|DB05246||Methsuximide||For the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to other drugs.|
|DB00532||Mephenytoin||For the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.|
|DB00776||Oxcarbazepine||For use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children ages 4-16 with epilepsy.|
|DB00996||Gabapentin||For the management of postherpetic neuralgia in adults and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures with and without secondary generalization in patients over 12 years of age with epilepsy.|
|DB00754||Ethotoin||For the control of tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor) seizures.|
|DB06218||Lacosamide||Lacosamide is indicated for adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures in patients with epilepsy over 17 years old. Injection is indicated for short term use when oral therapy is not feasible. |
|DB00906||Tiagabine||For the treatment of partial seizures|
|DB01320||Fosphenytoin||For the control of generalized convulsive status epilepticus and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during neurosurgery. It can also be substituted, short-term, for oral phenytoin.|
|DB00593||Ethosuximide||For the treatment of petit mal epilepsy.|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
|DB00794||Primidone||Primidone is commonly indicated for the management of grand mal, psychomotor, and focal epileptic seizures [L4645, FDA Label]. In addition, it has also been studied and utilized as an effective management of essential tremor [A39414, A39415, L4645].|
|DB00555||Lamotrigine||Indicated as adjunctive therapy for the following seizure types in patients ≥2 years of age: partial seizures/primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures/generalized seizures of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome [FDA Label].
Indicated for conversion to monotherapy in adults (≥16 years of age) with partial seizures who are receiving treatment with carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital, primidone, or valproate as the single antiepileptic drug (AED)[FDA Label].
Indicated for the maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder to delay the time to occurrence of mood episodes (depression, mania, hypomania, mixed episodes) in adults (≥18 years of age) treated for acute mood episodes with standard therapy [FDA Label].|
|DB00347||Trimethadione||Used in the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to treatment with other medications.|
|DB00949||Felbamate||For use only in those patients who respond inadequately to alternative treatments and whose epilepsy is so severe that a substantial risk of aplastic anemia and/or liver failure is deemed acceptable in light of the benefits conferred by its use.|
|DB00273||Topiramate||Topiramate is indicated for the following conditions:
- Monotherapy for partial onset or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures in patients over 2 years of age.
- Adjunctive therapy for partial onset seizures or primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures for adult and pediatric patients.
- Adjunctive therapy for seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients over 2 years of age.
- Prophylaxis of migraine headache in adults.[FDA label]
A seizure is an abnormal, unregulated electrical discharge occurring in the brain's cortical gray matter. This electrical response produces a transient interruption in the normal brain function which in order produces altered awareness, abnormal sensations, focal involuntary movements or convulsions. The type of seizure can be classified according to the type of onset followed by a type of seizure.[L5548]
A migraine headache is a [ulsating or throbbing pain that can be presented in one of both sides of the head and it can be worsened by external stimuli such as physical activity, light, sounds, and odors.[L5551]
Topiramate has been commonly investigated and used off-label for weight reduction in patients with obesity or diabetes.[A175240]|
|DB00252||Phenytoin||For the control of generalized tonic-clonic (grand mal) and complex partial (psychomotor, temporal lobe) seizures and prevention and treatment of seizures occurring during or following neurosurgery.|
|DB01202||Levetiracetam||Used as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial onset seizures in adults and children 4 years of age and older with epilepsy.|
|DB00909||Zonisamide||For use as adjunctive treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy.|
|DB00564||Carbamazepine||Carbamazepine is indicated for the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia.[L1335] In particular, carbamazepine has shown efficacy in treating mixed seizures, partial seizures with complex symptoms, and generalized tonic-clonic seizures.[A180301,L1335] Carbamazepine is also indicated for the treatment of manic episodes and mixed manic-depressive episodes caused by bipolar I disorder.[L1335] Some off-label, unapproved uses of carbamazepine include the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and restless leg syndrome.[A180415,A180421]|