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Identification
NameDexloxiglumide
Accession NumberDB04856
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsInvestigational
Description

Dexloxiglumide is a selective cholecystokinin type A (CCKA) receptor antagonist in phase III testing by Rottapharm in Europe only, as U.S. trials have been discontinued. As the D-isomer of loxiglumide, it retains all pharmacological properties of loxiglumide but is more potent.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
CR 2017
CR-2017
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
Categories
UNII69DY40RH9B
CAS number119817-90-2
WeightAverage: 461.379
Monoisotopic: 460.153177494
Chemical FormulaC21H30Cl2N2O5
InChI KeyInChIKey=QNQZBKQEIFTHFZ-GOSISDBHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C21H30Cl2N2O5/c1-3-4-5-11-25(12-6-13-30-2)21(29)18(9-10-19(26)27)24-20(28)15-7-8-16(22)17(23)14-15/h7-8,14,18H,3-6,9-13H2,1-2H3,(H,24,28)(H,26,27)/t18-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(4R)-4-[(3,4-dichlorophenyl)formamido]-4-[(3-methoxypropyl)(pentyl)carbamoyl]butanoic acid
SMILES
CCCCCN(CCCOC)C(=O)[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)NC(=O)C1=CC(Cl)=C(Cl)C=C1
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hippuric acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a hippuric acid or a derivative, with a structure characterized the presence of a benzoyl group linked to the N-terminal of a glycine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzamides
Direct ParentHippuric acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-alpha amino acid or derivatives
  • Hippuric acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid amide
  • 4-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • 3-halobenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Benzoic acid or derivatives
  • 1,2-dichlorobenzene
  • Benzoyl
  • Halobenzene
  • Chlorobenzene
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Aryl halide
  • Aryl chloride
  • Tertiary carboxylic acid amide
  • Tertiary amine
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Pharmacology
IndicationFor the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD).
PharmacodynamicsDexloxiglumide is a selective cholecystokinin type A (CCKA) receptor antagonist. In October 2003, following the completion of two phase III clinical studies involving dexloxiglumide in women with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Forest Laboratories decided to discontinue development of the drug for this indication. The results of the studies showed that dexloxiglumide did not show statistically significant favorability over placebo. Rotta Research is continuing a phase III trial of a different design in Europe for the IBS indication and also for gastroesophogeal reflux disease.
Mechanism of actionCCKA antagonists target receptors in the gastrointestinal system to increase gastric emptying and intestinal motility, as well as modulate intestinal sensitivity to distension.
Related Articles
AbsorptionRapidly and extensively absorbed after single oral administration in humans with an absolute bioavailability of 48%. The incomplete bioavailability is due to both incomplete absorption and hepatic first-pass effect.
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein binding94-98%
Metabolism

Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5 and CYP2C9 have been implicated in the metabolism of dexloxiglumide to produce O-demethyl dexloxi-glumide. This metabolite is further oxidised to dexloxiglumide carboxylic acid. These two major metabolites (accounting for up to 50% of dexloxiglumide elimination) have been identified. However, in human plasma the unchanged drug represents the major (up to 91%) component of the metabolic profile. The parent drug is believed to be the major contributor to the efficacy of the compound, since its major metabolites are pharmacologically inactive.

Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.5738
Blood Brain Barrier-0.7306
Caco-2 permeable-0.8957
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.8266
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.5658
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.6272
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.868
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8529
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9116
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.5
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.788
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8266
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8319
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7627
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7224
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.7843
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.9188
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.9931
Rat acute toxicity2.1985 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9558
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Inhibitor0.5705
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00555 mg/mLALOGPS
logP3.23ALOGPS
logP3.37ChemAxon
logS-4.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.05ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area95.94 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity117.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability47.88 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
SpectraNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Persiani S, D'Amato M, Jakate A, Roy P, Wangsa J, Kapil R, Rovati LC: Pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1177-88. [PubMed:17112294 ]
  2. Maselli MA, Mennuni L: CCK1 receptor antagonist, dexloxiglumide: effects on human isolated gallbladder. Potential clinical applications. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol. 2003 Sep;49(3):211-6. [PubMed:16484960 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Peptide binding
Specific Function:
Receptor for cholecystokinin. Mediates pancreatic growth and enzyme secretion, smooth muscle contraction of the gall bladder and stomach. Has a 1000-fold higher affinity for CCK rather than for gastrin. It modulates feeding and dopamine-induced behavior in the central and peripheral nervous system. This receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinos...
Gene Name:
CCKAR
Uniprot ID:
P32238
Molecular Weight:
47840.645 Da
References
  1. Persiani S, D'Amato M, Jakate A, Roy P, Wangsa J, Kapil R, Rovati LC: Pharmacokinetic profile of dexloxiglumide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2006;45(12):1177-88. [PubMed:17112294 ]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Vitamin d3 25-hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiot...
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular Weight:
57342.67 Da
References
  1. Hall M, Persiani S, Cheung YL, Matthews A, Cybulski ZR, Holding JD, Kapil R, D'Amato M, Makovec F, Rovati LC: Interaction of dexloxiglumide, a cholecystokinin type-1 receptor antagonist, with human cytochromes P450. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 May;25(4):163-76. [PubMed:15108219 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Steroid hydroxylase activity
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenyto...
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular Weight:
55627.365 Da
References
  1. Hall M, Persiani S, Cheung YL, Matthews A, Cybulski ZR, Holding JD, Kapil R, D'Amato M, Makovec F, Rovati LC: Interaction of dexloxiglumide, a cholecystokinin type-1 receptor antagonist, with human cytochromes P450. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 May;25(4):163-76. [PubMed:15108219 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Oxygen binding
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular Weight:
57108.065 Da
References
  1. Hall M, Persiani S, Cheung YL, Matthews A, Cybulski ZR, Holding JD, Kapil R, D'Amato M, Makovec F, Rovati LC: Interaction of dexloxiglumide, a cholecystokinin type-1 receptor antagonist, with human cytochromes P450. Biopharm Drug Dispos. 2004 May;25(4):163-76. [PubMed:15108219 ]
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Drug created on October 18, 2007 18:07 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:24