Decreased Central Nervous System Disorganized Electrical Activity

DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB05246MethsuximideFor the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to other drugs.
DB00532MephenytoinFor the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.
DB00776OxcarbazepineFor use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children ages 4-16 with epilepsy.
DB00996GabapentinFor the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.
DB00754EthotoinFor the control of tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor) seizures.
DB06218LacosamideLacosamide is indicated for adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in patients with epilepsy over 17 years old. Injection is indicated for short term use when oral therapy is not feasible.
DB00906TiagabineFor the treatment of partial seizures
DB01320FosphenytoinFor the control of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. It can also be substituted, short-term, for oral phenytoin.
DB00593EthosuximideFor the treatment of petit mal epilepsy.
DB00313Valproic Acid**Indicated** for:[Label] 1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures. 2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures. 3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches. 4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder. **Off-label** uses include: 1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919] 2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934] 3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]
DB00794PrimidonePrimidone is commonly indicated for the management of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures [L4645, FDA Label]. In addition, it has also been studied and utilized as an effective management of essential tremor [A39414, A39415, L4645].
DB00555LamotrigineIndicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label]. Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label]. Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].
DB00347TrimethadioneUsed in the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.
DB00949FelbamateFor use only in those patients who respond inadequately to alternative treatments and whose epilepsy is so severe that a substantial risk of aplastic anemia and/or liver failure is deemed acceptable in light of the benefits conferred by its use.
DB00273TopiramateTopiramate is indicated for the following conditions: - Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age. - Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients. - Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age. - Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label] A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548] A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551] Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]
DB00252PhenytoinFor the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.
DB01202LevetiracetamUsed as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.
DB00909ZonisamideFor use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.
DB00564CarbamazepineCarbamazepine is indicated for the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia.[L1335] In particular, carbamazepine has shown efficacy in treating mixed seizures, partial seizures with complex symptoms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.[A180301,L1335] Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder.[L1335] Some off-label, unapproved uses of carbamazepine include the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and restless leg syndrome.[A180415,A180421]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB05246MethsuximideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB05246MethsuximideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00532MephenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00532MephenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00532MephenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00776OxcarbazepineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineSerum albumincarrier
DB00776OxcarbazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00776OxcarbazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00996GabapentinAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-1target
DB00996GabapentinVoltage-dependent calcium channel subunit alpha-2/delta-2target
DB00996GabapentinBranched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicenzyme
DB00996GabapentinNMDA receptortarget
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 1target
DB00996GabapentinGamma-aminobutyric acid type B receptor subunit 2target
DB00996GabapentinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00754EthotoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00754EthotoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00754EthotoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB06218LacosamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00906TiagabineSodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1target
DB00906TiagabineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00906TiagabineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB01320FosphenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB00593EthosuximideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00593EthosuximideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00593EthosuximideCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00593EthosuximideCytochrome P450 3A43enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidHistone deacetylase 9target
DB00313Valproic AcidShort/branched chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 6transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 8transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidMonocarboxylate transporter 1transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier family 22 member 7transporter
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidProstaglandin G/H synthase 1enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-10enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00313Valproic Acid2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrialtarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSodium channel proteintarget
DB00313Valproic AcidHistone deacetylase 2target
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammatarget
DB00313Valproic AcidSerum albumincarrier
DB00313Valproic AcidUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00313Valproic AcidSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1transporter
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-2target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-3target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-5target
DB00794PrimidoneGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-6target
DB00794PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00794PrimidoneNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-7target
DB00794PrimidoneGlutamate receptor 2target
DB00794PrimidoneGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 2target
DB00794PrimidoneGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00794PrimidoneUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-4enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineDihydrofolate reductaseenzyme
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineVoltage-dependent R-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Etarget
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A1target
DB00555LamotrigineAdenosine receptor A2atarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-1A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineAlpha-2A adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineBeta-1 adrenergic receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(1) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineD(2) dopamine receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00555LamotrigineGABA-A receptor (benzodiazepine site)target
DB00555LamotrigineHistamine H1 receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00555LamotrigineMuscarinic acetylcholine receptortarget
DB00555Lamotrigine5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 2Atarget
DB00555LamotrigineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00555LamotrigineSolute carrier family 22 member 2transporter
DB00347TrimethadioneVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00347TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00347TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00347TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00347TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00347TrimethadioneCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 3Atarget
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Btarget
DB00949FelbamateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2Atarget
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2E1enzyme
DB00949FelbamateCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGamma-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit alpha-1target
DB00273TopiramateSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1target
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00273TopiramateCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00273TopiramateGABA-A receptor (anion channel)target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00273TopiramateCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00273TopiramateGlutamate receptor 1target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSerum albumincarrier
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 11B1, mitochondrialenzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00252PhenytoinSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-9enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00252PhenytoinThyroxine-binding globulincarrier
DB01202LevetiracetamSynaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2Atarget
DB01202LevetiracetamMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB01202LevetiracetamVoltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Btarget
DB01202LevetiracetamCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 1 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 1target
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Gtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideAldehyde oxidaseenzyme
DB00909ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Btarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 2target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 3target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 4target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrialtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrialtarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 6target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 7target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related proteintarget
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 9target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 10target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase-related protein 11target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 12target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 13target
DB00909ZonisamideCarbonic anhydrase 14target
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Htarget
DB00909ZonisamideVoltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1Itarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 2 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 3 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel protein type 11 subunit alphatarget
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-1target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-2target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-3target
DB00909ZonisamideSodium channel subunit beta-4target
DB00909ZonisamideAmine oxidase [flavin-containing] Atarget
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00909ZonisamideCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineVoltage gated sodium channeltarget
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineRalA-binding protein 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineCanalicular multispecific organic anion transporter 1transporter
DB00564CarbamazepineNeuronal acetylcholine receptor subunit alpha-4target
DB00564CarbamazepineNuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I member 2target
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-6enzyme
DB00564CarbamazepineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-7enzyme