|DB00193||Tramadol||Tramadol is approved for the management of moderate to severe pain in adults.[FDA label]
As an off-label indication, tramadol has been investigated to be used for the treatment of premature ejaculation.[A173986]|
|DB00295||Morphine||Morphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050]
Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]|
|DB00318||Codeine||Codeine sulfate is a form of this drug that is commonly used. It is available in tablet form [FDA label] and indicated for the relief of mild to moderately severe pain, where the use of an opioid analgesic is appropriate [FDA label].
The solution form is used by itself or combined in a syrup with other drugs and is used as a cough suppressant in adults aged 18 and above [L5521], [L5524]. |
|DB00327||Hydromorphone||Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468]
The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471]
Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468]|
|DB00333||Methadone||For the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain.|
|DB00454||Meperidine||Used to control moderate to severe pain.|
|DB00497||Oxycodone||For the treatment of diarrhoea, pulmonary oedema and for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.|
|DB00708||Sufentanil||The indications for this drug are as follows:
1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated.
2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated.
3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery
4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments.
|DB00714||Apomorphine||For the acute, intermittent treatment of hypomobility, off episodes (end-of-dose wearing off and unpredictable on/off episodes) associated with advanced Parkinson's disease.|
|DB00802||Alfentanil||For the management of postoperative pain and the maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00813||Fentanyl||For the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.|
|DB00899||Remifentanil||For use during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB01192||Oxymorphone||For the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain.|
|DB06204||Tapentadol||The immediate-release formulation of tapentadol is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe acute pain. The long-acting formulation serves as a continuous, around-the-clock analgesic that is indicated for the relief of moderate to severe chronic pain or neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. |
|DB11130||Opium||Opium and its derivatives are the most commonly used medications for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Opium and its alkaloid-derivatives can also be used as tranquilizers, antitussives and in the treatment of diarrhea.[T138] The direct use of opium is not common nowadays but the use of some of its derivatives such as morphine and codeine, as well as the use of a tincture of opium for severe diarrhea can be seen in medical practice.[T139]
Illegal use of opium has been registered to be for both recreational and medicinal purposes.[A32182]|