Benzodiazepine hypnotics and sedatives

Benzodiazepines can be useful for short-term treatment of insomnia. Their use beyond 2 to 4 weeks is not recommended due to the risk of dependence. It is preferred that benzodiazepines be taken intermittently and at the lowest effective dose. They improve sleep-related problems by shortening the time spent in bed before falling asleep, prolonging the sleep time, and, in general, reducing wakefulness. Their mechanism of action is primarily at GABAA receptors.
DrugDrug NameDrug Description
DB01558BromazepamA short-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders and severe anxiety.
DB09017BrotizolamBrotizolam is indicated for 2-4 weeks in the treatment of severe or debilitating insomnia.
DB01594CinolazepamFor the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety or anxiety associated with depressive symptoms.
DB01215EstazolamA benzodiazepine used for the short-term management of insomnia.
DB09166EtizolamIndicated for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder with depression, panic disorder and insomnia.
DB01544FlunitrazepamFor short-term treatment of severe insomnias, that are not responsive to other hypnotics.
DB13643LoprazolamLoprazolam is an imidazobenzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is indicated for the short-term treatment of insomnia including difficulty in falling asleep and/or frequent...
DB00186LorazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and seizures.
DB00683MidazolamA short-acting injectable benzodiazepine with rapid onset that is commonly used in seizures, anesthesia and anxiety disorders.
DB01595NitrazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with intermediate onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, insomnia, and seizures.
DB01589QuazepamA long -acting benzodiazepine used to manage insomnia.
DB00231TemazepamA short-acting benzodiazepine commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, and insomnia.
DB00897TriazolamA benzodiazepine used for short term treatment of insomnia.
DB00402EszopicloneA sedative-hypnotic used in the treatment of insomnia, improving both the latency phase and the maintenance phase of sleep.
DB00962ZaleplonA sedative used for short term treatment of insomnia in adults.
DB00425ZolpidemA sedative hypnotic used for the short-term treatment of insomnia to improve sleep latency.
DB01198ZopicloneA nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic used for the short-term management of insomnia.
DB00829DiazepamA long-acting benzodiazepine with rapid onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and seizures.
DB00842OxazepamAn intermediate-acting benzodiazepine with slow onset commonly used to treat panic disorders, severe anxiety, alcohol withdrawals, and insomnia.
DB13437MedazepamNot Annotated
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB01558BromazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01558BromazepamCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01558BromazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01558BromazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB09017BrotizolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01594CinolazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01215EstazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01215EstazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01215EstazolamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB09166EtizolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB09166EtizolamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB09166EtizolamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB09166EtizolamPlatelet-activating factor receptortarget
DB09166EtizolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB09166EtizolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB09166EtizolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB09166EtizolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01544FlunitrazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01544FlunitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00186LorazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00186LorazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00186LorazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00186LorazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00683MidazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00683MidazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00683MidazolamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00683MidazolamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00683MidazolamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01595NitrazepamSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01595NitrazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB01595NitrazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01595NitrazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB01589QuazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01589QuazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB01589QuazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00231TemazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00231TemazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00231TemazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00231TemazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00897TriazolamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00897TriazolamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00897TriazolamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00897TriazolamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00402EszopicloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00402EszopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00402EszopicloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00402EszopicloneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00962ZaleplonTranslocator proteintarget
DB00962ZaleplonGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00962ZaleplonAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00962ZaleplonCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00425ZolpidemGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB01198ZopicloneTranslocator proteintarget
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB01198ZopicloneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB01198ZopicloneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamTranslocator proteintarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00829DiazepamSerum albumincarrier
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00829DiazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00829DiazepamP-glycoprotein 1transporter
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00829DiazepamProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00829DiazepamCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00829DiazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-1target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-2target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit beta-3target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-1target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-2target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit gamma-3target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit deltatarget
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit epsilontarget
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit pitarget
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-1target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-2target
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit thetatarget
DB00842OxazepamGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit rho-3target
DB00842OxazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00842OxazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00842OxazepamUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00842OxazepamGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target