Excitatory Amino Acids

Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidThere is no support for the claim that aspartates are exercise performance enhancers, i.e. ergogenic aids.
DB00142Glutamic AcidConsidered to be nature's "Brain food" by improving mental capacities; helps speed the healing of ulcers; gives a "lift" from fatigue; helps control alcoholism, schizophrenia and the craving for sugar.
DB01221KetamineKetamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[L1336, FDA label] Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[A31873] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[L1337, A31874]
DB02655D-Aspartic AcidNot Available
DB03459Sparfosic acidNot Available
DB03640Beta-Hydroxyaspartic AcidNot Available
DB04418Adenylosuccinic AcidNot Available
DB04498Aspartate SemialdehydeNot Available
DB13359Magnesium aspartateNot Available
DB038103-Methylglutamic acidNot Available
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidCalcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar2target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmictarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartoacylasetarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAsparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidArgininosuccinate synthasetarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAminoacylase-1target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartate--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmictarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidCalcium-binding mitochondrial carrier protein Aralar1target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartyl/asparaginyl beta-hydroxylasetarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidMultifunctional protein ADE2target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidCAD proteintarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAdenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 2target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 3target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartate aminotransferasetarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidArgininosuccinate synthetase, isoform CRA_atarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidIsoaspartyl peptidase/L-asparaginasetarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAdenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 1target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidAspartoacylase-2target
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidRibonuclease pancreatictarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidLysozyme Ctarget
DB00128L-Aspartic AcidMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate dehydrogenase 1, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate--cysteine ligase regulatory subunittarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate carboxypeptidase 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate decarboxylase 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate decarboxylase 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidFormimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor 3target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor 4target
DB00142Glutamic AcidDelta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 3target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMetabotropic glutamate receptor 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMetabotropic glutamate receptor 4target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 4target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 5target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMetabotropic glutamate receptor 7target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMetabotropic glutamate receptor 8target
DB00142Glutamic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 5target
DB00142Glutamic Acid5-oxoprolinasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidPhosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Dtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamyl-tRNA(Gln) amidotransferase subunit B, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutaminase kidney isoform, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAspartate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidBifunctional glutamate/proline--tRNA ligasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAsparagine synthetase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamine synthetasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAspartate aminotransferase, cytoplasmictarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidTyrosine aminotransferasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAlanine aminotransferase 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidVitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 3target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunittarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidExcitatory amino acid transporter 4target
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGMP synthase [glutamine-hydrolyzing]target
DB00142Glutamic AcidBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolictarget
DB00142Glutamic Acid4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidFolylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamyl aminopeptidasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Ctarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAspartate aminotransferasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidProbable glutamate--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidLengsintarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamine-dependent NAD(+) synthetasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidKynurenine--oxoglutarate transaminase 3target
DB00142Glutamic AcidN-acetylglutamate synthase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidKynurenine/alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAlanine aminotransferase 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMitochondrial glutamate carrier 2target
DB00142Glutamic AcidMitochondrial glutamate carrier 1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidAlpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde synthase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutaminase liver isoform, mitochondrialtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidAspartyl aminopeptidasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidGlutamate receptor ionotropic, delta-1target
DB00142Glutamic AcidCystine/glutamate transportertarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidCarboxypeptidase Qtarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidPhosphoserine aminotransferasetarget
DB00142Glutamic AcidMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB00142Glutamic AcidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB01221KetamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineSubstance-P receptortarget
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01221KetamineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB01221KetamineProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01221KetamineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01221KetamineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01221KetamineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB01221KetamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1target
DB01221Ketamine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01221KetamineAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB01221KetamineCholinesterasetarget
DB01221KetamineNitric oxide synthase, braintarget
DB02655D-Aspartic AcidThermolysintarget
DB02655D-Aspartic AcidL-asparaginasetarget
DB03459Sparfosic acidAspartate carbamoyltransferase catalytic chaintarget
DB03459Sparfosic acidCAD proteintarget
DB03640Beta-Hydroxyaspartic AcidBeta-lactamase TEMtarget
DB04418Adenylosuccinic AcidAdenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 1target
DB04498Aspartate SemialdehydeAspartate-semialdehyde dehydrogenasetarget