Adjuvants, Immunologic

Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00060Interferon beta-1aFor treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis, also for condyloma acuminatum
DB00068Interferon beta-1bInterferon beta-1b is a drug used for the treatment of relapsing/remitting multiple sclerosis. It has been shown to slow the advance of the disease as well as to decrease the frequency of attacks.
DB05259GlatiramerFor reduction of the frequency of relapses in patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis.
DB11364PidotimodFor use as immunostimulant therapy for treatment of cell-mediated immunosuppression with respiratory or urinary infections [L929].
DB11366RoquinimexRoquinimex is investigated to be used as a treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune conditions. As well, roquinimex is researched to be used as adjuvant therapy after bone marrow transplantation in cases of acute leukemia.
DB11996ThymopentinNot Available
DB13144LenograstimThe drug is used to reduce the risk of life-threatening infection in patients with neutropenia, particularly after cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lenograstim is indicated as a treatment to reduce the duration of neutropenia and the severity of infections in patients with non-myeloid malignancy who have undergone autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, or treatment with established cytotoxic chemotherapy and in addition to reduce the incidence of infection associated with established cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lenograstim is also indicated to mobilise peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPCs) with Lenograstim alone, or after myelosuppressive chemotherapy, in order to accelerate haematopoietic recovery by infusion of such cells, after myelosuppressive or myeloablative therapy. Lenograstim is also indicated to accelerate the engraftment of these cells after their reinfusion. GRANOCYTE is also indicated for the treatment of severe chronic neutropenia including congenital agranulocytosis (Kostmann's syndrome).
DB12768BCG vaccineNot Available
DB13480LentinanNot Available
DB13615MifamurtideIndicated in children, adolescents and young adults for the treatment of high-grade, resectable, non-metastatic osteosarcoma after macroscopically complete surgical resection, typically in combination with post-operative multi-agent chemotherapy [L1203].
DB00162Vitamin AFor the treatment of vitamin A deficiency.
DB00724ImiquimodFor the topical treatment of clinically typical, nonhyperkeratotic, nonhypertrophic actinic keratoses on the face or scalp in immunocompetent adults. Also indicated for the treatment of external genital and perianal warts/condyloma acuminata in individuals 12 years old and above.
DB00848LevamisoleFor adjuvant treatment in combination with fluorouracil after surgical resection in patients with Dukes' stage C colon cancer. Also used to treat malignant melanoma and head/neck cancer.
DB01708PrasteroneDHEA is taken as a supplement for a variety of unsubstantiated indications. The following indications have shown promise and are backed up by some scientific evidence: schizophrenia (DHEA may be more effective in women than men); improving the appearance of older people’s skin (taking DHEA by mouth seems to increase skin thickness and moisture, and decrease facial “age spots” in elderly men and women); improving ability to achieve an erection in men with sexual dysfunction. Additionally, DHEA has shown promise in improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment may help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA may also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers. DHEA also seems to strengthen bones in SLE patients being treated with high-dose steroids (corticosteroids). DHEA also shows promise in the treatment of osteoporosis. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa. DHEA is often prescribed in India for the induction of ovulation to improve chances of pregnancy.
DB02520DitiocarbNot Available
DB02587ColforsinNot Available
DB03006Arsanilic acidNot Available
DB03424UbenimexAn adjuvant therapy used for acute and chronic myelonous leukemia, lung cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. It is also used to treat hypercholesterolaemia.
DB04900ThymalfasinIndicated as an adjuvant for influenza vaccine in elderly patients and as an adjuvant for both influenza and hepatitis B vaccines in chronic hemodialysis patients who failed to achieve adequate antibody titers from previous immunization.
DB05299keyhole limpet hemocyaninInvestigated for use/treatment in bladder cancer and solid tumors.
DB05400QS-21Investigated for use/treatment in genital herpes, HIV infection, hepatitis (viral, B), influenza, malaria, melanoma, and viral infection.
DB05779OglufanideInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
DB06723Aluminum hydroxideFor relief of heartburn and acid indigestion.
DB08818Hyaluronic acidUsed to treat knee pain in patients with joint inflammation (osteoarthritis). It is usually used in patients who have not responded to other treatments such as acetaminophen, exercise, or physical therapy. Hyaluronic acid may also be used in plastic surgery to reduce wrinkles on the face or as a filler in other parts of the body. May be used in ophthalmology to assist in the extraction of cataracts, the implantation of intraocular lenses, corneal transplants, glaucoma filtration, retinal attachment and in the treatment of dry eyes. Finally, hyaluronic acid is also used to coat the bladder lining in treating interstitial cystitis.
DB11239Aluminum sulfateSolutions containing 5 to 10% aluminum sulfate have been used as local applications to ulcers and to arrest foul discharges from mucous surfaces. Aluminum sulfate is also used in the preparation of aluminum acetate ear drops [L2149]. It is often purchased over the counter and is available in solid stick or powder form for minor cuts and abrasions after shaving [L2157], [L2164]. Aluminum sulfate is also used as an adjuvant in vaccines [L2158].
DB11643Recombinant Cholera Toxin B SubunitNot Available
DB11748BenfotiamineNot Available
DB11752Bryostatin 1Not Available
DB12082VesnarinoneNot Available
DB12083MafosfamideNot Available
DB12112Zuretinol acetateNot Available
DB12182BinetrakinNot Available
DB12223Squaric Acid Dibutyl EsterNot Available
DB12232KRN-7000Not Available
DB12406LisofyllineNot Available
DB12684AviscumineNot Available
DB13128SizofiranNot Available
DB13156Inosine pranobexInosine pranobex is also indicated for mucocutaneous infections due to herpes simplex virus (type 1 and type II) and for treatment of genital warts as adjunctive therapy to podophyllin or carbon dioxide laser.
DB13723MeldoniumNot Available
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aPeginterferon alfa-2a is indicated for the treatment of HCV in combination with other antiviral drugs in patients over 5 years of age with compensated liver disease [FDA Label]. May be used as a monotherapy in patients with contraindications to or significant intolerance to other anti-viral therapies. Peginterferon alfa-2a is also indicated as a monotherapy for adult patients with HBeAg positive and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B infection who have compensated liver disease and evidence of viral replication and liver inflammation [FDA Label].
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1For treatment of venereal or genital warts caused by the Human Papiloma Virus
DB00019PegfilgrastimPegfilgrastim is indicated for use in patients receiving myelosuppressive chemotherapy for non-myeloid malignancies to reduce the incidence of infection. It is also indicated to increase in patients with acute myelosuppresive radiation exposure.
DB00020SargramostimFor the treatment of cancer and bone marrow transplant
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bPeginterferon alfa-2b is indicated for the treatment of HCV in combination with [DB00811] and a NS3/4A protease inhibitor for genotype 1 or without a NS3/4A protease inhibitor for genotypes 2-6 [FDA Label]. May be used as a monotherapy in patients with contraindications to or significant intolerance to other anti-viral therapies.
DB00034Interferon Alfa-2a, RecombinantFor the treatment of chronic hepatitis C, hairy cell leukemia, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Also for the treatment of oral warts arising from HIV infection.
DB00038OprelvekinIndicated for the prevention of severe thrombocytopenia and the reduction of the need for platelet transfusions following myelosuppressive chemotherapy in adult patients with nonmyeloid malignancies who are at high risk of severe thrombocytopenia.[Label]
DB00041AldesleukinFor treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1For the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, malignant melanoma, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bFor the treatment of hairy cell leukemia, malignant melanoma, and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
DB05396Albinterferon Alfa-2BInvestigated for use/treatment in hepatitis (viral, C).
DB06688Sipuleucel-TSipuleucel-T is an autologous cellular immunotherapy indicated for the treatment of asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castrate resistant (hormone refractory) prostate cancer.
DB06809PlerixaforUsed in combination with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, filgrastim) to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells to the peripheral blood for collection and subsequent autologous transplantation in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (MM).
DB09103AncestimAncestim, in combination with filgrastim, is indicated for the setting of autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell transplantation in patients at risk of poor peripheral blood progenitor cell mobilisation.[L1090] The use of ancestim with filgrastim will generate a sustained increase in the number of peripheral blood progenitor cells capable of engraftment. It is used for mobilization of progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood with or withouth mobilizing chemotherapy. The harvested progenitor cells can be used for transplant following myelosuppressive or myeloablative therapies.[L1089]
DB09122Peginterferon beta-1aFor the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis.
DB11626TasonerminFor use in adults as an adjunct to surgery for subsequent removal of the tumour so as to prevent or delay amputation, or in palliative care, for irresectable soft tissue sarcoma of the limbs [FDA Label]. Used in combination with melphalan via mild hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion.
DB12525MolgramostimNot Available
DB12699BalugrastimNot Available
DB12814Cepeginterferon alfa-2BNot Available
DB13200LipegfilgrastimIndicated for the reduction in the duration of neutropenia and the incidence of febrile neutropenia in adult patients treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy for malignancy (with the exception of chronic myeloid leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes) [L2441].
DB13674CridanimodNot Available
DB05381HistamineHistamine phosphate is indicated as a diagnostic aid for evaluation of gastric acid secretory function.
DB14143DistearyldimoniumNot Available
DB14517Aluminium phosphateNot Available
DB06186IpilimumabIpilimumab is approved for different conditions such as: * Treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma in patients 12 years and older. * Adjuvant treatment of patients with cutaneous melanoma with the pathologic involvement of regional lymph nodes of more than 1 mm who have undergone complete resection, including total lymphadenectomy.[FDA label] In combination with [nivolumab], ipilimumab is approved for: * Treatment of patients with intermediate or poor risk, previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma * Treatment of 12 years and older patients with MSI-H/dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer with progression after treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.[FDA label]
DB09035NivolumabNivolumab is indicated as a single agent for the treatment of: * BRAF V600 wild-type unresectable or metastatic melanoma. * BRAF V600 mutation-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma. * metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and progression on or after platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with EGFR or ALK genomic tumor aberrations should have disease progression on disease-specific FDA therapy. * advanced renal cell carcinoma with prior anti-angiogenic therapy. * classical Hodgkin lymphoma in adults that has relapsed or progressed after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and brentuximab vedotin or 3 or more lines of systemic therapy that includes autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. * recurrent or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck with disease progression on or after platinum-based therapy. * locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma with disease progression during or after platinum-containing chemotherapy or disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. * microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer in patients 12 years or older that progressed following treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan. * hepatocellular carcinoma previously treated with sorafenib.[FDA label] In combination with [ipilimumab], nivolumab is indicated for the treatment of: * unresectable or metastatic melanoma. * melanoma with lymph node involvement or metastatic disease that has gone through complete resection. * intermediate or poor risk, previously untreated advanced renal cell carcinoma. * microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer in patients 12 years or older that progressed following treatment with fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin and irinotecan.[FDA label]
DB09087Potassium alumPotassium alum is considered safe by the FDA and its use is in homepathic or OTC products. Due to its presence in several different drugs, the main indications for the use of potassium alum are: -Constipation[L1071] -Cosmetic or drug astringent, helping the shrinkage of tissues and the dry of secretions[L1072] -Oral health care drug[L1072] -Part of formulation in cleansing products, skin-care products, mosturizers, face powders and deodorants[L1073] -Antiperspirant[L1074] -Antifungal[L1074]
DB00061PegademaseFor treatment of adenosine deaminase deficiency
DB15119Ropeginterferon alfa-2bNot Available
DB15290PegteograstimNot Available
DB05463ISS-1018Investigated for use/treatment in colorectal cancer, hepatitis (viral, B), and lymphoma (non-hodgkin's). ISS 1018 is currently being investigated in combination with HBsAg vaccine as a prophylactic treatment for to prevent Hepatitis B in adults. It has also been investigated in combination with rituximab for treatment of b-cell or non-hodgkin's lymphoma.
DB13375EdrecolomabNot Available
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00060Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00060Interferon beta-1aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00068Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00068Interferon beta-1bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB05259GlatiramerHLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-1 beta chaintarget
DB13144LenograstimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB13615MifamurtideToll-like receptor 4target
DB13615MifamurtideNucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 12target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 1target
DB00162Vitamin A11-cis retinol dehydrogenasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 13target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 3target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 5carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinoid-binding protein 7carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 4carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol-binding protein 2carrier
DB00162Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 2target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinal dehydrogenase 1target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinaldehyde-binding protein 1target
DB00162Vitamin ALecithin retinol acyltransferasetarget
DB00162Vitamin AShort-chain dehydrogenase/reductase 3target
DB00162Vitamin AAldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3target
DB00162Vitamin AAll-trans-retinol 13,14-reductasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 11target
DB00162Vitamin ADehydrogenase/reductase SDR family member 4target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 14target
DB00162Vitamin ARetinol dehydrogenase 8target
DB00162Vitamin ACytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB00162Vitamin ACytochrome P450 26A1enzyme
DB00162Vitamin AApolipoprotein Dtarget
DB00162Vitamin AHematopoietic prostaglandin D synthasetarget
DB00162Vitamin ASerum albumincarrier
DB00724ImiquimodToll-like receptor 7target
DB00724ImiquimodToll-like receptor 8target
DB00724ImiquimodCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00848LevamisoleNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00848LevamisoleAlkaline phosphatase, placental-liketarget
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-38target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-type unc-63target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type lev-1target
DB00848LevamisoleAcetylcholine receptor subunit beta-type unc-29target
DB01708PrasteroneSteroid Delta-isomerasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneBile salt sulfotransferasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneCholesterol oxidasetarget
DB01708PrasteroneEstradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase 1target
DB01708PrasteroneSulfotransferase family cytosolic 2B member 1target
DB01708PrasteroneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01708PrasteroneCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01708PrasteronePeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB01708PrasteroneEstrogen receptor alphatarget
DB01708PrasteroneSigma non-opioid intracellular receptor 1target
DB01708PrasteroneEstrogen receptor betatarget
DB01708PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB01708PrasteroneNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 3target
DB01708PrasteroneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01708PrasteroneNMDA receptortarget
DB01708PrasteroneAndrogen receptortarget
DB02587ColforsinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB02587ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 2target
DB02587ColforsinGuanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms shorttarget
DB02587ColforsinAdenylate cyclase type 5target
DB02587ColforsinCystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatortarget
DB03006Arsanilic acidLysozyme Ctarget
DB03424UbenimexBacterial leucyl aminopeptidasetarget
DB03424UbenimexLeukotriene A-4 hydrolasetarget
DB03424UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB03424UbenimexSolute carrier family 15 member 2transporter
DB05299keyhole limpet hemocyaninInterleukin-2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidCD44 antigentarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidIntercellular adhesion molecule 1target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan mediated motility receptortarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidNeurocan core proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidVersican core proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidComplement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein, mitochondrialtarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 3target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 4target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidHyaluronan-binding protein 2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidLayilintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidStabilin-2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidTumor necrosis factor-inducible gene 6 proteintarget
DB08818Hyaluronic acidInterphotoreceptor matrix proteoglycan 2target
DB08818Hyaluronic acidIntracellular hyaluronan-binding protein 4target
DB11752Bryostatin 1Cytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB12406LisofyllineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00008Peginterferon alfa-2aCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00011Interferon alfa-n1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00019PegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB00019PegfilgrastimNeutrophil elastasetarget
DB00020SargramostimGranulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00020SargramostimBone marrow proteoglycantarget
DB00020SargramostimInterleukin-3 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00020SargramostimCytokine receptor common subunit betatarget
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00022Peginterferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00034Interferon Alfa-2a, RecombinantInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00034Interferon Alfa-2a, RecombinantInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00038OprelvekinInterleukin-11 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00041AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit betatarget
DB00041AldesleukinInterleukin-2 receptor subunit alphatarget
DB00041AldesleukinCytokine receptor common subunit gammatarget
DB00041AldesleukinProstaglandin G/H synthase 2enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytosolic phospholipase A2enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00041AldesleukinXanthine dehydrogenase/oxidaseenzyme
DB00041AldesleukinCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00069Interferon alfacon-1Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 2target
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bInterferon alpha/beta receptor 1target
DB00105Interferon alfa-2bCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06688Sipuleucel-TProstatic acid phosphatasetarget
DB06809PlerixaforC-X-C chemokine receptor type 4target
DB09103AncestimMast/stem cell growth factor receptor Kittarget
DB11626TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Atarget
DB11626TasonerminTumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 1Btarget
DB13200LipegfilgrastimGranulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H2 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine H3 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineHistamine N-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB05381HistamineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB05381HistamineHistamine H4 receptortarget
DB05381HistamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB05381HistamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05381HistamineSynaptic vesicular amine transportertarget
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSerotransferrintarget
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha-1target
DB14517Aluminium phosphateSerum albumincarrier
DB14517Aluminium phosphateKallikrein-1target
DB14517Aluminium phosphateAmyloid beta A4 proteintarget
DB06186IpilimumabCytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4target
DB09035NivolumabProgrammed cell death protein 1target
DB09087Potassium alumSerum albumincarrier
DB00061PegademaseGrowth factor receptor-bound protein 2target
DB05463ISS-1018Toll-like receptor 9target