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Identification
NameDehydroepiandrosterone
Accession NumberDB01708  (EXPT00519, DB06593)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsNutraceutical
Description

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a major C19 steroid produced by the adrenal cortex. It is also produced in small quantities in the testis and the ovary. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to testosterone; androstenedione; estradiol; and estrone. Most of DHEA is sulfated (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) before secretion.

In the United States, DHEA or DHEAS have been advertised with claims that they may be beneficial for a wide variety of ailments. DHEA and DHEAS are readily available in the United States, where they are marketed as over-the-counter dietary supplements.

In Canada, a prescription is required to buy DHEA.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
3-beta-Hydroxy-5-androsten-17-one
5-Dehydroepiandrosterone
5-DHEA
DHA
DHEA
Prasterone
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
International Brands
NameCompany
FidelinPaladin
OVIGYN-DAlembic Pharmaceuicals Ltd
Brand mixtures
NameLabellerIngredients
PrasteraHealth Science Funding, Llc
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII459AG36T1B
CAS number53-43-0
WeightAverage: 288.4244
Monoisotopic: 288.20893014
Chemical FormulaC19H28O2
InChI KeyInChIKey=FMGSKLZLMKYGDP-USOAJAOKSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C19H28O2/c1-18-9-7-13(20)11-12(18)3-4-14-15-5-6-17(21)19(15,2)10-8-16(14)18/h3,13-16,20H,4-11H2,1-2H3/t13-,14-,15-,16-,18-,19-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,2R,5S,10R,11S,15S)-5-hydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadec-7-en-14-one
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CC=C2C[C@@]([H])(O)CC[C@]12C
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as androgens and derivatives. These are 3-hydroxylated C19 steroid hormones. They are known to favor the development of masculine characteristics. They also show profound effects on scalp and body hair in humans.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassAndrostane steroids
Direct ParentAndrogens and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Androgen-skeleton
  • 3-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-beta-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 17-oxosteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxy-delta-5-steroid
  • Delta-5-steroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Pharmacology
IndicationDHEA is taken as a supplement for a variety of unsubstantiated indications. The following indications have shown promise and are backed up by some scientific evidence: schizophrenia (DHEA may be more effective in women than men); improving the appearance of older people’s skin (taking DHEA by mouth seems to increase skin thickness and moisture, and decrease facial “age spots” in elderly men and women); improving ability to achieve an erection in men with sexual dysfunction. Additionally, DHEA has shown promise in improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment may help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA may also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers. DHEA also seems to strengthen bones in SLE patients being treated with high-dose steroids (corticosteroids). DHEA also shows promise in the treatment of osteoporosis. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. DHEA is often prescribed in India for the induction of ovulation to improve chances of pregnancy.
PharmacodynamicsDHEA is naturally produced from cholesterol through two cytochrome P450 enzymes. Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by the enzyme P450 scc (side chain cleavage); then another enzyme, CYP17A1, converts pregnenolone to 17α-Hydroxypregnenolone and then to DHEA. Regular exercise is known to increase DHEA production in the body. Calorie restriction has also been shown to increase DHEA in primates. Some theorize that the increase in endogenous DHEA brought about by calorie restriction is partially responsible for the longer life expectancy known to be associated with calorie restriction.
Mechanism of actionDHEA can be understood as a prohormone for the sex steroids. DHEAS may be viewed as buffer and reservoir. As most DHEA is produced by the zona reticularis of the adrenal cortex, it is argued that there is a role in the immune and stress response. As almost all DHEA is derived from the adrenal glands, blood measurements of DHEAS/DHEA are useful to detect excess adrenal activity as seen in adrenal cancer or hyperplasia, including certain forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome tend to have elevated levels of DHEAS.
Related Articles
AbsorptionFollowing a 50-mg DHEA PO dose in cynomolgus monkeys, systemic availability was only 3.1 +/- 0.4%. [PMID: 12970301]
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
Metabolism

Hepatic. As shown by their high conversion ratios (in a study involving cynomolgus monkeys), the major circulating metabolites of DHEA are DHEA-S, androsterone glucuronide, and androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol-glucuronide. [PMID: 12970301]

SubstrateEnzymesProduct
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Not Available
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfateDetails
Dehydroepiandrosterone
Not Available
Dehydroepiandrosterone 3-glucuronideDetails
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half life12 hours
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityAcute oral toxicity (LD50): >10000 mg/kg [Rat]. Lowest Published Toxic Dose (TDL) [Man] - Route: Oral; Dose: 10 mg/kg/2W intermittent.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+1.0
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9611
Caco-2 permeable+0.8816
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.6176
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.6272
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9014
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7596
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8415
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7404
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9313
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9672
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9476
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9025
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8399
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9013
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9382
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.947
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.8998
Rat acute toxicity1.5214 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8861
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7176
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Kitoral
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point140-141 °CPhysProp
water solubility63.5 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP3.23HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0438 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.53ALOGPS
logP3.36ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.2ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity84.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 1 TMS)splash10-jz82000000-9dc14963a290268534b8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-ez31000000-2bbc760dbeb7f9f1ebfcView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-pzg0000000-948ad487c238d48aa9beView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Isao Sugimoto, Yoko Sawase, “Stable preparation of water-soluble salts of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate for parenteral administration.” U.S. Patent US4061744, issued January, 1977.

US4061744
General References
  1. Baker WL, Karan S, Kenny AM: Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on muscle strength and physical function in older adults: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jun;59(6):997-1002. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03410.x. Epub 2011 Jun 7. [PubMed:21649617 ]
  2. Alkatib AA, Cosma M, Elamin MB, Erickson D, Swiglo BA, Erwin PJ, Montori VM: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of DHEA treatment effects on quality of life in women with adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Oct;94(10):3676-81. doi: 10.1210/jc.2009-0672. Epub 2009 Sep 22. [PubMed:19773400 ]
  3. Arlt W: Dehydroepiandrosterone and ageing. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Sep;18(3):363-80. [PubMed:15261843 ]
  4. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L: Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 Dec;31(12):1788-92. [PubMed:10613429 ]
  5. Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Oct 18;(4):CD006221. [PubMed:17054283 ]
  6. Fuller SJ, Tan RS, Martins RN: Androgens in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease in aging men and possible therapeutic interventions. J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Sep;12(2):129-42. [PubMed:17917157 ]
  7. Thijs L, Fagard R, Forette F, Nawrot T, Staessen JA: Are low dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels predictive for cardiovascular diseases? A review of prospective and retrospective studies. Acta Cardiol. 2003 Oct;58(5):403-10. [PubMed:14609305 ]
  8. Barrett-Connor E, Khaw KT, Yen SS: A prospective study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, mortality, and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 1986 Dec 11;315(24):1519-24. [PubMed:2946952 ]
  9. Arnlov J, Pencina MJ, Amin S, Nam BH, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM, Wang TJ, Knapp PE, D'Agostino RB Sr, Bhasin S, Vasan RS: Endogenous sex hormones and cardiovascular disease incidence in men. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Aug 1;145(3):176-84. [PubMed:16880459 ]
  10. Crosbie D, Black C, McIntyre L, Royle PL, Thomas S: Dehydroepiandrosterone for systemic lupus erythematosus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD005114. [PubMed:17943841 ]
  11. Mattison JA, Lane MA, Roth GS, Ingram DK: Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys. Exp Gerontol. 2003 Jan-Feb;38(1-2):35-46. [PubMed:12543259 ]
  12. Roberts E: The importance of being dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (in the blood of primates): a longer and healthier life? Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Feb 15;57(4):329-46. [PubMed:9933021 ]
  13. Leblanc M, Labrie C, Belanger A, Candas B, Labrie F: Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of dehydroepiandrosterone in the cynomolgus monkey. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Sep;88(9):4293-302. [PubMed:12970301 ]
  14. Casson PR, Lindsay MS, Pisarska MD, Carson SA, Buster JE: Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation augments ovarian stimulation in poor responders: a case series. Hum Reprod. 2000 Oct;15(10):2129-32. [PubMed:11006185 ]
  15. Chang DM, Lan JL, Lin HY, Luo SF: Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of women with mild-to-moderate systemic lupus erythematosus: a multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 Nov;46(11):2924-7. [PubMed:12428233 ]
  16. The NIH National Library of Medicine [Link]
External Links
ATC CodesA14AA07G03EA03
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (19.8 KB)
Interactions
Drug Interactions
Drug
EstradiolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Estradiol.
EstropipateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Estropipate.
TestosteroneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dehydroepiandrosterone is combined with Testosterone.
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Pseudomonas putida
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ksi
Uniprot ID:
P07445
Molecular Weight:
14535.48 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfonation of steroids and bile acids in the liver and adrenal glands.
Gene Name:
SULT2A1
Uniprot ID:
Q06520
Molecular Weight:
33779.57 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Brevibacterium sterolicum
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid delta-isomerase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the oxidation and isomerization of cholesterol to cholestenone (4-cholesten-3-one), which is an initial step in the cholesterol degradation process.
Gene Name:
choB
Uniprot ID:
P22637
Molecular Weight:
59357.765 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Testosterone dehydrogenase (nad+) activity
Specific Function:
Favors the reduction of estrogens and androgens. Also has 20-alpha-HSD activity. Uses preferentially NADH.
Gene Name:
HSD17B1
Uniprot ID:
P14061
Molecular Weight:
34949.715 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid sulfotransferase activity
Specific Function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. I...
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular Weight:
41307.32 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [PubMed:10592235 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleylethanolamide, a naturally occurring lipid that regulates satiety. Receptor for peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Regulates the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway of fa...
Gene Name:
PPARA
Uniprot ID:
Q07869
Molecular Weight:
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. [PubMed:17591676 ]
  2. Tamasi V, Miller KK, Ripp SL, Vila E, Geoghagen TE, Prough RA: Modulation of receptor phosphorylation contributes to activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha by dehydroepiandrosterone and other peroxisome proliferators. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;73(3):968-76. Epub 2007 Dec 13. [PubMed:18079279 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
binder
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Ligand-dependent nuclear transactivation involves either direct homodimer binding to a palindromic estrogen response element (ERE) sequence or association with other DNA-binding transcription fact...
Gene Name:
ESR1
Uniprot ID:
P03372
Molecular Weight:
66215.45 Da
References
  1. Chen F, Knecht K, Birzin E, Fisher J, Wilkinson H, Mojena M, Moreno CT, Schmidt A, Harada S, Freedman LP, Reszka AA: Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone. Endocrinology. 2005 Nov;146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30. [PubMed:15994348 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Opioid receptor activity
Specific Function:
Functions in lipid transport from the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in a wide array of cellular functions probably through regulation of the biogenesis of lipid microdomains at the plasma membrane. Involved in the regulation of different receptors it plays a role in BDNF signaling and EGF signaling. Also regulates ion channels like the potassium channel and could modulate neurotransmitt...
Gene Name:
SIGMAR1
Uniprot ID:
Q99720
Molecular Weight:
25127.52 Da
References
  1. Waterhouse RN, Chang RC, Atuehene N, Collier TL: In vitro and in vivo binding of neuroactive steroids to the sigma-1 receptor as measured with the positron emission tomography radioligand [18F]FPS. Synapse. 2007 Jul;61(7):540-6. [PubMed:17447254 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner (PubMed:20074560). Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA-binding by...
Gene Name:
ESR2
Uniprot ID:
Q92731
Molecular Weight:
59215.765 Da
References
  1. Chen F, Knecht K, Birzin E, Fisher J, Wilkinson H, Mojena M, Moreno CT, Schmidt A, Harada S, Freedman LP, Reszka AA: Direct agonist/antagonist functions of dehydroepiandrosterone. Endocrinology. 2005 Nov;146(11):4568-76. Epub 2005 Jun 30. [PubMed:15994348 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and is...
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular Weight:
49761.245 Da
References
  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. [PubMed:17591676 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
activator
General Function:
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function:
Binds and transactivates the retinoic acid response elements that control expression of the retinoic acid receptor beta 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genes. Transactivates both the phenobarbital responsive element module of the human CYP2B6 gene and the CYP3A4 xenobiotic response element.
Gene Name:
NR1I3
Uniprot ID:
Q14994
Molecular Weight:
39942.145 Da
References
  1. Kohalmy K, Tamasi V, Kobori L, Sarvary E, Pascussi JM, Porrogi P, Rozman D, Prough RA, Meyer UA, Monostory K: Dehydroepiandrosterone induces human CYP2B6 through the constitutive androstane receptor. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007 Sep;35(9):1495-501. Epub 2007 Jun 25. [PubMed:17591676 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
antagonist
General Function:
Inhibitory extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific Function:
Component of the heteropentameric receptor for GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. Functions also as histamine receptor and mediates cellular responses to histamine. Functions as receptor for diazepines and various anesthetics, such as pentobarbital; these are bound at a separate allosteric effector binding site. Functions as ligand-gated chloride channel (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1P14867 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2P47869 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3P34903 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4P48169 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5P31644 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6Q16445 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1P18505 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2P47870 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3P28472 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltaO14764 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilonP78334 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1Q8N1C3 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2P18507 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3Q99928 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit piO00591 Details
Gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetaQ9UN88 Details
References
  1. Sousa A, Ticku MK: Interactions of the neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with the GABA(A) receptor complex reveals that it may act via the picrotoxin site. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Aug;282(2):827-33. [PubMed:9262347 ]
Kind
Protein group
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Voltage-gated cation channel activity
Specific Function:
NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate-gated ion channels with high calcium permeability and voltage-dependent sensitivity to magnesium. Mediated by glycine. This protein plays a key role in synaptic plasticity, synaptogenesis, excitotoxicity, memory acquisition and learning. It mediates neuronal functions in glutamate neurotransmission. Is involved in the cell surface targeting of NMDA receptors (By similarity).
Components:
NameUniProt IDDetails
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1Q05586 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2AQ12879 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2BQ13224 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2CQ14957 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2DO15399 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3AQ8TCU5 Details
Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3BO60391 Details
References
  1. Compagnone NA, Mellon SH: Dehydroepiandrosterone: a potential signalling molecule for neocortical organization during development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Apr 14;95(8):4678-83. [PubMed:9539798 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrateinhibitor
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular Weight:
57525.03 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on September 16, 2013 17:15