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Identification
NameACP-104
Accession NumberDB05766
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsInvestigational
Description

ACP-104, or N-desmethylclozapine, is the major metabolite of clozapine, and is being developed by ACADIA as a novel, stand-alone therapy for schizophrenia. It combines an atypical antipsychotic efficacy profile with the added potential benefit of enhanced cognition, thereby addressing one of the major challenges in treating schizophrenia today.

Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
External Identifiers Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
SaltsNot Available
CategoriesNot Available
UNIINot Available
CAS numberNot Available
WeightNot Available
Chemical FormulaNot Available
InChI KeyNot Available
InChINot Available
IUPAC NameNot Available
SMILESNot Available
Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Pharmacology
IndicationInvestigated for use/treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders.
Pharmacodynamics ACP-104 is a small molecule drug candidate we are developing as a novel therapy for schizophrenia. It is known that large amounts of ACP-104, or N-desmethylclozapine, are formed in the body after administration of clozapine. That is, clozapine is metabolized to ACP-104. We discovered that ACP-104 has a unique ability to stimulate m1 muscarinic receptors, a key muscarinic receptor. The m1 muscarinic receptors are widely known to play an important role in cognition. Since clozapine itself blocks the m1 muscarinic receptor, patients need to extensively metabolize clozapine into ACP-104 to stimulate this receptor and thereby overcome the blocking action of clozapine. Administration of ACP-104 will avoid the variability of this metabolic process and the competing action of clozapine. Like clozapine, ACP-104 is a dopamine antagonist and a 5-HT2A inverse agonist. We believe that ACP-104 represents a new approach to schizophrenia therapy that combines an atypical antipsychotic efficacy profile with the added advantage of beneficial cognitive effects.
Mechanism of actionACP-104 combines M1 muscarinic agonism, 5-HT2A inverse agonism, and D2 and D3 dopamine partial agonism in a single compound. ACP-104 uniquely stimulates brain cells known as M1 muscarinic receptors that play an important role in cognition. ACP-104 is a partial-agonist that causes weak activation of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors. These partial agonist properties of ACP-104 may lead to less motoric side effects than seen with most other antipsychotic drugs.
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
SNP Mediated EffectsNot Available
SNP Mediated Adverse Drug ReactionsNot Available
ADMET
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal AbsorptionNot AvailableNot Available
Blood Brain BarrierNot AvailableNot Available
Caco-2 permeableNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein substrateNot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INot AvailableNot Available
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINot AvailableNot Available
Renal organic cation transporterNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 1A2 substrateNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNot AvailableNot Available
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityNot AvailableNot Available
Ames testNot AvailableNot Available
CarcinogenicityNot AvailableNot Available
BiodegradationNot AvailableNot Available
Rat acute toxicityNot AvailableNot applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Not AvailableNot Available
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Not AvailableNot Available
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
PackagersNot Available
Dosage formsNot Available
PricesNot Available
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental PropertiesNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Not Available
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB EntriesNot Available
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Interactions
Drug InteractionsNot Available
Food InteractionsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c activity
Specific Function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is Pi turnover.
Gene Name:
CHRM1
Uniprot ID:
P11229
Molecular Weight:
51420.375 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Potassium channel regulator activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
DRD2
Uniprot ID:
P14416
Molecular Weight:
50618.91 Da
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
G-protein coupled amine receptor activity
Specific Function:
Dopamine receptor whose activity is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase. Promotes cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
DRD3
Uniprot ID:
P35462
Molecular Weight:
44224.335 Da
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Drug created on November 18, 2007 11:27 / Updated on September 13, 2013 12:09