|DB00388||Phenylephrine||Phenylephrine is mainly used to treat nasal congestion, but may also be useful in treating hypotension and shock, hypotension during spinal anaesthesia, prolongation of spinal anaesthesia, paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, symptomatic relief of external or internal hemorrhoids, and to increase blood pressure as an aid in the diagnosis of heart murmurs. |
|DB00572||Atropine||For the treatment of poisoning by susceptible organophosphorous nerve agents having anti-cholinesterase activity (cholinesterase inhibitors) as well as organophosphorous or carbamate insecticides.|
|DB00809||Tropicamide||Indicated to induce mydriasis (dilation of the pupil) and cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye) in diagnostic procedures, such as measurement of refractive errors and examination of the fundus of the eye.|
|DB00979||Cyclopentolate||Used mainly to produce mydriasis and cycloplegia for diagnostic purposes.|
|DB00219||Oxyphenonium||For the treatment of visceral spasms|
|DB00424||Hyoscyamine||For treatment of bladder spasms, peptic ulcer disease, diverticulitis, colic, irritable bowel syndrome, cystitis, and pancreatitis. Also used to treat certain heart conditions, to control the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and rhinitis.|
|DB00668||Epinephrine||Epinephrine injection is indicated in the emergency treatment of allergic reactions (Type I) including anaphylaxis to stinging insects (e.g., order Hymenoptera, which include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets and fire ants) and biting insects (e.g., triatoma, mosquitos), allergen immunotherapy, foods, drugs, diagnostic testing substances (e.g., radiocontrast media) and other allergens, as well as idiopathic anaphylaxis or exercise-induced anaphylaxis. Injectable epinephrine is intended for immediate/urgent administration in patients, who are found to be at increased risk for anaphylaxis, including individuals with a history of anaphylaxis. Selection of the appropriate dosage strength is determined according to body weight [FDA label].
Epinephrine's cardiac effects may be of use in restoring cardiac rhythm in cardiac arrest due to various causes but is not used in cardiac failure or in hemorrhagic, traumatic, or cardiogenic shock [F1247].
Epinephrine is used as a hemostatic agent. It is also used in treating mucosal congestion of hay fever, rhinitis, and acute sinusitis; to relieve bronchial asthmatic paroxysms; in syncope due to complete heart block or carotid sinus hypersensitivity; for symptomatic relief of serum sickness, urticaria, angioneurotic edema; for resuscitation in cardiac arrest following anesthetic accidents; in simple (open angle) glaucoma; for relaxation of uterine musculature and to inhibit uterine contractions. Epinephrine injection can be utilized to prolong the action of local anesthetics [F1247].
In addition to the above, epinephrine is used as an over the counter (OTC) agent for the intermittent symptoms of asthma, such as wheezing, tightness of chest and shortness of breath [F2131]. It is also used for the maintenance of mydriasis during intraocular surgery [L4825].|
|DB00747||Scopolamine||For the treatment of excessive salivation, colicky abdominal pain, bradycardia, sialorrhoea, diverticulitis, irritable bowel syndrome and motion sickness.|
|DB01392||Yohimbine||Indicated as a sympatholytic and mydriatic. Impotence has been successfully treated with yohimbine in male patients with vascular or diabetic origins and psychogenic origins.|
|DB09352||Hydroxyamphetamine||Mydriatic agent (eye pupil dilatation) for diagnosis of ophthalmic nerve lesions.|
|DB11124||Racepinephrine||Indicated for temporary relief of mild symptoms of intermittent asthma.|
|DB00449||Dipivefrin||Dipivefrin is a prodrug which is used as initial therapy for the control of intraocular pressure in chronic open-angle glaucoma.|
|DB00465||Ketorolac||Ketorolac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. [A176131] It is indicated for short term management of acute pain that requires the caliber of pain management offered by opioids. [L6526] Clinicians may choose to initiate ketorolac to manage post-operative pain, spinal and soft tissue pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual disorders and headaches among other ailments. [L6520] Regardless of the etiology of pain, patients should use the lowest possible dose, and avoid using ketorolac for an extended period of time (ideally ≤ 5 days).[L6526] A benefit of choosing ketorolac over other analgesics with similar potency is that that there does not appear to be a risk of dependence or tolerance with ketorolac use.[A176131] |