Anti-Parkinson Drugs

Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00245BenzatropineBenztropine is indicated to be used as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism. It can also be used for the control of extrapyramidal disorders due to neuroleptic drugs.[T203] The extrapyramidal symptoms are defined as drug-induced disorders that include symptoms of dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism, bradykinesia, tremors, and dyskinesia.[A175120] Parkinsonism is a general term that refers to the group of neurological disorders that produce symptoms similar to Parkinson's disease such as tremors, slow movement, and stiffness. The parkinsonism includes a large number of disorders and some of them have not been clearly defined.[L5509]
DB00268RopiniroleFor the treatment of the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease and for the treatment of primary moderate-severe restless legs syndrome [FDA label].
DB00323TolcaponeUsed as an adjunct to levodopa/carbidopa therapy for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's Disease. This drug is generally reserved for patients with parkinsonian syndrome receiving levodopa/carbidopa who are experiencing symptom fluctuations and are not responding adequately to or are not candidates for other adjunctive therapies.
DB00376TrihexyphenidylIndicated for the treatment of parkinson's disease and extrapyramidal reactions caused by drugs.
DB00387ProcyclidineFor the treatment of all forms of Parkinson's Disease, as well as control of extrapyramidal reactions induced by antipsychotic agents.
DB00413PramipexoleThis drug is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease [FDA label]. This drug can be administered as monotherapy or in conjunction with levodopa. It is also indicated for symptomatic treatment of moderate to severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) [FDA label].
DB00494EntacaponeUsed as an adjunct to levodopa / carbidopa in the symptomatic treatment of patients with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease who experience the signs and symptoms of end-of-dose "wearing-off".
DB00810BiperidenFor use as an adjunct in the therapy of all forms of parkinsonism and control of extrapyramidal disorders secondary to neuroleptic drug therapy.
DB00915AmantadineFor the chemoprophylaxis, prophylaxis, and treatment of signs and symptoms of infection caused by various strains of influenza A virus. Also for the treatment of parkinsonism and drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions.
DB01037SelegilineMonotherapy for initial treatment of Parkinson's disease, as well as an adjunct therapy in patients with a decreased response to levodopa/carbadopa. Also used for the palliative treatment of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease and at higher doses, for the treatment of depression.
DB01200BromocriptineFor the treatment of galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinemia, prolactin-dependent menstrual disorders and infertility, prolactin-secreting adenomas, prolactin-dependent male hypogonadism, as adjunct therapy to surgery or radiotherapy for acromegaly or as monotherapy is special cases, as monotherapy in early Parksinsonian Syndrome or as an adjunct with levodopa in advanced cases with motor complications. Bromocriptine has also been used off-label to treat restless legs syndrome and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
DB01235LevodopaLevodopa on its own is formulated as an oral inhalation powder indicated for intermittent treatment of off episodes in Parkinson's patients who are already being treated with carbidopa and levodopa[FDA Label]. Levodopa is most commonly formulated as an oral tablet with a peripheral dopa decarboxylase inhibitor indicated for treatment of Parkinson's disease, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and symptomatic parkinsonism following carbon monoxide intoxication or manganese intoxication[F4579].
DB08997DexetimideNot Available
DB12478PiribedilNot Available
DB13502BudipineNot Available
DB13313MelevodopaNot Available
DB00392ProfenamineFor use in the treatment of Parkinson's disease and also used to control severe reactions to certain medicines such as reserpine.
DB00248CabergolineFor the treatment of hyperprolactinemic disorders, either idiopathic or due to prolactinoma (prolactin-secreting adenomas). May also be used to manage symptoms of Parkinsonian Syndrome as monotherapy during initial symptomatic management or as an adjunct to levodopa therapy during advanced stages of disease.
DB00589LisurideFor the management of Parkinson's Disease
DB00837ProgabideIndicated for the treatment of epilepsy.
DB00996GabapentinFor the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.
DB01043MemantineMemantine is used to manage moderate to severe Alzheimer's dementia [FDA label]. A more recent systemic review and meta-analysis [A177106] indicates that memantine is beneficial as a first line drug for the treatment of Alzheimer's dementia. Cholinesterase inhibitors may be added to memantine for further beneficial effects on behavioral symptoms and other symptoms of dementia [A177106].
DB01173OrphenadrineIndicated as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomfort associated with acute painful musculo skeletal conditions.
DB021053,5-DinitrocatecholNot Available
DB05316PimavanserinInvestigated for use/treatment in neurologic disorders, parkinson's disease, psychosis, schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorders, and sleep disorders.
DB08954IfenprodilNot Available
DB11632OpicaponeOpicapone is approved as an adjunctive therapy in adults with Parkinson’s disease and end-of-dose motor fluctuations whose symptoms cannot be stabilized on levodopa/dopa decarboxylase inhibitor combinations [L2336].
DB12783BenserazideThe primary therapeutic use for which benserazide is currently indicated for is as a combination therapy with levadopa for the treatment of Parkinson's disease in adults > 25 years of age, with the exception of drug-induced parkinsonism [F2, L2553]. At certain doses, the combination product of levodopa and benserazide may also be used to treat restless legs syndrome, which is sometimes associated with Parkinson's disease [L2553, T181]. There have also been some studies that have prompted the European Medicines Agency to confer orphan designation upon benserazide hydrochloride as a potential therapy for beta thalassaemia [F3]. Although studies are ongoing, no evidence has been formally elucidated as of yet [F3].
DB00340MetixeneUsed for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism.
DB00714ApomorphineFor the acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility, off episodes (end-of-dose wearing off and unpredictable on/off episodes) associated with advanced Parkinson's disease.
DB01186PergolideIndicated as adjunctive treatment to levodopa/carbidopa in the management of the signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It was withdrawn from the US and Canadian markets in 2007 due to an increased risk of cardiac valvulopathy.
DB01367RasagilineFor the treatment of the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinsons disease as initial monotherapy and as adjunct therapy to levodopa.
DB05271RotigotineFor use/treatment in neurologic disorders and parkinson's disease as well as moderate-to-severe primary Restless Legs Syndrome.
DB06535EtilevodopaInvestigated for use/treatment in parkinson's disease.
DB13252TropatepineNot Available
DB13385DihydroergocryptineNot Available
DB13413PhenglutarimideNot Available
DB13448MazaticolNot Available
DB13468EtybenzatropineNot Available
DB13619BornaprineNot Available
DB13636EtanautineNot Available
DB00190CarbidopaCarbidopa is indicated with [levodopa] for the treatment of symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson disease, postencephalitic parkinsonism and symptomatic parkinsonism followed by carbon monoxide or manganese intoxication.[FDA label] The combination therapy is administered for the reduction of [levodopa]-driven nausea and vomiting.[FDA label] The product of carbidopa should be used in patients where the combination therapy of carbidopa/[levodopa] provide less than the adequate daily dosage.[FDA label] As well carbidopa can be used in patients where the dosages of carbidopa and [levodopa] require individual titration.[FDA label]
DB06654SafinamideSafinamide is indicated as an add-on treatment to levodopa with or without other medicines for Parkinson’s disease
DB15130DexpramipexoleNot Available
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00245BenzatropineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00245BenzatropineSodium-dependent dopamine transportertarget
DB00245BenzatropineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00245BenzatropineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00245BenzatropineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00245BenzatropineSerum albumincarrier
DB00245BenzatropineSodium-dependent serotonin transportertarget
DB00245BenzatropineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB00268RopiniroleDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00268RopiniroleDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00268RopiniroleDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB00268RopiniroleCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00268RopiniroleAlpha adrenergic receptortarget
DB00323TolcaponeCatechol O-methyltransferasetarget
DB00323TolcaponeCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00376TrihexyphenidylMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00376TrihexyphenidylMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00376TrihexyphenidylMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00376TrihexyphenidylMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00376TrihexyphenidylMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00387ProcyclidineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00387ProcyclidineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00387ProcyclidineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00387ProcyclidineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00413PramipexoleDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00413PramipexoleDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB00413PramipexoleDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00413Pramipexole5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00413PramipexoleAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00413PramipexoleSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00413PramipexoleSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00413PramipexoleSolute carrier family 22 member 3transporter
DB00494EntacaponeCatechol O-methyltransferasetarget
DB00494EntacaponeCatechol O-methyltransferaseenzyme
DB00494EntacaponeUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00494EntacaponeCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00810BiperidenNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00810BiperidenMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00810BiperidenCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00915AmantadineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00915AmantadineMatrix protein 2target
DB00915AmantadineAromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylaseenzyme
DB00915AmantadineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Benzyme
DB00915AmantadineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00915AmantadineSolute carrier family 22 member 1transporter
DB00915AmantadineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00915AmantadineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00915AmantadineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00915AmantadineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01037SelegilineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01037SelegilineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Atarget
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01037SelegilineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01037SelegilineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01200BromocriptineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB01200BromocriptineDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01200BromocriptineDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200BromocriptineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01200Bromocriptine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB01200BromocriptineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01235LevodopaDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB01235LevodopaDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB01235LevodopaAromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylaseenzyme
DB01235LevodopaSolute carrier family 15 member 1transporter
DB01235LevodopaMonocarboxylate transporter 10transporter
DB01235LevodopaDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB01235LevodopaDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB01235LevodopaDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB01235LevodopaLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 1transporter
DB01235LevodopaLarge neutral amino acids transporter small subunit 2transporter
DB01235LevodopaSerum albumincarrier
DB12478PiribedilDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB12478PiribedilDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00392ProfenamineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00392ProfenamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00392ProfenamineCholinesteraseenzyme
DB00392ProfenamineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00248CabergolineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB00248CabergolineDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00248CabergolineDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00248CabergolineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00248Cabergoline5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineBeta-2 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00248CabergolineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00589LisurideDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00589LisurideDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00589LisurideAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00589LisurideAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00589LisurideAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00589LisurideDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00589LisurideDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00589LisurideDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB00589LisurideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00589LisurideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00589Lisuride5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7target
DB00837ProgabideGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00837ProgabideGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01043MemantineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01043MemantineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB01043Memantine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB01043MemantineAlpha-7 nicotinic cholinergic receptor subunittarget
DB01043MemantineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01043MemantineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01043MemantineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB01043MemantineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
DB01043MemantineSodium/hydrogen exchanger 1transporter
DB01043MemantineSolute carrier family 22 member 4transporter
DB01043MemantineMultidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1transporter
DB01043MemantineGlutamate (NMDA) receptortarget
DB01043MemantineGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01043MemantineGlycine receptorstarget
DB01173OrphenadrineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
DB01173OrphenadrineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Dtarget
DB01173OrphenadrineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Btarget
DB01173OrphenadrineGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB01173OrphenadrineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB01173OrphenadrineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01173OrphenadrineCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01173OrphenadrineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01173OrphenadrineSodium-dependent noradrenaline transportertarget
DB01173OrphenadrineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB01173OrphenadrineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01173OrphenadrineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB021053,5-DinitrocatecholCatechol O-methyltransferasetarget
DB05316Pimavanserin5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB05316PimavanserinDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB08954IfenprodilGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1target
DB08954IfenprodilGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB11632OpicaponeCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB11632OpicaponeCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB11632OpicaponeCatechol O-methyltransferasetarget
DB12783BenserazideAromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylasetarget
DB00340MetixeneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2target
DB00340MetixeneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1target
DB00340MetixeneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M4target
DB00340MetixeneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M5target
DB00340MetixeneMuscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3target
DB00714ApomorphineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineNeuron-specific vesicular protein calcyontarget
DB00714ApomorphineAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB00714ApomorphineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB00714ApomorphineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB00714Apomorphine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB01186PergolideDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB01186PergolideDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB01186PergolideDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-2C adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-1B adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideAlpha-1D adrenergic receptortarget
DB01186PergolideDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB01186PergolideDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Btarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Dtarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Btarget
DB01186Pergolide5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Ctarget
DB01186PergolideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01186PergolideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01367RasagilineApoptosis regulator Bcl-2target
DB01367RasagilineAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB01367RasagilineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB05271RotigotineDopamine D3 receptortarget
DB05271RotigotineDopamine D5 receptortarget
DB05271RotigotineDopamine D4 receptortarget
DB05271RotigotineDopamine D2 receptortarget
DB05271Rotigotine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 1Atarget
DB05271RotigotineDopamine D1 receptortarget
DB05271RotigotineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB05271RotigotineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB05271RotigotineAlpha-2B adrenergic receptortarget
DB13385DihydroergocryptineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00190CarbidopaAromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylasetarget
DB06654SafinamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB06654SafinamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Aenzyme
DB06654SafinamideATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2transporter
DB06654SafinamideSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 3A1transporter
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 1A1enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB06654SafinamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme