Food Additives

Substances which are of little or no nutritive value, but are used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed, especially in the developed countries; includes ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS (both plain and LOCAL); VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are PHARMACEUTIC AIDS when added to pharmaceuticals rather than to foods.
DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB00168AspartameUsed as a diet supplement and sugar substitute.
DB00742MannitolA sugar alcohol used to test for asthma, to reduce intracranial and intraocular pressure, and to measure glomerular filtration rate.
DB00974Edetic acidA chelating agent used to treat mercury and lead toxicity and some blood transfusion dependent anemias.
DB01638SorbitolA product that can be used as a laxative to relieve constipation, and also as a urologic irrigating fluid. May also be used as a pharmaceutical sweetener.
DB02772SucroseA nonreducing disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from sugarcane, sugar beet (beta vulgaris), and other plants and used extensively as...
DB03323MaltoseA dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
DB03793Benzoic acidAn antimicrobial food additive.
DB04173FructoseNot Available
DB04465LactoseAn additive and filler found in various products to maintain structure and consistency.
DB09112Nitrous acidAn iron binder used to reverse life-threatening acute cyanide poisoning.
DB09344Invert sugarInvert sugar presents a large variety of uses. It can be used therapeutically for parenteral hyperalimentation or to be used as an excipient with a known effect. Invert sugar is...
DB11093Calcium CitrateAn ingredient found in a variety of supplements and vitamins.
DB11195XylitolAn ingredient added to dental products to remove bacteria.
DB11253Xanthan gumXanthan gum is a polysaccharide gum derived from* Xanthomonas campestris* by a pure-culture fermentation process and purified by recovery with isopropyl alcohol. The major constituents include D-glucose, D-mannose, and D-glucuronic...
DB12418SaccharinSaccharin has been investigated for the treatment of Hypertension and Hyperglycemia.
DB12942LactitolLactitol has been used in trials studying the treatment of Bacterial Colonization.
DB14184CinnamaldehydeCinnamaldehyde is approved by the FDA for use within allergenic epicutaneous patch tests which are indicated for use as an aid in the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in...
DB01914D-glucoseA most commonly occurring isomer of glucose used as a carbohydrate supplementation in case of nutrient deprivation and metabolic disorders, such as hypoglycemia.
DB03995BetadexNot Available
DB14836PolydextrosePolydextrose is under investigation in clinical trial NCT02258750 (Assessing a Polydextrose Containing Soup on Food Intake, Appetite and Biomarkers of Satiation and Satiety).
DB03852EucalyptolA common ingredient in mouthwash and cosmetics derived naturally from the eucalyptus plant that is frequently used to to improve symptoms of airway mucus hypersecretion.
DB09154Sodium citrateAn ingredient used for the anticoagulation of whole blood as part of automated apheresis procedures.
DB11158PectinPectin is used in food as a gelling agent and stabilizer. As a medical drug, it has obtained a great interest in its potential use as a source of dietary...
DB12434SteviolbiosideSteviolbioside has been used in trials studying the treatment of HIV-1 Infection.
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00168AspartameTaste receptor type 1 member 2target
DB00168AspartameTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1target
DB00168AspartameSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00168AspartameSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00168AspartameSolute carrier family 22 member 11transporter
DB00168AspartameTaste receptor type 1 member 3target
DB00742MannitolP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00742MannitolMannitol dehydrogenaseenzyme
DB00974Edetic acidLeadtarget
DB00974Edetic acidIrontarget
DB00974Edetic acidManganese cationtarget
DB00974Edetic acidAdenosine deaminaseenzyme
DB00974Edetic acidSerum paraoxonase/lactonase 3enzyme
DB00974Edetic acidCytochrome P450 19A1enzyme
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB01638SorbitolMalate synthase Gtarget
DB02772SucroseBeta-lactamasetarget
DB02772SucroseNitric oxide synthase oxygenasetarget
DB02772SucroseLysozyme Ctarget
DB02772SucroseSeptum formation protein Maftarget
DB02772SucroseGDP-mannose 6-dehydrogenasetarget
DB02772SucroseActin, alpha skeletal muscletarget
DB02772SucroseBeta-glucosidasetarget
DB02772SucroseAmylosucrasetarget
DB02772SucroseBeta-lactamasetarget
DB02772SucroseBeta-lactamase CTX-Mtarget
DB02772SucroseHeme oxygenasetarget
DB02772SucroseCopper transport protein ATOX1target
DB02772SucrosetRNA-splicing ligase RtcB homologtarget
DB02772SucroseOrange carotenoid-binding proteintarget
DB02772SucroseSucrose porintarget
DB02772SucroseLevansucrasetarget
DB02772SucroseTaste receptor type 1 member 2target
DB03323MaltoseCyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferasetarget
DB03323MaltoseAlpha-amylase 2Btarget
DB03323MaltoseBeta-amylasetarget
DB03323MaltoseMaltogenic alpha-amylasetarget
DB03323MaltoseMaltodextrin phosphorylasetarget
DB03323MaltoseMaltose-binding periplasmic proteintarget
DB03323MaltoseAlpha-glucosidasetarget
DB03323MaltoseMaltose binding proteintarget
DB03323MaltoseMalto-oligosyltrehalose trehalohydrolasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidPeroxiredoxin-5, mitochondrialtarget
DB03793Benzoic acidHeat-labile enterotoxin B chaintarget
DB03793Benzoic acidCocaine esterasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidHTH-type transcriptional regulator MalTtarget
DB03793Benzoic acidTautomerase PptAtarget
DB03793Benzoic acidD-amino-acid oxidasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidRibonuclease UK114target
DB03793Benzoic acidChlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidRas-related protein Rab-9Atarget
DB03793Benzoic acidHydrogen peroxide-inducible genes activatortarget
DB03793Benzoic acid2-hydroxy-6-oxo-7-methylocta-2,4-dienoate hydrolasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidNon-heme chloroperoxidasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidOxygen-insensitive NAD(P)H nitroreductasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidHydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenasetarget
DB03793Benzoic acidReplication proteintarget
DB03793Benzoic acidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB03793Benzoic acidSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB03793Benzoic acidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB03793Benzoic acidSolute carrier family 15 member 1target
DB04173FructoseBis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatasetarget
DB04173FructoseMaltoporintarget
DB04465LactoseBeta-galactosidasetarget
DB04465LactoseTetanus toxintarget
DB04465LactoseGlycosyltransferase 6 domain-containing protein 1target
DB04465LactoseGlycolipid transfer proteintarget
DB04465LactoseEnterotoxin type Btarget
DB04465LactoseSialidasetarget
DB04465LactoseHydrolasetarget
DB04465LactoseEndo-1,4-beta-xylanase Atarget
DB04465LactoseGalectin-3target
DB09112Nitrous acidHemoglobin subunit alphatarget
DB09112Nitrous acidHemoglobin subunit betatarget
DB09112Nitrous acidMyoglobintarget
DB09344Invert sugarSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2transporter
DB09344Invert sugarSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 5transporter
DB09344Invert sugarGlucokinaseenzyme
DB09344Invert sugar6-phosphofructokinaseenzyme
DB11093Calcium CitrateTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalbindincarrier
DB11093Calcium CitrateProtein S100-Gcarrier
DB11093Calcium CitrateSodium/calcium exchanger 1transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 5transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateExtracellular calcium-sensing receptortarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalreticulintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcium and integrin-binding protein 1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateProgrammed cell death protein 6target
DB11093Calcium CitrateSorcintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcineurin B homologous protein 1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateSPARCtarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalnexintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateFibrillin-2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateProtein S100-Btarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalsequestrin-2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateRegucalcintarget
DB11093Calcium CitratePeflintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateProtein S100-A6target
DB11093Calcium CitrateTranslationally-controlled tumor proteintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcium and integrin-binding family member 2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateProtein S100-A13target
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalsequestrin-1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateNucleobindin-1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateNucleobindin-2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalmodulintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateFibrillin-3target
DB11093Calcium CitrateGrancalcintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcium-dependent secretion activator 1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateSerum albumincarrier
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalmodulin-2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalmodulin-3target
DB11093Calcium CitrateProtein S100-A16target
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalretinintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcyphosintarget
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalcium-dependent secretion activator 2target
DB11093Calcium CitrateCalreticulin-3target
DB11093Calcium CitrateRyanodine receptor 1transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateRyanodine receptor 2transporter
DB11093Calcium CitratePolycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 proteintransporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateNeurexin-1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateNeuronal calcium sensor 1target
DB11093Calcium CitrateRyanodine receptor 3transporter
DB11093Calcium CitratePolycystic kidney disease protein 1-like 3transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateCation channel sperm-associated protein 1transporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateVoltage-dependent L-type calcium channeltransporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateVoltage-dependent P/Q-type calcium channeltransporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channeltransporter
DB11093Calcium CitrateVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channeltransporter
DB11195XylitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB11195XylitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB11195XylitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB11195XylitolXylose isomerasetarget
DB11195XylitolHyaluronate lyasetarget
DB12418SaccharinCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB01914D-glucoseHexokinase-1enzyme
DB01914D-glucoseGlucokinaseenzyme
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 1transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 2transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 3transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 4transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 5transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 6transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 7transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 8transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 9transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 10transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 11transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSolute carrier family 2, facilitated glucose transporter member 12transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSodium/glucose cotransporter 1transporter
DB01914D-glucoseSodium/glucose cotransporter 2transporter
DB03995BetadexNeopullulanase 2target
DB03995BetadexMaltose-binding periplasmic proteintarget
DB03995BetadexMaltogenic amylasetarget
DB09154Sodium citrateMitochondrial 2-oxodicarboxylate carriertransporter
DB09154Sodium citrateSolute carrier family 13 member 2transporter
DB09154Sodium citrateSolute carrier family 13 member 5transporter
DB09154Sodium citrateTricarboxylate transport protein, mitochondrialtransporter