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NamePantothenic acid
Accession NumberDB01783  (EXPT02501)
TypeSmall Molecule

Pantothenic acid, also called pantothenate or vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-soluble vitamin discovered by Roger J. Williams in 1919. For many animals, pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine. Small quantities of pantothenic acid are found in nearly every food, with high amounts in whole-grain cereals, legumes, eggs, meat, royal jelly, avocado, and yogurt. It is commonly found as its alcohol analog, the provitamin panthenol, and as calcium pantothenate. Pantothenic acid is an ingredient in some hair and skin care products. Only the dextrorotatory (D) isomer of pantothenic acid possesses biologic activity. The levorotatory (L) form may antagonize the effects of the dextrorotatory isomer. [Wikipedia]

(+)-Pantothenic acidNot AvailableNot Available
D-pantothenic acidNot AvailableNot Available
PantothenateNot AvailableNot Available
Vitamin B5Not AvailableNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Prescription ProductsNot Available
Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Over the Counter Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Acti Pantothenic Acid 1000 Timed Caplettablet1 goralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Acti-pantothenic Acid 300 Caplet 300mgtablet300 mgoralActi Form Ltd.1991-12-312005-03-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
D Pantothenic Acid Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1984-12-312000-08-01Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
D'pantothenic Acid Srt 1000mgtablet (extended-release)1 goralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1981-12-312001-07-26Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
D-pantothenic Acid 250mgcapsule250 mgoralWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.2001-10-072007-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
D-pantothenic Acid 250mg Capcapsule250 mgoralGahler Enterprises Ltd.1993-12-312008-07-17Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantacid Tab 250mgtablet250 mgoralLes Produits Naturels Suisse Inc.1985-12-311996-09-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acidcapsule250 mgoralSeroyal International Inc.1993-12-312008-10-09Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 100 Mg Tabletstablet100 mgoralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-04-182005-08-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 100mgtablet100 mgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 250mgtablet250 mgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 250mgtablet250 mgoralGeneral Nutrition Canada Inc.1997-08-132005-08-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 500 Caplet 500mgtablet500 mgoralHealth Wise Nutrition Inc.1994-12-311998-08-25Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 500 mgcapsule500 mgoralFlora Manufacturing And Distributing Ltd.2002-03-152007-08-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid 500mgtablet500 mgoralGreat Earth Companies, Inc.1998-08-252002-10-02Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Cap 250mgcapsule250 mgoralQuest Vitamins A Div Of Purity Life Health Products1980-12-312001-07-06Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Caps 100mgcapsule100 mgoralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-312002-09-11Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Caps 250mgcapsule250 mgoralTwin Laboratories Inc.1995-12-311999-11-10Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralVita Health Products Inc1976-12-312002-07-31Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Tab 100mg Nu Lifetablet100 mgoralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1964-12-312000-03-03Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Tab 200mgtablet200 mgoralKlaire Labs Inc.1984-12-311999-01-18Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Tab 500mgtablet (extended-release)500 mgoralPure Life International Prods Inc.1992-12-312001-08-07Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid Tablets 300mgtablet300 mgoralNu Life Nutrition Ltd.1986-12-312005-03-15Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Pantothenic Acid-s Tab 100mgtablet100 mgoralNutri West Products Ltd.1993-12-311997-08-05Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vita-tenic Cap 300mgcapsule300 mgoralLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.1989-12-311997-02-06Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic Acid) Tab 250mgtablet250 mgoralJamieson Laboratories Ltd1993-12-312001-09-14Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
Vitamin B5 Tab 50mg USP Chewabletablet50 mgoralLab Gernetic Int Ltee1986-12-311997-02-21Canada 5f16b84899037e23705f146ff57e3794121879cb055f0954756d94bc690476b4
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
Adrenogist TabPure Life International Prods Inc.
Avon Nutrivance Stress FormulaAvon Canada Ulc
B Complex TabletsGolden Neo Life Diamite International, Limited
B Complex W Vit C W Non-med Yeast&liver TabPharmavite Llc
B Complex With C 300mg TabPharmavite Llc
B Plus C 300mg Timed ReleaseVita Health Products Inc
B Stress C + Iron & ViteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
B With C 500 CapPharmetics (2011) Inc
B-50 Complex TabVita Health Products Inc
B-complex TabletsShaklee Canada Inc
B-plexLand Art Inc.
B50 B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Balanced B-100 B-complex Vitamins TabPharmavite Llc
Balanced B-100 Timed ReleasePharmavite Llc
Balanced B-50 ComplexLeiner Health Products Inc.
Balanced B-complex Vit + Vit C&e TabPharmavite Llc
Bear EssentialsHealth Asure, Inc.
Beminal 500 TabsWyeth Canada
Beminal With C Fortis PwsWyeth Ayerst Canada Inc.
Bio-fenLisa & Gerry Freundl
C-b ComplexAvacare, Division Of Jeunique International Inc.
C.R.T. X Multivitamin & Mineral Powder MixMetaform Ltd.
Carbassist TabletsWyeth Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Cc IIAdded Dimensions
Cda-21 Vitamins With Non-medicinal Probiotic ComplexRx Vitamins Inc.
Cedevita Plus Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Cedevita Sugar-free Vitamin SupplementPliva, Pharmaceutical, Chemical, Food And Cosmetic Industry, Inc.
Chewable Children's Complete Multivitamins With Essential MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children Choice Multivit Chewable TabSwiss Herbal Remedies Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multi-vitamin Complete With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Children's Chewable Multivitamins With MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Complex 5 - PwrAst Research
Complex-75Frega Inc.
Complexe B-75Frega Inc.
D Pantothenic 500mg With 100mg CGahler Enterprises Ltd.
D'pantothenic Acid-b1-b2 TabHealth Thru Herbs Inc.
Daily Energy Brand B-complexEnzymatic Therapy (Canada) Inc.
Dia-viteR & D Laboratories Inc.
DiaplexNephro Tech, Inc.
Fem - PmtMetagenics, Inc.
Formula D.S.Golden Pride International
Formula L.G.I.Metagenics, Inc.
Formula Sf-710Thorne Research Inc.
Geritol LiquidGlaxosmithkline Consumer Healthcare Inc.
Hi Potency Balanced B-100 Complex - TabLeiner Health Products Inc.
Hill.viteHillestad Pharmaceuticals Usa
Inner Health Vitamin Supplement CapsulesUsana Health Sciences Inc.
Kanga Sport Vitamins B & C Plus MineralsLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-b Vitamin B Group + CLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kanga-kid Multi-vitamin & MineralLacombe Drugs (1992) Ltd
Kc Vitamin and Mineral SupplementMuscle Marketing Usa Inc.
Leritone JuniorInstitut De Recherche Biologique Yves Ponroy Canada Inc.
LipovitanP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
Multi #2W 7 Clay Inc.
Multi Vitamin & MineralsWn Pharmaceuticals Ltd.
Multi-vitamins for Infusion LiqDavid Bull Laboratories (Pty) Ltd.
Multivit-liqPharmalab Inc.
Neo Bex ElixirNeolab Inc
Nioxin Recharging ComplexNioxin Research Laboratories, Inc.
Nutrol-b-complexRolmex International Inc.
Phosthenine Vitamines Et Fer (ampoules Buvable)Laboratoires Cortunon Inc.
Polymine Avec Zinc Et CuivreLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Red BullP.S.W.C. Co., Inc.
ReplaviteStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Shen Min Vitamin and Mineral SupplementBiotech Corporation
Shen Min Vitamin SupplementBiotech Corporation
Somarexin and C 1000Laboratoire Lalco Inc.
Spectra 301 Vitamin and Mineral SuppNf Formulas Inc.
Stress B Complex With C, E & IronPharmavite Llc
Stress Complex 600 Avec Vit E Cuivre ZincFrega Inc.
Stress FormulaVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula + IronVita Health Products Inc
Stress Formula Multivitamin Tablets USPLeiner Health Products Inc.
Stress Formula TabNature's Sunshine Products Of Canada Ltd.
Stress Tab With Iron and Vitamin EVita Health Products Inc
Stress Tab With Zinc, Copper and Vitamin EVita Health Products Inc
Stressease Plus Vitamins and MineralsJamieson Laboratories Ltd
Super PantoplexNu Life Nutrition Ltd.
Super Vitalex Ampoule BuvableCarmaran LtÉe
Supravite 10ml AmpouleNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Bouteille 250mlNobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite C 1000Nobel Pharm Enr.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit EPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Cuivre Et ZincPharmalab Inc.
Supravite Stress Avec Vit E Et FerPharmalab Inc.
Swical-energy-2Les Laboratoires Swisse Inc.
T.R.I. B-plex SrcAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Tar-endNature's Sunshine Products Inc.
Toni Com LiqVitalab
Tri AdrenopanAnabolic Laboratories Inc.
Ultra EnerforceNutribon (1986) Inc.
Vita-b-75 CapLes Laboratoires Vachon Inc.
Vitabanks Vitamin TabVitabank Inc.
Vitafer - LiqFrega Inc.
Vitamin B Complex Plus C 300mg Timed ReleaseVita Health Products Inc
Vitamin B Complex TabNutristar Health Products (1987) Inc.
Vitamin B Compound TabNutrilite, A Division Of Access Business Group, Llc
Vitamine Du Groupe B Plus Fer - LiqPharmalab Inc.
Vitogen B Compound W C Fortis CapsulesStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Vitogen B Stress C Vit E Zinc & CopStanley Pharmaceuticals, A Division Of Vita Health Products Inc.
Calcium pantothenate
  • Monoisotopic Mass: 476.168286409
  • Average Mass: 476.532
CAS number79-83-4
WeightAverage: 219.235
Monoisotopic: 219.110672659
Chemical FormulaC9H17NO5
3-(2,4-dihydroxy-3,3-dimethylbutanamido)propanoic acid
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as beta amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids having a (-NH2) group attached to the beta carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentBeta amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acyl
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty amide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
IndicationStudied for the treatment of many uses such as treatment of testicular torsion, diabetic ulceration, wound healing, acne, obesity, diabetic peripheral polyneuropathy. It has also been investigated for its hypolipidemic effects and as cholesterol lowering agent.
PharmacodynamicsPantothenic acid is used in the synthesis of coenzyme A (CoA). Coenzyme A may act as an acyl group carrier to form acetyl-CoA and other related compounds; this is a way to transport carbon atoms within the cell. CoA is important in energy metabolism for pyruvate to enter the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) as acetyl-CoA, and for α-ketoglutarate to be transformed to succinyl-CoA in the cycle. CoA is also important in the biosynthesis of many important compounds such as fatty acids, cholesterol, and acetylcholine. CoA is incidentally also required in the formation of ACP, which is also required for fatty acid synthesis in addition to CoA. Pantothenic acid in the form of CoA is also required for acylation and acetylation, which, for example, are involved in signal transduction and enzyme activation and deactivation, respectively. Since pantothenic acid participates in a wide array of key biological roles, it is essential to all forms of life. As such, deficiencies in pantothenic acid may have numerous wide-ranging effects, as discussed below.
Mechanism of actionPantothenic acid is incorporated into COENZYME A and protects cells against peroxidative damage by increasing the level of GLUTATHIONE.
AbsorptionWhen found in foods, most pantothenic acid is in the form of CoA or acyl carrier protein (ACP). For the intestinal cells to absorb this vitamin, it must be converted into free pantothenic acid. Within the lumen of the intestine, CoA and ACP are hydrolyzed into 4'-phosphopantetheine. The 4'-phosphopantetheine is then dephosphorylated into pantetheine. Pantetheinase, an intestinal enzyme, then hydrolyzes pantetheine into free pantothenic acid. Free pantothenic acid is absorbed into intestinal cells via a saturable, sodium-dependent active transport system. At high levels of intake, when this mechanism is saturated, some pantothenic acid may also be absorbed via passive diffusion. As intake increases 10-fold, however, absorption rate decreases to 10%. [Wikipedia]
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNo Tolerable Upper Level Intake (UL) has been established for the vitamin.
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisMetabolicSMP00027
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
Ureidopropionase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00492
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00351
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaDiseaseSMP00493
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption-0.6189
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6889
Caco-2 permeable-0.7055
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.5464
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.836
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9184
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.95
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8235
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8051
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5411
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9133
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9137
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9417
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8929
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9587
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9305
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9278
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.662
Rat acute toxicity1.7394 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9968
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.944
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage forms
Tabletoral1 g
Tabletoral300 mg
Tabletoral15 mg
Tabletoral2 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral5 mg
Tabletoral25 mg
Capsuleoral35 mg
Tabletoral9 mg
Solutionoral1.8 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Tabletoral100 mg
Tabletoral10 mg
Tabletoral80 unit
Powder for solutionintravenous5 mg
Capsuleoral2 mg
Powderoral1 mg
Tabletoral5 mg
Capsuleoral8.3 mg
Tabletoral1 mg
Powderoral2 mg
Tabletoral75 mg
Tabletoral500 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral1 g
Capsuleoral85 mg
Tabletoral1.7 mg
Tabletoral4 mg
Tabletoral0.05 mg
Capsuleoral12.5 mg
Liquidoral.17 mg
Tablet (effervescent)oral10 mg
Tablet (effervescent)oral1 mg
Liquidoral5 mg
Capsuleoral1.9 mg
Liquidintravenous4 mg
Liquidoral.2 mg
Elixiroral.02 mg
Capsuleoral25 mg
Capsuleoral250 mg
Tabletoral500 mg
Capsuleoral500 mg
Capsuleoral100 mg
Tabletoral200 mg
Tablet (extended-release)oral500 mg
Tabletoral100 mg
Liquidoral0.02 mg
Tabletoral7.5 mg
Liquid; tabletoral2 mg
Tabletoral6 mg
Tabletoral20 mg
Liquidoral2 mg
Liquidoral1.5 mg
Capsule (sustained-release)oral20 mg
Capsuleoral3 mg
Liquidoral3 mg
Capsule (sustained-release)oral12.5 mg
Liquidoral0.3 mg
Capsuleoral75 mg
Capsuleoral300 mg
Tablet.75 mg
Liquidoral.75 mg
Tabletoral1.2 mg
Tabletoral250 mg
Tabletoral50 mg
Liquidoral0.75 mg
Capsuleoral5 mg
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point195ºC (D-Calcium Pantothenate salt)MSDS
water solubilitySolubleMSDS
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility60.5 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.35ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.86 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity51.51 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability21.92 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Synthesis Reference

John F. Verbeeck, “Process for the production of the calcium salt of pantothenic acid.” U.S. Patent US3935256, issued February, 1971.

General References
  1. Trumbo, P. R. (2006). “Pantothenic Acid”. In Shils, M. E.; Shike, M.; Ross, A. C. et al.. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 462–467. ISBN 0-7817-4133-5.
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (47.9 KB)
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available


1. Pantothenate kinase

Kind: protein

Organism: Escherichia coli (strain K12)

Pharmacological action: unknown


Name UniProt ID Details
Pantothenate kinase P0A6I3 Details


  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed

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Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 /Updated on September 16, 2013 17:16