Adjuvants, Immunologic

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00060Interferon beta-1aA form of recombinant human interferon used to slow disease progression and reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms in patients who have relapsing multiple sclerosis.
DB00068Interferon beta-1bA form of recombinant human interferon used to slow the progression of relapsing multiple sclerosis and to reduce the frequency of clinical symptoms.
DB05259GlatiramerAn immunomodulator used to reduce the frequency of relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS).
DB11364PidotimodFor use as immunostimulant therapy for treatment of cell-mediated immunosuppression with respiratory or urinary infections .
DB11366RoquinimexRoquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions. As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone...
DB11996ThymopentinThymopentin has been used in trials studying the treatment and prevention of HIV Infections and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
DB13144LenograstimThe drug is used to reduce the risk of life-threatening infection in patients with neutropenia, particularly after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lenograstim is indicated as a treatment to reduce the duration of...
DB12768BCG vaccineBCG vaccine has been investigated for the treatment of Neoplasms, Bladder Cancer, Neoplasms by Site, Urologic Diseases, and Urologic Neoplasms, among others.
DB13480LentinanNot Annotated
DB13615MifamurtideA muramyl dipeptide derivative used to treat high grade, resectable, non-metastatic osteosarcoma after surgical resection.
DB00162Vitamin AA vitamin important for retinal function that is used clinically to correct vitamin A deficiency.
DB00724ImiquimodA toll-like receptor 7 agonist used to treat non hyperkeratotic, non hypertrophic actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma, genital or perianal warts, and condyloma acuminata.
DB00848LevamisoleLevamisole is a nicotinic receptor agonist used to treat helminth infections and some skin infections.
DB01708PrasteroneA steroid formulated as a vaginal insert indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia associated with menopausal vulvar and vaginal atrophy.
DB02520DitiocarbA chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of man and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
DB02587ColforsinPotent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant Coleus forskohlii. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities;...
DB03006Arsanilic acidAn arsenical which has been used as a feed additive for enteric conditions in pigs and poultry. It causes blindness and is ototoxic and nephrotoxic in animals. [PubChem]
DB03424UbenimexAn adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia.
DB04900ThymalfasinIndicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate...
DB05299keyhole limpet hemocyaninInvestigated for use/treatment in bladder cancer and solid tumors.
DB05400QS-21Investigated for use/treatment in genital herpes, HIV infection, hepatitis (viral, B), influenza, malaria, melanoma, and viral infection.
DB05779OglufanideInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
DB06723Aluminum hydroxideAn antacid used for the symptomatic relief of heartburn, acid indigestion, and sour stomach.
DB08818Hyaluronic acidUsed to treat knee pain in patients with joint inflammation (osteoarthritis). It is usually used in patients who have not responded to other treatments such as acetaminophen, exercise, or physical...
DB11239Aluminum sulfateA medication used to prevent infections and to treat minor bleeding.
DB11643Recombinant Cholera Toxin B SubunitRecombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit is an ingredient in the EMA-authorised product Dukoral.
DB11748BenfotiamineBenfotiamine has been investigated for the treatment and prevention of Diabetic Nephropathy and Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2.
DB11752Bryostatin 1Bryostatin 1 has been investigated for the treatment of HIV Infection and Alzheimer's Disease.
DB12082VesnarinoneVesnarinone has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections and Sarcoma, Kaposi.
DB12083MafosfamideMafosfamide has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lymphoma, Leukemia, Meningeal Neoplasm, and Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors.
DB12112Zuretinol acetateZuretinol acetate has been used in trials studying the treatment of Impaired Dark Adaptation, RP (Retinitis Pigmentosa), Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP), and LCA (Leber Congenital Amaurosis).
DB12182BinetrakinBinetrakin has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV Infections, Sarcoma, Kaposi, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS), and Leukemia, Acute Myelogenous (AML), among others.
DB12223Squaric acid dibutyl esterSquaric acid dibutyl ester is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01971385 (Safety and Efficacy of Squaric Acid Dibutyl Ester for the Treatment of Herpes Labialis).
DB12232KRN-7000KRN7000 has been used in trials studying the treatment of Lung Cancer, Chronic Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Chronic, Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific, and Prevention of GvHD in Patients...
DB12406LisofyllineLisofylline has been investigated for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.
DB12684AviscumineCy 503 is under investigation in clinical trial NCT00658437 (Aviscumine for the Treatment of Malignant Melanoma Stage IV After Failure of Prior Therapy).
DB13128SizofiranA beta-D-glucan obtained from the Aphyllophoral fungus Schizophyllum commune. It is used as an immunoadjuvant in the treatment of neoplasms, especially tumors found in the stomach. Sizofiran has been used...
DB13156Inosine pranobexA medication used to treat subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.
DB13723MeldoniumNot Annotated
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aA modified form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses.
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1A purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of genital warts due to human papilloma virus.
DB00019PegfilgrastimA recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor used to stimulate the production of neutrophils and prevent febrile neutropenia or infections after myelosuppressive chemotherapy.
DB00020SargramostimA modified form of recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor used to increase immune cell production after myelosuppressive therapy or bone marrow transplant.
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bA purified form of human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C, genital warts, and some cancers.
DB00034Interferon alfa-2a, RecombinantA form of recombinant human interferon used to stimulate the innate antiviral response in the treatment of hepatitis B and C viruses.
DB00038OprelvekinA form of recombinant interleukin-11 used to stimulate production of megakaryocytes and platelets in patients with or at risk of thrombocytopenia after chemotherapy.
DB00041AldesleukinA recombinant analog of interleukin-2 used to induce an adaptive immune response in the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1A recombinant interferon similar the interferon alfa subtype which is used to treat hepatitis C infections.
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bA form of recombinant human interferon used to treat hepatitis B and C infection, genital warts, hairy cell leukemia, follicular lymphoma, malignant melanoma, and AIDs-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
DB05396Albinterferon Alfa-2BInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
DB06688Sipuleucel-TAn autologous cellular immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer.
DB06809PlerixaforA selective chemokine receptor (CXCR4) antagonist used with filgrastim to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM).
DB09103AncestimA human stem cell factor used in combination with filgrastim during autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell (PBPC) transplantation to increase PBPC mobilization for improved collection.
DB09122Peginterferon beta-1aAn interferon beta used to treat relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
DB11626TasonerminA tumor necrosis factor alpha used along with surgery to remove soft tissue sarcomas of the limbs.
DB12525MolgramostimMolgramostim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bronchiectasis, Cystic Fibrosis, Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis, Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, and Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.
DB12699BalugrastimBalugrastim has been used in trials studying the treatment of Solid Tumors.
DB12814Cepeginterferon alfa-2BCepeginterferon alfa-2B is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01889433 (An Open-label Comparative Efficacy and Safety Study of Algeron (Cepeginterferon Alfa-2b) in Treatment-naive Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C).
DB13200LipegfilgrastimA medication used to reduce the duration of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and incidence of febrile neutropenia in cytotoxic chemotherapy.
DB13674CridanimodNot Annotated
DB05381HistamineAn ingredient of topical drugs for the relief of joint pain or muscle aches and pains.
DB14143DistearyldimoniumNot Annotated
DB14517Aluminium phosphateNot Available
DB06186IpilimumabA human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking antibody used to treat metastatic or unresectable melanoma.
DB09035NivolumabA PD-1 blocking antibody used to treat melanoma, non small-cell lung cancer, renal cell cancer, head and neck cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma.
DB09087Potassium alumPotassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the...
DB00061PegademaseA modified form of bovine adenosine deaminase used to treat adenosine deaminase deficiency, a condition which leads to the formation of adenosine metabolites which are cytotoxic to lymphocytes.
DB15119Ropeginterferon alfa-2bRopeginterferon alfa-2b is under investigation in clinical trial NCT01949805 (Pegylated Interferon Alpha-2b Versus Hydroxyurea in Polycythemia Vera).
DB15290PegteograstimPegteograstim is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02787876 (Pegteograstim in Children With Solid Tumors).
DB05463ISS-1018Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, hepatitis (viral, B), and lymphoma (non-hodgkin's). ISS 1018 is currently being investigated in combination with HBsAg vaccine as a prophylactic treatment for to prevent...
DB13375EdrecolomabNot Annotated
DB025028-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosineNot Available
DB04168BropirimineNot Available
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00060Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00060Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00060Interferon beta-1aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00068Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00068Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00068Interferon beta-1bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB05259GlatiramerHLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-1 beta chaintarget
DB13144LenograstimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB13615MifamurtideToll-like receptor 4target
DB13615MifamurtideNucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 12target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 1target
DB00162Vitamin A11-cis retinol dehydrogenasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 13target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 3target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 5carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinoid-binding protein 7carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 4carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 2carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 2target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 1target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinaldehyde-binding protein 1target
DB00162Vitamin ALecithin retinol acyltransferasetarget
DB00162Vitamin AShort-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3target
DB00162Vitamin AAldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3target
DB00162Vitamin AAll-trans-retinol 13,14-reductasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 11target
DB00162Vitamin ADehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 14target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 8target
DB00162Vitamin ACytochrome P450 26A1enzyme
DB00162Vitamin AApolipoprotein Dtarget
DB00162Vitamin AHematopoietic prostaglandin D synthasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ASerum albumincarrier
DB00724ImiquimodToll-like receptor 7target
DB00724ImiquimodToll-like receptor 8target
DB00724ImiquimodCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00848LevamisoleNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00848LevamisoleAlkaline phosphatase, placental-liketarget
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-38target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type lev-1target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type unc-29target
DB01708PrasteroneSteroid Delta-isomerasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneBile salt sulfotransferasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneCholesterol oxidasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1target
DB01708PrasteroneSulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1target
DB01708PrasteroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01708PrasteronePeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01708PrasteroneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB01708PrasteroneSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
DB01708PrasteroneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB01708PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01708PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3target
DB01708PrasteroneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01708PrasteroneNMDA receptortarget
DB01708PrasteroneAndrogen receptortarget
DB02520DitiocarbCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB02520DitiocarbCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB02520DitiocarbCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB02587ColforsinP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB02587ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 2target
DB02587ColforsinGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms shorttarget
DB02587ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 5target
DB02587ColforsinCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB03006Arsanilic acidLysozyme Ctarget
DB03424UbenimexBacterial leucyl aminopeptidasetarget
DB03424UbenimexLeukotriene A-4 hydrolasetarget
DB03424UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB03424UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB05299keyhole limpet hemocyaninInterleukin-2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidCD44 antigentarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidIntercellular adhesion molecule 1target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan mediated motility receptortarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidNeurocan core proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidVersican core proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidComplement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrialtarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 4target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan-binding protein 2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidLayilintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidStabilin-2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidTumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidInterphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidIntracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4target
DB11752Bryostatin 1Cytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB12406LisofyllineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1Cytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00019PegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB00019PegfilgrastimNeutrophil elastaseenzyme
DB00020SargramostimGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00020SargramostimBone marrow proteoglycantarget
DB00020SargramostimInterleukin-3 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00020SargramostimCytokine receptor common subunit betatarget
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00034Interferon alfa-2a, RecombinantInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00034Interferon alfa-2a, RecombinantInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00034Interferon alfa-2a, RecombinantCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00038OprelvekinInterleukin-11 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00041AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit betatarget
DB00041AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00041AldesleukinCytokine receptor common subunit gammatarget
DB00041AldesleukinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1Cytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB05396Albinterferon Alfa-2BCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06688Sipuleucel-TProstatic acid phosphatasetarget
DB06809PlerixaforC-X-C chemokine receptor type 4target
DB09103AncestimMast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kittarget
DB09122Peginterferon beta-1aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB11626TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Atarget
DB11626TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Btarget
DB12814Cepeginterferon alfa-2BCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB13200LipegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H3 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine N-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB05381HistamineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSerotransferrintarget
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSerum albumincarrier
DB14517Aluminium phosphateKallikrein-1target
DB14517Aluminium phosphateAmyloid beta A4 proteintarget
DB06186IpilimumabCytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4target
DB09035NivolumabProgrammed cell death protein 1target
DB09087Potassium alumSerum albumincarrier
DB00061PegademaseGrowth factor receptor-bound protein 2target
DB15119Ropeginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB05463ISS-1018Toll-like receptor 9target
DB04168BropirimineDihydroneopterin aldolasetarget