|DB00005||Etanercept||Etanercept is indicated for the treatment of moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis in adults and chronic moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in adults. It is also used to manage signs and symptoms of polyarticular idiopathic arthritis in those aged 4 to 17 after insufficient response to one or more disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Etanercept is also used to improve psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. |
|DB00020||Sargramostim||For the treatment of cancer and bone marrow transplant|
|DB00028||Immune Globulin Human||IVIg is used in the treatment of immunodeficiencies, as well as autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. These indications includes idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, Kawasaki disease, hypogammaglobulinemia, B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, bone marrow transplant complications, Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, myesthenia gravis, Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases.|
|DB00060||Interferon beta-1a||For treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum|
|DB00068||Interferon beta-1b||Interferon beta-1b is a drug used for the treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. It has been shown to slow the advance of the disease as well as to decrease the frequency of attacks.|
|DB00073||Rituximab||Rituximab is indicated in the following conditions [FDA label]:
**Non–Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL)**
**Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)**
**Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in combination with methotrexate in adult patients with moderately-to severely-active RA**
**Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) (Wegener’s Granulomatosis) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA)**
**Moderate to severe Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV) in adult patients**
The biosimilar (approved in November 2018), _Truxima_, is indicated For the treatment of adult patients with CD20-positive, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) to be used as a single agent or in combination with chemotherapy [L4808].|
|DB00074||Basiliximab||For prophylactic treatment of kidney transplant rejection|
|DB00075||Muromonab||For treatment of organ transplant recipients, prevention of organ rejection|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB00108||Natalizumab||For treatment of multiple sclerosis.|
|DB00111||Daclizumab||Zenapax is a humanized monoclonal antibody used for prevention of renal transplant rejection|
|DB00162||Vitamin A||For the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.|
|DB00242||Cladribine||For the treatment of active hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis) as defined by clinically significant anemia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, or disease-related symptoms. Also used as an alternative agent for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.|
|DB00337||Pimecrolimus||For treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis.|
|DB00441||Gemcitabine||Gemcitabine is indicated for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer that has relapsed at least 6 months after completion of platinum-based therapy; metastatic ovarian cancer; inoperable, locally advanced (Stage IIIA or IIIB), or metastatic (Stage IV) non-small cell lung cancer; and locally advanced (nonresectable Stage II or Stage III) or metastatic (Stage IV) adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. |
|DB00480||Lenalidomide||Lenalidomide is indicated for the treatment of multiple myeloma in combination with dexamethasone. It is also indicated for the treatment of patients with transfusion-dependent anemia due to low- or intermediate- risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cytogenetic abnormality with or without additional cytogenetic abnormalities.|
|DB00531||Cyclophosphamide||Cyclophosphamide is indicated for the treatment of malignant lymphomas, multiple myeloma, leukemias, mycosis fungoides (advanced disease), neuroblastoma (disseminated disease), adenocarcinoma of the ovary, retinoblastoma, and carcinoma of the breast. It is also indicated for the treatment of biopsy-proven minimal change nephrotic syndrome in pediatric patients. |
|DB00544||Fluorouracil||For the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. In the 5% strength it is also useful in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas when conventional methods are impractical, such as with multiple lesions or difficult treatment sites. Fluorouracil injection is indicated in the palliative management of some types of cancer, including colon, esophageal, gastric, rectum, breast, biliary tract, stomach, head and neck, cervical, pancreas, renal cell, and carcinoid.|
|DB00563||Methotrexate||Methotrexate oral solution is indicated for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and pediatric polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis.[L7144] Methotrexate injections for subcutaneous use are indicated for severe active rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis and severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis.[L7147,L7150]
Other formulations are indicated to treat gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens, hydatiform mole, breast cancer, epidermoid cancer of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides, lung cancer, and advanced non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.[L7180] It is also used in the maintenance of acute lymphocytic leukemia.[L7180] Methotrexate is also given before treatment with leucovorin to prolong relapse-free survival following surgical removal of a tumour in non-metastatic osteosarcoma.[L7180]|
|DB00620||Triamcinolone||For the treatment of perennial and seasonal allergic rhinitis.|
|DB00688||Mycophenolate mofetil||Mycophenolate mofetil is indicated for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients undergoing allogeneic renal, hepatic, or cardiac transplants. It should be used with cyclosporine and corticosteroids.[L7363] Mycophenolate mofetil may also be used off-label as a second-line treatment for autoimmune hepatitis that has not responded adequately to first-line therapy.[A180814] Other off-label uses of this drug include lupus-associated nephritis and dermatitis in children.[A180817]|
|DB00724||Imiquimod||For the topical treatment of clinically typical, nonhyperkeratotic, nonhypertrophic actinic keratoses on the face or scalp in immunocompetent adults. Also indicated for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts/condyloma acuminata in individuals 12 years old and above.|
|DB00848||Levamisole||For adjuvant treatment in combination with fluorouracil after surgical resection in patients with Dukes' stage C colon cancer. Also used to treat malignant melanoma and head/neck cancer.|
|DB00864||Tacrolimus||For use after allogenic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient's immune system and so the risk of organ rejection. It was given FDA approval in 1994 for use in liver transplantation. Since then, this indication has expanded to kidney, heart, small bowel, pancreas, lung, trachea, skin, cornea, and limb transplants. It has also been used in a topical preparation in the treatment of severe atopic dermatitis.|
|DB00877||Sirolimus||For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving renal transplants.|
|DB00987||Cytarabine||For the treatment of acute non-lymphocytic leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia and blast phase of chronic myelocytic leukemia.|
|DB00993||Azathioprine||For use in rheumatoid arthritis, preventing renal transplant rejection, Crohn's disease, and colitis.|
|DB01008||Busulfan||For use in combination with cyclophosphamide as a conditioning regimen prior to allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous (myeloid, myelocytic, granulocytic) leukemia (FDA has designated busulfan as an orphan drug for this use). It is also used as a component of pretransplant conditioning regimens in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia and nonmalignant diseases.|
|DB01033||Mercaptopurine||For remission induction and maintenance therapy of acute lymphatic leukemia.|
|DB01041||Thalidomide||For the acute treatment of the cutaneous manifestations of moderate to severe erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Also for use as maintenance therapy for prevention and suppression of the cutaneous manifestations of ENL recurrence.|
|DB01042||Melphalan||For the palliative treatment of multiple myeloma and for the palliation of non-resectable epithelial carcinoma of the ovary. Has also been used alone or as part of various chemotherapeutic regimens as an adjunct to surgery in the treatment of breast cancer, alone or in combination regimens for palliative treatment of locally recurrent or unresectable in-transit metastatic melanoma of the extremities, as well as for the treatment of amyloidosis with prednisone.|
|DB01073||Fludarabine||For the treatment of adult patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) who have not responded to or whose disease has progressed during treatment with at least one standard alkylating-agent containing regimen|
|DB01097||Leflunomide||For the management of the signs and symptoms of active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) to improve physical function and to slow the progression of structural damage associated with the disease. Has also been used for the prevention of acute and chronic rejection in recipients of solid organ trasnplants and is designated by the FDA as an orphan drug for this use.|
|DB01281||Abatacept||For the management of the signs and symptoms of moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis, inducing major clinical response, slowing the progression of structural damage, and improving physical function in adult patients. It is indicated both as a monotherapy and for use in combination with a continued regimen of DMARDs (not including TNF antagonists). Also used for the management of the signs and symptoms of moderately to severely active polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis in children.|
|DB01423||Stepronin||Strepronin is a mucolytic (expectorant) drug.|
|DB01590||Everolimus||Everolimus is indicated for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer (advanced HR+ BC) in combination with exemestane, after failure of treatment with letrozole or anastrozole.
Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with progressive neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin (PNET) with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic disease.
Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after failure of treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib.
Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with renal angiomyolipoma and tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), not requiring immediate surgery.
Indicated in pediatric and adult patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) that requires therapeutic intervention but cannot be curatively resected.|
|DB01708||Prasterone||DHEA is taken as a supplement for a variety of unsubstantiated indications. The following indications have shown promise and are backed up by some scientific evidence: schizophrenia (DHEA may be more effective in women than men); improving the appearance of older people’s skin (taking DHEA by mouth seems to increase skin thickness and moisture, and decrease facial “age spots” in elderly men and women); improving ability to achieve an erection in men with sexual dysfunction. Additionally, DHEA has shown promise in improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment may help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA may also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers. DHEA also seems to strengthen bones in SLE patients being treated with high-dose steroids (corticosteroids).
DHEA also shows promise in the treatment of osteoporosis. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. DHEA is often prescribed in India for the induction of ovulation to improve chances of pregnancy.|
|DB03006||Arsanilic acid||Not Available|
|DB03424||Ubenimex||An adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia.|
|DB04572||Thiotepa||ThioTEPA is used a as conditioning treatment prior to allogeneic or autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) in haematological diseases in adult and paediatric patients. Also, when high dose chemotherapy with HPCT support it is appropriate for the treatment of solid tumours in adult and paediatric patients.|
|DB04900||Thymalfasin||Indicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate antibody titers from previous immunization.|
|DB04956||Afelimomab||Investigated for use/treatment in sepsis and septicemia.|
|DB05258||Interferon alfa||Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C), leukemia (lymphoid), leukemia (myeloid), leukemia (unspecified), and melanoma.|
|DB05259||Glatiramer||For reduction of the frequency of relapses in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.|
|DB05299||keyhole limpet hemocyanin||Investigated for use/treatment in bladder cancer and solid tumors.|
|DB05400||QS-21||Investigated for use/treatment in genital herpes, HIV infection, hepatitis (viral, B), influenza, malaria, melanoma, and viral infection.|
|DB05779||Oglufanide||Investigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).|
|DB06196||Icatibant||Approved for use in acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE). Investigated for use/treatment in angioedema, liver disease, and burns and burn infections.|
|DB06224||Alicaforsen||Investigated for use/treatment in crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.|
|DB06404||Human C1-esterase inhibitor||For routine prophylaxis against angioedema attacks in adolescent and adult patients with Hereditary Angioedema (HAE).|
|DB06681||Belatacept||For prophylaxis of organ rejection. It is also used concomitantly with basiliximumab for induction therapy, mycophenolate, and corticosteriods in kidney transplant recepients that are seropositive for the Epstein-Barr virus. |
|DB06723||Aluminum hydroxide||For relief of heartburn and acid indigestion. |
|DB08818||Hyaluronic acid||Used to treat knee pain in patients with joint inflammation (osteoarthritis). It is usually used in patients who have not responded to other treatments such as acetaminophen, exercise, or physical therapy. Hyaluronic acid may also be used in plastic surgery to reduce wrinkles on the face or as a filler in other parts of the body. May be used in ophthalmology to assist in the extraction of cataracts, the implantation of intraocular lenses, corneal transplants, glaucoma filtration, retinal attachment and in the treatment of dry eyes. Finally, hyaluronic acid is also used to coat the bladder lining in treating interstitial cystitis.|
|DB08843||GS 0573||Not Available|
|DB08868||Fingolimod||Fingolimod is a sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator indicated for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis to reduce the frequency of clinical exacerbations and to delay the accumulation of physical disability.|
|DB08879||Belimumab||Adjunct treatment for auto-antibody-positive active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The intravenous injectable form is the only FDA approved treatment for pediatric patients with SLE.|
|DB08880||Teriflunomide||Used in the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).|
|DB08904||Certolizumab pegol||Certolizumab pegol has been approved for several different conditions listed below:
- Symptomatic management of Chron's disease patients and for the maintenance of clinical response in patients with moderate to severe disease with inadequate response to conventional therapy.
- Treatment of adult patients with moderate to severely active rheumatoid arthritis.
- Treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis.
- Treatment of adult patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.
- Treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis that are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.[FDA label]
- Treatment of adult patients with active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis with objective signs of inflammation.[L5819]
In Canada, certolizumab pegol is additionally approved in combination with [methotrexate] for the symptomatic treatment, including major clinical response, and for the reduction of joint damage in adult patients with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.[L5825]
Inflammation is a biological response against a potential threat. This response can be normal but in certain conditions, the immune system can attack the body's normal cells or tissues which causes an abnormal inflammation.[L5840] TNF-alpha has been identified as a key regulator of the inflammatory response. The signaling cascades of this inflammatory mediator can produce a wide range of reactions including cell death, survival, differentiation, proliferation and migration.[A176660] |
|DB08908||Dimethyl fumarate||Used in multiple sclerosis patients with relapsing forms.|
|DB08910||Pomalidomide||Pomalidomide is indicated for patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least two prior therapies including lenalidomide and bortezomib and have demonstrated disease progression on or within 60 days of completion of the last therapy.|
|DB11239||Aluminum sulfate||Solutions containing 5 to 10% aluminum sulfate have been used as local applications to ulcers and to arrest foul discharges from mucous surfaces. Aluminum sulfate is also used in the preparation of aluminum acetate ear drops [L2149]. It is often purchased over the counter and is available in solid stick or powder form for minor cuts and abrasions after shaving [L2157], [L2164]. Aluminum sulfate is also used as an adjuvant in vaccines [L2158].|
|DB11364||Pidotimod||For use as immunostimulant therapy for treatment of cell-mediated immunosuppression with respiratory or urinary infections [L929].|
|DB11366||Roquinimex||Roquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions.
As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone marrow transplantation in cases of acute leukemia. |
|DB11643||Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit||Not Available|
|DB11752||Bryostatin 1||Not Available|
|DB11989||Benznidazole||For use in the treatment of Chagas disease in children 2-12 years of age [L939].|
|DB12112||Zuretinol acetate||Not Available|
|DB12223||Squaric Acid Dibutyl Ester||Not Available|
|DB12598||Nafamostat||Used as an anticoagulant in patients with disseminative blood vessel coagulation, hemorrhagic lesions, and hemorrhagic tendencies. It prevents blood clot formation during extracorporeal circulation in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy and extra corporeal membrane oxygenation. |
|DB12768||BCG vaccine||Not Available|
|DB13144||Lenograstim||The drug is used to reduce the risk of life-threatening infection in patients with neutropenia, particularly after cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Lenograstim is indicated as a treatment to reduce the duration of neutropenia and the severity of infections in patients with non-myeloid malignancy who have undergone autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, or treatment with established cytotoxic chemotherapy and in addition to reduce the incidence of infection associated with established cytotoxic chemotherapy.
Lenograstim is also indicated to mobilise peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) with Lenograstim alone, or after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, in order to accelerate haematopoietic recovery by infusion of such cells, after myelosuppressive or myeloablative therapy. Lenograstim is also indicated to accelerate the engraftment of these cells after their reinfusion.
GRANOCYTE is also indicated for the treatment of severe chronic neutropenia including congenital agranulocytosis (Kostmann's syndrome).|
|DB13156||Inosine pranobex||Inosine pranobex is also indicated for mucocutaneous infections due to herpes simplex virus (type 1 and type II) and for treatment of genital warts as adjunctive therapy to podophyllin or carbon dioxide laser. |
|DB13615||Mifamurtide||Indicated in children, adolescents and young adults for the treatment of high-grade, resectable, non-metastatic osteosarcoma after macroscopically complete surgical resection, typically in combination with post-operative multi-agent chemotherapy [L1203].|
|DB14517||Aluminium phosphate||Not Available|
|DB09087||Potassium alum||Potassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the use of potassium alum are:
-Cosmetic or drug astringent, helping the shrinkage of tissues and the dry of secretions[L1072]
-Oral health care drug[L1072]
-Part of formulation in cleansing products, skin-care products, mosturizers, face powders and deodorants[L1073]
|DB14999||Human interferon beta||Not Available|
|DB00092||Alefacept||As an immunosuppressive drug, Alefacept can be used for treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis|
|DB00098||Antithymocyte immunoglobulin (rabbit)||For prevention of renal transplant rejection|
|DB05463||ISS-1018||Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, hepatitis (viral, B), and lymphoma (non-hodgkin's).
ISS 1018 is currently being investigated in combination with HBsAg vaccine as a prophylactic treatment for to prevent Hepatitis B in adults. It has also been investigated in combination with rituximab for treatment of b-cell or non-hodgkin's lymphoma.|
|DB05792||Arylacenamide||Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified), immunosuppressive, and prostate cancer.|
|DB06599||Lexatumumab||Investigated for use/treatment in cancer/tumors (unspecified).|
|DB06662||Abetimus||Investigated for use/treatment in kidney disease and systemic lupus erythematosus.|
|DB11580||Ravulizumab||Ravulizumab is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) [FDA Label].|
1) The treatment of transthyretin amyloidosis in adult patients with stage 1 symptomatic polyneuropathy to delay peripheral neurologic impairment in Europe.[L6247]
2) The treatment of cardiomyopathy in wild type or hereditary transthyretin-mediated amyloidosis in the US.[label]
There is a distinction in dosage between tafamidis, dosed at 61mg daily, and tafamadis meglumine which is dosed at 80mg daily.|
|DB11988||Ocrelizumab||Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsing or primary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis [FDA Label].|