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Identification
NameDehydroepiandrosterone
Accession NumberDB01708  (DB06593, EXPT00519)
Typesmall molecule
Groupsnutraceutical
Description

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a major C19 steroid produced by the adrenal cortex. It is also produced in small quantities in the testis and the ovary. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to testosterone; androstenedione; estradiol; and estrone. Most of DHEA is sulfated (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) before secretion.

In the United States, DHEA or DHEAS have been advertised with claims that they may be beneficial for a wide variety of ailments. DHEA and DHEAS are readily available in the United States, where they are marketed as over-the-counter dietary supplements.

In Canada, a prescription is required to buy DHEA.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
SynonymLanguageCode
3-beta-Hydroxy-5-androsten-17-oneNot AvailableNot Available
5-DehydroepiandrosteroneNot AvailableNot Available
5-DHEANot AvailableNot Available
DHANot AvailableNot Available
DHEANot AvailableNot Available
PrasteroneNot AvailableNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Brand names
NameCompany
FidelinPaladin
OVIGYN-DAlembic Pharmaceuicals Ltd
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
CAS number53-43-0
WeightAverage: 288.4244
Monoisotopic: 288.20893014
Chemical FormulaC19H28O2
InChI KeyFMGSKLZLMKYGDP-USOAJAOKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H28O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h3,13-16,20H,4-11H2,1-2H3/t13-,14-,15-,16-,18-,19-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,5S,10R,11S,15S)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-7-en-14-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CC=C2C[C@@]([H])(O)CC[C@]12C
Mass SpecNot Available
Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
SuperclassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
SubclassAndrogens and Derivatives
Direct parentAndrogens and Derivatives
Alternative parentsHydroxysteroids; Ketosteroids; Cyclohexanols; Cyclic Alcohols and Derivatives; Ketones; Polyamines
Substituentscyclohexanol; cyclic alcohol; secondary alcohol; ketone; polyamine; alcohol; carbonyl group
Classification descriptionThis compound belongs to the androgens and derivatives. These are hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favour the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
Pharmacology
IndicationDHEA is taken as a supplement for a variety of unsubstantiated indications. The following indications have shown promise and are backed up by some scientific evidence: schizophrenia (DHEA may be more effective in women than men); improving the appearance of older people’s skin (taking DHEA by mouth seems to increase skin thickness and moisture, and decrease facial “age spots” in elderly men and women); improving ability to achieve an erection in men with sexual dysfunction. Additionally, DHEA has shown promise in improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment may help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA may also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers. DHEA also seems to strengthen bones in SLE patients being treated with high-dose steroids (corticosteroids). DHEA also shows promise in the treatment of osteoporosis. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. DHEA is often prescribed in India for the induction of ovulation to improve chances of pregnancy.
PharmacodynamicsDHEA is naturally produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. Regular exercise is known to increase DHEA production in the body. Calorie restriction has also been shown to increase DHEA in primates. Some theorize that the increase in endogenous DHEA brought about by calorie restriction is partially responsible for the longer life expectancy known to be associated with calorie restriction.
Mechanism of actionDHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. As almost all DHEA is derived from the adrenal glands, blood measurements of DHEAS/DHEA are useful to detect excess adrenal activity as seen in adrenal cancer or hyperplasia, including certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have elevated levels of DHEAS.
AbsorptionFollowing a 50-mg DHEA PO dose in cynomolgus monkeys, systemic availability was only 3.1 +/- 0.4%. [PMID: 12970301]
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. As shown by their high conversion ratios (in a study involving cynomolgus monkeys), the major circulating metabolites of DHEA are DHEA-S, androsterone glucuronide, and androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol-glucuronide. [PMID: 12970301]

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Not Available
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateDetails
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Not Available
Dehydroepiandrosterone 3-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life12 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAcute oral toxicity (LD50): >10000 mg/kg [Rat]. Lowest Published Toxic Dose (TDL) [Man] - Route: Oral; Dose: 10 mg/kg/2W intermittent.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
Property Value Probability
Human Intestinal Absorption + 1.0
Blood Brain Barrier + 0.9611
Caco-2 permeable + 0.8816
P-glycoprotein substrate Substrate 0.6176
P-glycoprotein inhibitor I Inhibitor 0.6272
P-glycoprotein inhibitor II Non-inhibitor 0.9014
Renal organic cation transporter Non-inhibitor 0.7596
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-substrate 0.8415
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-substrate 0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrate Substrate 0.7404
CYP450 1A2 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9313
CYP450 2C9 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9672
CYP450 2D6 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9476
CYP450 2C19 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.9025
CYP450 3A4 substrate Non-inhibitor 0.8399
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuity Low CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity 0.9013
Ames test Non AMES toxic 0.9382
Carcinogenicity Non-carcinogens 0.947
Biodegradation Not ready biodegradable 0.8998
Rat acute toxicity 1.5214 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I) Weak inhibitor 0.8861
hERG inhibition (predictor II) Non-inhibitor 0.7176
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
CapsuleOral25mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
Statesolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point140-141 °CPhysProp
water solubility63.5 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.23HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility4.38e-02 g/lALOGPS
logP3.53ALOGPS
logP3.36ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)18.2ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-1.4ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count1ChemAxon
polar surface area37.3ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity84.66ChemAxon
polarizability34.09ChemAxon
number of rings4ChemAxon
bioavailability1ChemAxon
rule of fiveYesChemAxon
Ghose filterYesChemAxon
Veber's ruleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like ruleNoChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MS
References
Synthesis Reference

Isao Sugimoto, Yoko Sawase, “Stable preparation of water-soluble salts of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate for parenteral administration.” U.S. Patent US4061744, issued January, 1977.

US4061744
General Reference
  1. The NIH National Library of Medicine
  2. Baker WL, Karan S, Kenny AM: Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on muscle strength and physical function in older adults: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jun;59(6):997-1002. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03410.×. Epub 2011 Jun 7. Pubmed
  3. Alkatib AA, Cosma M, Elamin MB, Erickson D, Swiglo BA, Erwin PJ, Montori VM: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of DHEA treatment effects on quality of life in women with adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;94(10):3676-81. Epub 2009 Sep 22. Pubmed
  4. Arlt W: Dehydroepiandrosterone and ageing. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;18(3):363-80. Pubmed
  5. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L: Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Dec;31(12):1788-92. Pubmed
  6. Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006221. Pubmed
  7. Fuller SJ, Tan RS, Martins RN: Androgens in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease in aging men and possible therapeutic interventions. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Sep;12(2):129-42. Pubmed
  8. Casson PR, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation augments ovarian stimulation in poor responders: a case series. Hum Reprod, 2000;15:2129-2132.
  9. Thijs L, Fagard R, Forette F, Nawrot T, Staessen JA: Are low dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels predictive for cardiovascular diseases? A review of prospective and retrospective studies. Acta Cardiol. 2003 Oct;58(5):403-10. Pubmed
  10. Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Yen SS: A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 11;315(24):1519-24. Pubmed
  11. Arnlov J, Pencina MJ, Amin S, Nam BH, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM, Wang TJ, Knapp PE, D’Agostino RB Sr, Bhasin S, Vasan RS: Endogenous sex hormones and cardiovascular disease incidence in men. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 1;145(3):176-84. Pubmed
  12. Crosbie D, Black C, McIntyre L, Royle PL, Thomas S: Dehydroepiandrosterone for systemic lupus erythematosus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD005114. Pubmed
  13. Chang DM, Lan JL, Lin HY, Luo SF. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of women with mild-to-moderate systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov;46(11):2924-7.
  14. Mattison JA, Lane MA, Roth GS, Ingram DK: Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys. Exp Gerontol. 2003 Jan-Feb;38(1-2):35-46. Pubmed
  15. Roberts E: The importance of being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (in the blood of primates): a longer and healthier life? Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 15;57(4):329-46. Pubmed
  16. Leblanc M, Labrie C, Belanger A, Candas B, Labrie F: Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of dehydroepiandrosterone in the cynomolgus monkey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Sep;88(9):4293-302. Pubmed
External Links
ResourceLink
KEGG CompoundC01227
PubChem Compound5881
PubChem Substance46508824
ChemSpider5670
ChEBI28689
ChEMBL
Therapeutic Targets DatabaseDNC001146
PharmGKBPA451993
IUPHAR2370
Guide to Pharmacology2370
HETAND
WikipediaDehydroepiandrosterone
ATC CodesA14AA07
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSshow(19.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

1. Steroid Delta-isomerase

Kind: protein

Organism: Pseudomonas putida

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Steroid Delta-isomerase P07445 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

2. Bile salt sulfotransferase

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Bile salt sulfotransferase Q06520 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

3. Cholesterol oxidase

Kind: protein

Organism: Brevibacterium sterolicum

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cholesterol oxidase P22637 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

4. Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1 P14061 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

5. Sulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1 O00204 Details

References:

  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. Pubmed

6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha Q07869 Details

References:

  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. Pubmed
  2. Tamasi V, Miller KK, Ripp SL, Vila E, Geoghagen TE, Prough RA: Modulation of receptor phosphorylation contributes to activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha by dehydroepiandrosterone and other peroxisome proliferators. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;73(3):968-76. Epub 2007 Dec 13. Pubmed

7. Estrogen receptor

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: binder

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estrogen receptor P03372 Details

References:

  1. Chen F, Knecht K, Birzin E, Fisher J, Wilkinson H, Mojena M, Moreno CT, Schmidt A, Harada S, Freedman LP, Reszka AA: Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone. Endocrinology. 2005 Nov;146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30. Pubmed

8. Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Sigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1 Q99720 Details

References:

  1. Waterhouse RN, Chang RC, Atuehene N, Collier TL: In vitro and in vivo binding of neuroactive steroids to the sigma-1 receptor as measured with the positron emission tomography radioligand [18F]FPS. Synapse. 2007 Jul;61(7):540-6. Pubmed

9. Estrogen receptor beta

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Estrogen receptor beta Q92731 Details

References:

  1. Chen F, Knecht K, Birzin E, Fisher J, Wilkinson H, Mojena M, Moreno CT, Schmidt A, Harada S, Freedman LP, Reszka AA: Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone. Endocrinology. 2005 Nov;146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30. Pubmed

10. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2 O75469 Details

References:

  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. Pubmed

11. Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: activator

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3 Q14994 Details

References:

  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. Pubmed

12. GABA-A receptor (anion channel)

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: antagonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1 P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2 P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3 P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4 P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5 P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6 Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1 P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2 P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3 P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit delta O14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilon P78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1 Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2 P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3 Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pi O00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit theta Q9UN88 Details

References:

  1. Sousa A, Ticku MK: Interactions of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with the GABA receptor complex reveals that it may act via the picrotoxin site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):827-33. Pubmed

13. NMDA receptor

Kind: protein group

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: agonist

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 Q05586 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A Q12879 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B Q13224 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2C Q14957 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2D O15399 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3A Q8TCU5 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3B O60391 Details

References:

  1. Compagnone NA, Mellon SH: Dehydroepiandrosterone: a potential signalling molecule for neocortical organization during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14;95(8):4678-83. Pubmed

Enzymes

1. Cytochrome P450 3A4

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A4 P08684 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

2. Cytochrome P450 3A7

Kind: protein

Organism: Human

Pharmacological action: unknown

Actions: substrate inhibitor

Components

Name UniProt ID Details
Cytochrome P450 3A7 P24462 Details

References:

  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed

Comments
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:15