|DB00086||Streptokinase||For the treatment of acute evolving transmural myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, arterial thrombosis or emolism and occlusion of arteriovenous cannulae|
|DB00286||Conjugated estrogens||The conjugated estrogens are indicated for several different conditions including:
- Treatment of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms due to menopause.
- Treatment of moderate to severe symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.
- Treatment of hypoestrogenism due to hypogonadism, castration or primary ovarian failure.
- Palliative treatment of breast cancer in appropriately selected patients with metastatic disease.
- Palliative treatment of androgen-dependent carcinoma of the prostate.
- Preventive therapy of postmenopausal osteoporosis.[A38238] |
|DB00945||Acetylsalicylic acid||**Pain, fever, and inflammation**
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label].
The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label].
ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include:
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label].
Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label].
For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label].
For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label].
For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label].
Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label].
**Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]**
In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405].
|DB00586||Diclofenac||For the acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB00230||Pregabalin||Pregabalin is used for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia, and as adjunctive therapy for adult patients with partial onset seizures [FDA label]. |
|DB00877||Sirolimus||For the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving renal transplants.|
|DB06287||Temsirolimus||For the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Also investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer, lymphoma (unspecified), rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple myeloma.|
|DB09292||Sacubitril||Used in combination with valsartan to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II-IV) and reduced ejection fraction. It is usually administered in conjunction with other heart failure therapies, in place of an ACE inhibitor or other ARB.|
|DB06196||Icatibant||Approved for use in acute attacks of hereditary angioedema (HAE). Investigated for use/treatment in angioedema, liver disease, and burns and burn infections.|
Valsartan may be used alone for the management of hypertension [FDA label]
Valsartan is indicated for the management of hypertension in patients for whom combination therapy is deemed appropriate [F3139]. It is combined with other anthypertensive agents such as hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, nevibolol and sacubitril [F3139], [F3136], [F3145], [F3148].
Valsartan is indicated for the treatment of heart failure (NYHA class II-IV) in patients who are intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) for various reasons, including those who experience ACE inhibitor adverse effects. In a clinical study of 5010 patients, hospitalizations due to heart failure were markedly decreased when valsartan was taken regularly over a 2-year span [FDA label].
|DB00678||Losartan||May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. May be used as a first line agent to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Losartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors.|
|DB00966||Telmisartan||Used alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensives for the treatment of hypertension. Also used in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the treatment of congestive heart failure (only in patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors).|
|DB01342||Forasartan||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB01347||Saprisartan||Saprisartan is used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.|
|DB08822||Azilsartan medoxomil||Treatment of hypertension (alone or as an adjunct).|
|DB00876||Eprosartan||For the management of hypertension alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Also used as a first-line agent in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy, as well as a second-line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure (only in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors).|
|DB06127||Bisegliptin||Investigated for use/treatment in diabetes mellitus type 2.|
|DB06011||AMG-222||Investigated for use/treatment in diabetes mellitus type 2.|
|DB01261||Sitagliptin||Sitagliptin is indicated for the management of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus along with diet and exercise[Label].|
|DB04876||Vildagliptin||Used to reduce hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus.|
|DB06203||Alogliptin||Indicated as an adjunct to diet and exercise to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. |
|DB06335||Saxagliptin||Treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus to improve glycemic control in combination with other agents or as monotherapy. |
|DB08882||Linagliptin||Linagliptin is indicated for the treatment of type II diabetes in addition to diet and exercise[FDA Label]. It should not be used to treat type I diabetes or in diabetic ketoacidosis[FDA Label].|
|DB00178||Ramipril||For the management of mild to severe hypertension. May be used to reduce cardiovascular mortality following myocardial infarction in hemodynamically stable individuals who develop clinical signs of congestive heart failure within a few days following myocardial infarction. [FDA Label] To reduce the rate of death, myocardial infarction and stroke in individuals at high risk of cardiovascular events. May be used to slow the progression of renal disease in individuals with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and microalubinuria or overt nephropathy. [T116] |
|DB00492||Fosinopril||For treating mild to moderate hypertension, use as an adjunct in treating congestive heart failure, and may be used to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB00519||Trandolapril||For the treatment of mild to moderate hypertension, as an adjunct in the treatment of congestive heart failure (CHF), to improve survival following myocardial infarction (MI) in individuals who are hemodynamically stable and demonstrate symptoms of left ventricular systolic dysfunction or signs of CHF within a few days following acute MI, and to slow progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB00542||Benazepril||Benazepril is indicated for the treatment of hypertension[A840]. It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics[FDA Label].|
|DB00584||Enalapril||For the treatment of essential or renovascular hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure. It may be used alone or in combination with thiazide diuretics.|
|DB00691||Moexipril||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB00722||Lisinopril||For the treatment of hypertension and symptomatic congestive heart failure. May be used in conjunction with thrombolytic agents, aspirin and/or β-blockers to improve survival in hemodynamically stable individuals following myocardial infarction. May be used to slow the progression of renal disease in hypertensive patients with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB00790||Perindopril||For the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension, mild to moderate congestive heart failure, and to reduce the cardiovascular risk of individuals with hypertension or post-myocardial infarction and stable coronary disease. |
|DB00881||Quinapril||For the treatment of hypertension and as adjunct therapy in the treatment of congestive heart failure. May also be used to slow the rate of progression of renal disease in hypertensive individuals with diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria or overt nephropathy. |
|DB01197||Captopril||For the treatment of essential or renovascular hypertension (usually administered with other drugs, particularly thiazide diuretics). May be used to treat congestive heart failure in combination with other drugs (e.g. cardiac glycosides, diuretics, β-adrenergic blockers). May improve survival in patients with left ventricular dysfunction following myocardial infarction. May be used to treat nephropathy, including diabetic nephropathy. |
|DB01340||Cilazapril||Cilazapril is an ACE inhibtor class drug used in the treatment of hypertension and heart failure.|
|DB01348||Spirapril||Spirapril is an ACE inhibitor class drug used to treat hypertension.|
|DB09477||Enalaprilat||Enalaprilat injection is indicated for the treatment of hypertension when oral therapy is not practical.|
|DB08836||Temocapril||Temocapril is an ACE inhibitor primarily indicated in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure, diabetic nephropathy, and improvement of prognosis for coronary artery diseases (including acute myocardial infarction). |
|DB00886||Omapatrilat||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB01180||Rescinnamine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB14231||Quinoline Yellow WS||Not Available|
|DB00009||Alteplase||For management of acute myocardial infarction, acute ischemic strok and for lysis of acute pulmonary emboli|
|DB00013||Urokinase||Urokinase can be used for the treatment of pulminary embolism, coronary artery thrombosis, IV catheter clearance, and venous and arterial blood clots.|
|DB00015||Reteplase||For lysis of acute pulmonary emboli, intracoronary emboli and management of myocardial infarction|
|DB00029||Anistreplase||For lysis of acute pulmonary emboli, intracoronary emboli and management of myocardial infarction|
|DB00031||Tenecteplase||For treatment of myocardial infarction and lysis of intracoronary emboli|
|DB06245||Lanoteplase||Investigated for use/treatment in myocardial infarction.|
|DB06679||Amediplase||Investigated for use/treatment in myocardial infarction and thrombosis.|