|DB11627||Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)||Active immunization against hepatitis B virus infection.
The vaccine will not protect against infection caused by hepatitis A and non-A non-B hepatitis viruses. As hepatitis D (caused by the delta agent) does not occur in the absence of hepatitis B infection or carrier state, it can be expected that hepatitis D will also be prevented by vaccination with hepatitis B virus vaccine.
The vaccine can be administered at any age from birth onwards. It may be used to start a primary course of vaccination or as a booster dose. It may also be used to complete a primary course of vaccination started with plasma-derived or yeast-derived vaccines or as a booster dose in subjects who have previously received a primary course of vaccination with plasma-derived or yeast-derived vaccines.
In areas of low prevalence of hepatitis B, vaccination is strongly recommended in subjects who are at increased risk of infection. These include the following groups:
* Health professionals: physicians and surgeons; oral surgeons and dentists; nurses, dental nurses, dental hygienists, podiatrists; IV teams and operating room personnel; paramedical personnel in close contact with patients; staff in hemodialysis, nephrology, hepatology, hematology and oncology units; laboratory personnel handling blood and other clinical specimens; blood bank and plasma fractionation workers; pathologists and morgue attendants; cleaning staff who handle waste in hospitals; emergency and first aid workers; ambulance staff; dental, medical and nursing students.
* Patients: patients receiving frequent blood transfusion or clotting factor concentrates, such as those in oncology units and those with thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, cirrhosis, hemophilia, etc.; patients on hemodialysis; patients with type 2 diabetes.
* Personnel and residents of institutions: persons with frequent and/or close contacts with high-risk groups; prisoners and prison staff; residents and staff of institutions for the developmentally challenged (those who are in contact with aggressive biting residents being at highest risk).
* Persons at increased risk due to their sexual practices: males having sexual contact with other males; others with multiple sexual partners or with a recent history of sexually transmitted disease.
* Persons who use injectable drugs illicitly.
* Travellers to areas of high endemicity and their close contacts.
* Household contacts of any of the above groups and of patients with acute or chronic hepatitis B infection.
* Infants born of HBsAg-positive mothers.
* Chronic Liver Disease (CLD): subjects with chronic liver disease; subjects at risk of developing CLD (e.g. Hepatitis C virus carriers, persons who abuse alcohol).
* Others: police; fire fighters; armed forces personnel; morticians and embalmers; those who through their work or personal lifestyle may be exposed to the hepatitis B virus.
* In areas of both low and high prevalence, vaccination should be offered to all young children and neonates at risk, as well as to adult high risk groups.|