|DB00228||Enflurane||Used for the induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia during surgery and cesarean section and also used for analgesia during vaginal delivery.|
|DB00281||Lidocaine||Lidocaine is an anesthetic of the amide group indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks [F4349, L5930].|
|DB00292||Etomidate||Used in the induction of general anesthesia.|
|DB00296||Ropivacaine||Used in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery.|
|DB00297||Bupivacaine||For the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.|
|DB00708||Sufentanil||The indications for this drug are as follows:
1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated.
2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated.
3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery
4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments.
|DB00750||Prilocaine||Used as a local anaesthetic and is often used in dentistry.|
|DB00753||Isoflurane||For induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00802||Alfentanil||For the management of postoperative pain and the maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00818||Propofol||Used for induction and/or maintenance of anaesthesia and for management of refractory status epilepticus. |
|DB00899||Remifentanil||For use during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00961||Mepivacaine||For production of local or regional analgesia and anesthesia by local infiltration, peripheral nerve block techniques, and central neural techniques including epidural and caudal blocks.|
|DB01002||Levobupivacaine||For the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management|
|DB01159||Halothane||For the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia|
|DB01161||Chloroprocaine||For the production of local anesthesia by infiltration and peripheral nerve block. They are not to be used for lumbar or caudal epidural anesthesia.|
|DB01189||Desflurane||For use as an inhalation agent for induction and/or maintenance of anesthesia for inpatient and outpatient surgery in adults.|
|DB01221||Ketamine||Ketamine is indicated as an anesthetic agent for recommended diagnostic and surgical procedures. If skeletal muscle relaxation is needed, it should be combined with a muscle relaxant. If the surgical procedure involves visceral pain, it should be supplemented with an agent that obtunds visceral pain. Ketamine can be used for induction of anesthesia prior other general anesthetic agents and as a supplement of low potency agents.[L1336, FDA label]
Reports have indicated a potential use of ketamine as a therapeutic tool for the management of depression when administered in lower doses.[A31873] These reports have increased the interest for ketamine in this area and several clinical trials are launched for this indication.[L1337, A31874]|
|DB01236||Sevoflurane||Used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia in adult and pediatric patients for inpatient and outpatient surgery.|
|DB06690||Nitrous oxide||Not Available|
|DB13259||Ethyl chloride||Not Available|
|DB09072||Sodium oxybate||For the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in narcolepsy.|
|DB00474||Methohexital||Methohexital is indicated for use as an intravenous anaesthetic. It has also been commonly used to induce deep sedation.|
|DB00527||Cinchocaine||For production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks.|
|DB00599||Thiopental||For use as the sole anesthetic agent for brief (15 minute) procedures, for induction of anesthesia prior to administration of other anesthetic agents, to supplement regional anesthesia, to provide hypnosis during balanced anesthesia with other agents for analgesia or muscle relaxation, for the control of convulsive states during or following inhalation anesthesia or local anesthesia, in neurosurgical patients with increased intracranial pressure, and for narcoanalysis and narcosynthesis in psychiatric disorders.|
|DB00645||Dyclonine||Used to provide topical anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes prior to examination, endoscopy or instrumentation, or other procedures involving the esophagus, larynx, mouth, pharynx or throat, respiratory tract or trachea, urinary tract, or vagina. Also used to suppress the gag reflex and/or other laryngeal and esophageal reflexes to facilitate dental examination or procedures (including oral surgery), endoscopy, or intubation. Also used for relief of canker sores, cold sores or fever blister.|
|DB00653||Magnesium sulfate||Used for immediate control of life-threatening convulsions in the treatment of severe toxemias (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia) of pregnancy and in the treatment of acute nephritis in children. Also indicated for replacement therapy in magnesium deficiency, especially in acute hypomagnesemia accompanied by signs of tetany similar to those of hypocalcemia. Also used in uterine tetany as a myometriat relaxant.|
|DB00721||Procaine||Used as a local anesthetic primarily in oral surgery|
|DB00807||Proparacaine||Used as a local (ophthalmic) anesthetic.|
|DB00813||Fentanyl||For the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB00892||Oxybuprocaine||Used to temporarily numb the front surface of the eye so that the eye pressure can be measured or a foreign body removed.|
|DB00907||Cocaine||For the introduction of local (topical) anesthesia of accessible mucous membranes of the oral, laryngeal and nasal cavities.|
|DB01028||Methoxyflurane||For use in the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia|
|DB01075||Diphenhydramine||Diphenhydramine is a first-generation histamine H1 receptor antagonist (H1 antihistamine) that is widely available as a non-prescription, over-the-counter (OTC) medication. As an OTC medication, diphenhydramine is typically formulated as tablets and creams indicated for use in treating sneezing, runny nose, itchy/watery eyes, itching of nose or throat, insomnia, pruritis, urticaria, insect bites/stings, allergic rashes, and nausea [L5263, L5266, L5269, F3379, A174541].
Additionally, when the use of oral diphenhydramine is impractical, there are also prescription-only formulations such as diphenhydramine injection products that are effective in adults and pediatric patients (other than premature infants and neonates) for:
i) the amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma, in anaphylaxis as an adjunct to epinephrine and other standard measures after acute allergic reaction symptoms have been controlled, and for other uncomplicated allergic conditions of the immediate type when oral therapy is impossible or contraindicated [F3352];
ii) the active treatment of motion sickness [F3352]; and
iii) use in parkinsonism when oral therapy is impossible or contraindicated, as follows: parkinsonism in the elderly who are unable to tolerate more potent agents; mild cases of parkinsonism in other age groups, and in other cases of parkinsonism in combination with centrally acting anticholinergic agents [F3352].|
|DB01086||Benzocaine||For general use as a lubricant and topical anesthetic on esophagus, larynx, mouth, nasal cavity, rectum, respiratory tract or trachea, urinary tract, vagina. It is also used to suppress gag reflex.|
|DB01154||Thiamylal||Used for the production of complete anaesthesia of short duration, for the induction of general anaesthesia, and for inducing a hypnotic state.|
|DB01440||gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid||Used as a general anesthetic, to treat conditions such as insomnia, clinical depression, narcolepsy, and alcoholism, and to improve athletic performance. |
|DB05232||Tetrodotoxin||For the treatment of chronic and breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients as well as for the treatment of opioid dependence.|
|DB06554||Gaboxadol||Investigated for use/treatment in sleep disorders and insomnia.|
|DB06770||Benzyl alcohol||Ulesfia (benzyl alcohol) lotion is indicated for the topical treatment of head lice infestation in patients 6 months of age and older. Ulesfia Lotion does not have ovicidal activity.|
|DB09085||Tetracaine||The combination lidocaine and tetracaine patch is indicated for local dermal analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures and superficial venous access. The combination lidocaine and tetracaine cream is intended to provide topical local analgesia for superficial dermatological procedures.
|DB09342||Propoxycaine||Propoxycaine is a local anesthetic medication. It was used beginning in the 1950s during dental procedures [L1591]. It has been combined with procaine to accelerate its onset of action and provide longer-lasting anesthetic effect [L1592].
It was produced for use when amide local anesthetics were contraindicated due to allergy or when several amide anesthetics were unsuccessful [L1592].|
|DB09345||Pramocaine||It is indicated for temporary relief of pain and pruritus from minor lip and skin irritations as well as for temporary relief from pain, burning, itching and discomfort associated with hemorrhoids and other anorectal/anogenital disorders. |
|DB11148||Butamben||Butamben was indicated for the treatment of chronic pain due to its long-duration effect.[A32663] It is also indicated as a surface anesthetic for skin a mucous membrane and for the relief of pain and pruritus associated with anorectal disorders.[L2445]|
|DB11304||Phenoxyethanol||Antimicrobial agent used as a preservative in cosmetics [L2618], [L2619], [L2625].|
|DB00913||Anileridine||For treatment and management of pain (systemic) and for use as an anesthesia adjunct.|
|DB03255||Phenol||Phenol is primarily indicated for minor sore throat pain, sore mouth, minor mouth irritation, and pain associated with canker sores. Additionally, phenol is indicated in the treatment of focal spasticity. |
|DB06774||Capsaicin||The capsaicin 8% patch is indicated in the treatment of neuropathic pain associated with post-herpetic neuralgia. There are multiple topical capsaicin formulations available, including creams and solutions, indicated for temporary analgesia in muscle and join pain as well as neuropathic pain. |
|DB01355||Hexobarbital||For the induction of anesthesia prior to the use of other general anesthetic agents and for induction of anesthesia for short surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures associated with minimal painful stimuli.|
|DB12532||Oxetacaine||Oxetacaine is available as an over-the-counter antacid and it is used to alleviate pain associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, esophagitis, hiatus hernia, and anorexia.[A33109] |
|DB05424||Canertinib||Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer and lung cancer.|
|DB06716||Fospropofol||For monitored anaesthesia care sedation in patients undergoing diagnostic procedures like bronchoscopy and colonscopy or minor surgical procedures like arthroscopy and bunionectomy. |
|DB00633||Dexmedetomidine||For sedation of initially intubated and mechanically ventilated patients during treatment in an intensive care setting, also used in pain relief; anxiety reduction and analgesia|
|DB00575||Clonidine||May be used as an adjunct in the treatment of hypertension, as an epidural infusion as an adjunct treatment in the management of severe cancer pain that is not relieved by opiate analgesics alone, for differential diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in hypertensive patients, prophylaxis of vascular migraine headaches, treatment of severe dysmenorrhea, management of vasomotor symptoms associated with menopause, rapid detoxification in the management of opiate withdrawal, treatment of alcohol withdrawal used in conjunction with benzodiazepines, management of nicotine dependence, topical use to reduce intraocular pressure in the treatment of open-angle and secondary glaucoma and hemorrhagic glaucoma associated with hypertension, and in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).|
|DB00683||Midazolam||The midazolam intravenous injection is indicated for preoperative sedation/anxiolysis/anesthesia induction/amnesia [F2434], and the intramuscular injection is indicated for the treatment of status epilepticus in adults [FDA label].
Midazolam is also an agent for conscious sedation/anxiolysis/amnesia prior to or during diagnostic, therapeutic, or endoscopic procedures. It is important to note that various routes may be applicable to different indications. Refer to the "indications" section of this drug entry for more detailed information.|
|DB11823||Esketamine||This drug is indicated in conjunction with an oral antidepressant for the treatment of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adults [FDA label].
Note: Esketamine is not approved as an anesthetic agent. The safety and effectiveness of esketamine as an anesthetic agent have not been established to this date [FDA label]. |
|DB11859||Brexanolone||Brexanolone is a synthetic neuroactive steroid gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(a)) receptor positive modulator indicated for the treatment of postpartum depression (PPD) in adult women [FDA Label][A176080, A176083, F4063, F4066, F4072].|
|DB00295||Morphine||Morphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050]
Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]|