|DB00497||Oxycodone||For the treatment of diarrhoea, pulmonary oedema and for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.|
|DB01551||Dihydrocodeine||Dihydrocodeine is used for the treatment of moderate to severe pain, including post-operative and dental pain . It can also be used to treat chronic pain , breathlessness and coughing.
In heroin addicts, dihydrocodeine has been used as a substitute drug, in doses up to 2500mg/day to treat addiction. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2014322/]
|DB00295||Morphine||Morphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050]
Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]|
|DB00318||Codeine||Codeine sulfate is a form of this drug that is commonly used. It is available in tablet form [FDA label] and indicated for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain, where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate [FDA label].
The solution form is used by itself or combined in a syrup with other drugs and is used as a cough suppressant in adults aged 18 and above [L5521], [L5524]. |
|DB00327||Hydromorphone||Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468]
The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471]
Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468]|
|DB11130||Opium||Opium and its derivatives are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Opium and its alkaloid-derivatives can also be used as tranquilizers, antitussives and in the treatment of diarrhea.[T138] The direct use of opium is not common nowadays but the use of some of its derivatives such as morphine and codeine, as well as the use of a tincture of opium for severe diarrhea can be seen in medical practice.[T139]
Illegal use of opium has been registered to be for both recreational and medicinal purposes.[A32182]|
|DB00704||Naltrexone||Used as an adjunct to a medically supervised behaviour modification program in the maintenance of opiate cessation in individuals who were formerly physically dependent on opiates and who have successfully undergone detoxification. Also used for the management of alcohol dependence in conjunction with a behavioural modification program.|
|DB01183||Naloxone||For the complete or partial reversal of narcotic depression, including respiratory depression, induced by opioids including natural and synthetic narcotics, propoxyphene, methadone and the narcotic-antagonist analgesics: nalbuphine, pentazocine and butorphanol. It is also indicated for the diagnosis of suspected acute opioid overdose. It may also be used as an adjunctive agent to increase blood pressure in the management of septic shock.|