity114.38 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability44.6 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Louis P. Reiff, Paul B. Sollman, “Process of making carfentanil and related analgesics.” U.S. Patent US5106983, issued January, 1981.

US5106983
General References
  1. Wax PM, Becker CE, Curry SC: Unexpected "gas" casualties in Moscow: a medical toxicology perspective. Ann Emerg Med. 2003 May;41(5):700-5. [PubMed:12712038 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated calcium channel activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for endogenous opioids such as beta-endorphin and endomorphin. Receptor for natural and synthetic opioids including morphine, heroin, DAMGO, fentanyl, etorphine, buprenorphin and methadone. Agonist binding to the receptor induces coupling to an inactive GDP-bound heterotrimeric G-protein complex and subsequent exchange of GDP for GTP in the G-protein alpha subunit leading to dissociati...
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular Weight:
44778.855 Da
References
  1. Bencherif B, Wand GS, McCaul ME, Kim YK, Ilgin N, Dannals RF, Frost JJ: Mu-opioid receptor binding measured by [11C]carfentanil positron emission tomography is related to craving and mood in alcohol dependence. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Feb 1;55(3):255-62. [PubMed:14744466 ]
  2. Bencherif B, Stumpf MJ, Links JM, Frost JJ: Application of MRI-based partial-volume correction to the analysis of PET images of mu-opioid receptors using statistical parametric mapping. J Nucl Med. 2004 Mar;45(3):402-8. [PubMed:15001679 ]
  3. Jewett DM, Kilbourn MR: In vivo evaluation of new carfentanil-based radioligands for the mu opiate receptor. Nucl Med Biol. 2004 Apr;31(3):321-5. [PubMed:15028244 ]
  4. Mayberg HS, Sadzot B, Meltzer CC, Fisher RS, Lesser RP, Dannals RF, Lever JR, Wilson AA, Ravert HT, Wagner HN Jr, et al.: Quantification of mu and non-mu opiate receptors in temporal lobe epilepsy using positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol. 1991 Jul;30(1):3-11. [PubMed:1656846 ]
  5. Bartenstein PA, Prevett MC, Duncan JS, Hajek M, Wieser HG: Quantification of opiate receptors in two patients with mesiobasal temporal lobe epilepsy, before and after selective amygdalohippocampectomy, using positron emission tomography. Epilepsy Res. 1994 Jun;18(2):119-25. [PubMed:7957034 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous enkephalins and for a subset of other opioids. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates the activity of down-stream effectors, such as adenylate cyclase. Signaling leads to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity. Inhibits neurot...
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular Weight:
40368.235 Da
References
  1. Mayberg HS, Sadzot B, Meltzer CC, Fisher RS, Lesser RP, Dannals RF, Lever JR, Wilson AA, Ravert HT, Wagner HN Jr, et al.: Quantification of mu and non-mu opiate receptors in temporal lobe epilepsy using positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol. 1991 Jul;30(1):3-11. [PubMed:1656846 ]
  2. Barry U, Zuo Z: Opioids: old drugs for potential new applications. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(10):1343-50. [PubMed:15853689 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
G-protein coupled opioid receptor that functions as receptor for endogenous alpha-neoendorphins and dynorphins, but has low affinity for beta-endorphins. Also functions as receptor for various synthetic opioids and for the psychoactive diterpene salvinorin A. Ligand binding causes a conformation change that triggers signaling via guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) and modulates th...
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular Weight:
42644.665 Da
References
  1. Mayberg HS, Sadzot B, Meltzer CC, Fisher RS, Lesser RP, Dannals RF, Lever JR, Wilson AA, Ravert HT, Wagner HN Jr, et al.: Quantification of mu and non-mu opiate receptors in temporal lobe epilepsy using positron emission tomography. Ann Neurol. 1991 Jul;30(1):3-11. [PubMed:1656846 ]
  2. Barry U, Zuo Z: Opioids: old drugs for potential new applications. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(10):1343-50. [PubMed:15853689 ]
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Drug created on July 31, 2007 07:10 / Updated on February 04, 2016 11:33