|DB00179||Masoprocol||Used for the treatment of actinic keratoses (precancerous skin growths that can become malignant if left untreated).|
|DB00328||Indometacin||Oral indometacin is indicated for symptomatic management of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.[A177871,Label]
Intravenous indometacin is indicated to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1750 g when after 48 hours usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.[F4600]|
1) Symptomatic relief in rheumatoid arthritis
2) Symptomatic relief in osteoarthritis|
|DB00482||Celecoxib||For the relief and management of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), ankylosing spondylitis, acute pain, primary dysmenorrhea and oral adjunct to usual care for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis [FDA label].|
|DB00500||Tolmetin||For the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including the treatment of acute flares long-term management. Also for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00533||Rofecoxib||For the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, acute pain in adults, and primary dysmenorrhea, as well as acute treatment of migraine attacks with or without auras.|
|DB00554||Piroxicam||For treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00573||Fenoprofen||For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also for the relief of mild to moderate pain.|
|DB00580||Valdecoxib||For the treatment of osteoarthritis and dysmenorrhoea|
|DB00586||Diclofenac||For the acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00605||Sulindac||For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis), and acute gouty arthritis.|
|DB00712||Flurbiprofen||Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. |
|DB00749||Etodolac||For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain.|
|DB00784||Mefenamic acid||For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, dysmenorrhea, and mild to moderate pain, inflammation, and fever.|
|DB00814||Meloxicam||For symptomatic treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00861||Diflunisal||For symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. musculoskeletal trauma, post-dental extraction, post-episiotomy), osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00945||Acetylsalicylic acid||**Pain, fever, and inflammation**
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label].
The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label].
ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include:
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label].
Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label].
For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label].
For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label].
For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label].
Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label].
**Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]**
In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405].
|DB01009||Ketoprofen||For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain.|
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB01283||Lumiracoxib||For the acute and chronic treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in adults.|
|DB01628||Etoricoxib||For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, chronic low back pain, acute pain and gout.|
|DB05289||Tarenflurbil||Investigated for use/treatment in alzheimer's disease and prostate cancer.|
|DB06246||Exisulind||Investigated for use/treatment in adenomatous polyposis coli, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colon polyps, Barrett's esophagus disease, and pediatric indications.|
|DB08439||Parecoxib||Used for short term perioperative pain control.|
|DB00465||Ketorolac||Ketorolac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. [A176131] It is indicated for short term management of acute pain that requires the caliber of pain management offered by opioids. [L6526] Clinicians may choose to initiate ketorolac to manage post-operative pain, spinal and soft tissue pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual disorders and headaches among other ailments. [L6520] Regardless of the etiology of pain, patients should use the lowest possible dose, and avoid using ketorolac for an extended period of time (ideally ≤ 5 days).[L6526] A benefit of choosing ketorolac over other analgesics with similar potency is that that there does not appear to be a risk of dependence or tolerance with ketorolac use.[A176131] |
|DB06802||Nepafenac||For the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery.|
|DB00963||Bromfenac||For the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.|
|DB00991||Oxaprozin||Used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00469||Tenoxicam||For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, backache, and pain.|
|DB00870||Suprofen||Used as eye drops to inhibit the miosis (pupil constriction) that may occur during ocular surgery.|
|DB00936||Salicylic acid||Key additive in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, callouses, corns, keratosis pilaris and warts.|
|DB00939||Meclofenamic acid||For the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB01397||Magnesium salicylate||Magnesium salicylate is a common analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate muscular pain|
|DB04552||Niflumic acid||Used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB04743||Nimesulide||For the treatment of acute pain, the symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis and primary dysmenorrhoea in adolescents and adults above 12 years old.|