|DB01171||Moclobemide||For the treatment of major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder [A31901].|
|DB00622||Nicardipine||Used for the management of patients with chronic stable angina and for the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB00220||Nelfinavir||Used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.|
|DB00328||Indometacin||Oral indometacin is indicated for symptomatic management of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.[A177871,Label]
Intravenous indometacin is indicated to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1750 g when after 48 hours usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.[F4600]|
The gelatinized capsules are indicated for use in the prevention of endometrial hyperplasia in non-hysterectomized postmenopausal women who are receiving conjugated estrogens tablets. They are also indicated for use in secondary amenorrhea [FDA label].
Progesterone gel (8%) is indicated as progesterone supplementation or replacement as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (“ART”) treatment for infertile women with progesterone deficiency. The lower concentration progesterone gel (4%) is used in the treatment of secondary amenorrhea, with the use of the 8% concentration if there is no therapeutic response to the 4% gel [F3898].
This form is indicated to support embryo implantation and early pregnancy by supplementation of corpus luteal function as part of an Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) treatment program for infertile women [F3901].
This drug is indicated in amenorrhea and abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance in the absence of organic pathology, such as submucous fibroids or uterine cancer [F3907].
The tablet form of progesterone in contraceptive formulations is indicated for the prevention of pregnancy [F3904]. |
|DB00949||Felbamate||For use only in those patients who respond inadequately to alternative treatments and whose epilepsy is so severe that a substantial risk of aplastic anemia and/or liver failure is deemed acceptable in light of the benefits conferred by its use.|
|DB01129||Rabeprazole||For the treatment of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, H. pylori eradication, and prevention of gastroinetestinal bleeds with NSAID use.|
|DB00197||Troglitazone||For the treatment of Type II diabetes mellitus. It is used alone or in combination with a sulfonylurea, metformin, or insulin as an adjunct to diet and exercise.|
|DB00321||Amitriptyline||This drug in indicated for the following conditions [FDA label]:
Major depressive disorder in adults
Management of neuropathic pain in adults
Prophylactic treatment of chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) in adults
Prophylactic treatment of migraine in adults
Treatment of nocturnal enuresis in children aged 6 years and above when organic pathology, including spina bifida and related disorders, have been excluded and no response has been achieved to all other non-drug and drug treatments, including antispasmodics and vasopressin-related products. This product should only be prescribed by a healthcare professional with expertise in the management of persistent enuresis [FDA label]
Off-label uses: irritable bowel syndrome, sleep disorders, diabetic neuropathy, agitation, fibromyalgia, and insomnia |
|DB00455||Loratadine||Loratadine is a 2nd generation antihistamine and is typically used to manage symptoms of allergic rhinitis, wheal formation and urticaria.[A176435][A176438] Unlike 1st generation antihistamines, loratadine is non-sedating since it has minimal effect on the central nervous system with only a small amount entering the brain. [A176438]|
|DB00458||Imipramine||For the relief of symptoms of depression and as temporary adjunctive therapy in reducing enuresis in children aged 6 years and older [FDA Label].
May also be used off-label to manage panic disorders with or without agoraphobia, as a second line agent for ADHD in children and adolescents, to manage bulimia nervosa, for short-term management of acute depressive episodes in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, for the treatment of acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder, and for symptomatic treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and painful diabetic neuropathy [L1349,L1348,A31900,L1351,L1352,L1353,A31904]. |
|DB00503||Ritonavir||Indicated in combination with other antiretroviral agents for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.|
|DB00532||Mephenytoin||For the treatment of refractory partial epilepsy.|
|DB00752||Tranylcypromine||For the treatment of major depressive episode without melancholia.|
|DB00776||Oxcarbazepine||For use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in adults with epilepsy and as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of partial seizures in children ages 4-16 with epilepsy.|
|DB01026||Ketoconazole||For the treatment of the following systemic fungal infections: candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis.|
|DB01041||Thalidomide||For the acute treatment of the cutaneous manifestations of moderate to severe erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL). Also for use as maintenance therapy for prevention and suppression of the cutaneous manifestations of ENL recurrence.|
|DB01424||Aminophenazone||Formerly widely used as an antipyretic and analgesic in rheumatism, neuritis, and common colds. Currently used to measure total body water.|
|DB01095||Fluvastatin||To be used as an adjunct to dietary therapy to prevent cardiovascular events. May be used as secondary prevention in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) to reduce the risk of requiring coronary revascularization procedures, for reducing progression of coronary atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients with CHD, and for the treatment of primary hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslidipidemia. |
|DB00468||Quinine||For the treatment of malaria and leg cramps|
|DB01435||Antipyrine||Antipyrine is an analgesic often used to test effects of other drugs on liver enzymes.
In combination with benzocaine in otic solutions, antipyrine is indicated for the symptomatic relief of acute otitis media arising from various etiologies. |
1) Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thromboembolism and related pulmonary embolism.
2) Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism associated with atrial fibrillation.
3) Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolism associated with cardiac valve replacement.
4) Use as adjunct therapy to reduce mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction, and thromboembolic events post myocardial infarction.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Secondary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attacks in patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease but without atrial fibrillation.[A179182]|
|DB00829||Diazepam||In general, diazepam is useful in the symptomatic management of mild to moderate degrees of anxiety in conditions dominated by tension, excitation, agitation, fear, or aggressiveness such as may occur in psychoneurosis, anxiety reactions due to stress conditions, and anxiety states with somatic expression [F3160].
Moreover, in acute alcoholic withdrawal, diazepam may be useful in the symptomatic relief of acute agitation, tremor, and impending acute delirium tremens [F3160].
Furthermore, diazepam is a useful adjunct for the relief of skeletal muscle spasm due to reflex spasm to local pathologies, such as inflammation of the muscle and joints or secondary to trauma; spasticity caused by upper motor neuron disorders, such as cerebral palsy and paraplegia; athetosis and the rare "stiff man syndrome" [F3160].
Particular label information from the United Kingdom also lists particular age-specific indications, including for adults: (1) The short-term relief (2-4 weeks) only, of anxiety which is severe, disabling, or subjecting the individual to unacceptable distress, occurring alone or in association with insomnia or short-term psychosomatic, organic or psychotic illness, (2) cerebral palsy, (3) muscle spasm, (4) as an adjunct to certain types of epilepsy (eg. myoclonus), (5) symptomatic treatment of acute alcohol withdrawal, (6) as oral premedication for the nervous dental patient, and (7) for premedication before surgery [L5188].
In the same UK label information, diazepam is indicated in children for: (1) control of tension and irritability in cerebral spasticity in selected cases, (2) as an adjunct to the control of muscle spasm in tetanus, and for (3) oral premedication [L5188].|
|DB00501||Cimetidine||For the treatment and the management of acid-reflux disorders (GERD), peptic ulcer disease, heartburn, and acid indigestion.|
|DB01032||Probenecid||For the reduction of serum uric acid concentrations in chronic gouty arthritis and tophaceous gout in patients with frequent disabling gout attacks. Has also been effectively used to promote uric acid excretion in hyperuricemia secondary to the administration of thiazide and related diuretics. |
|DB00564||Carbamazepine||For the treatment of epilepsy and pain associated with true trigeminal neuralgia. |
|DB01120||Gliclazide||For the treatment of NIDDM in conjunction with diet and exercise. |
|DB00921||Buprenorphine||For the treatment of moderate to severe pain, peri-operative analgesia, and opioid dependence.|
|DB00091||Ciclosporin||Cyclosporine is officially approved for different conditions listed below:
* Prophylaxis of organ rejection in kidney, liver, and heart allogeneic transplants. For this indication, it can be used concomitantly with azathioprine and corticosteroids.
* Treatment of patients with severe active, rheumatoid arthritis when the patient no longer responds to methotrexate.
* Concomitantly with methotrexate for the treatment of patients with severe active rheumatoid arthritis when patients do not respond to methotrexate treatment alone.
* Treatment of adult nonimmunocompromised patients with severe, recalcitrant, plaque psoriasis that have failed to respond to at least one systemic therapy or when systemic therapies are not tolerated or contraindicated.[FDA label]
* Its ophthalmic solution is indicated to increase tear production in patients with keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients from 4 years old.[L5158]
* Prevention of graft rejection following bone marrow transplantation and in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
* Treatment of steroid dependent and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome due to glomerular diseases such as minimal change nephropathy, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis or membranous glomerulonephritis in adults and children.[F3091]
Away from all this approved and reviewed indications, cyclosporine is commonly used on dermatology for the treatment of various inflammatory skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis, blistering disorders, and connective tissue diseases.[A174085]|
|DB01093||Dimethyl sulfoxide||For the symptomatic relief of patients with interstitial cystitis.|
|DB00678||Losartan||May be used as a first line agent to treat uncomplicated hypertension, isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy. May be used as a first line agent to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy. Losartan may be also used as a second line agent in the treatment of congestive heart failure, systolic dysfunction, myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease in those intolerant of ACE inhibitors.|
|DB00703||Methazolamide||For treatment of chronic open-angle glaucoma and acute angle-closure glaucoma|
|DB00780||Phenelzine||Phenelzine is indicated for the treatment of nonendogenous, neurotic or atypical depression for patients that do not tolerate other forms of therapy.[L1356]
Atypical depression has a high prevalence rate, starts in early life, tends to last longer, is more likely to occur in people with bipolar disorder, has a high comorbidity with anxiety disorder and carries more risk of suicidal behavior. It is important to specify the atypical feature to predict the clinical course of depression and hence generate the best treatment and service. The featuring symptoms of the atypical feature include mood reactivity, two or more of this symptoms: 1) increased appetite, 2) increased sleep, 3) leaden paralysis and 4) interpersonal rejection sensitivity and should not have melancholic or catatonic features of depression.[A31917]
Neurotic depression is a depression of an emotionally unstable person. It is a secondary condition to major personality disorder, neuroses and drug use disorders. Likewise, a primary depression with a family history of depression spectrum disease would fit in this category.[A31922]
A nonendogenous depression is characterized by a disturbance in mood and general outlook. The physical symptoms tend to be less severe and it often occurs in response to stressful life events that keep occurring over a large period of time generating a continuous stress in the daily living.[A31924]|
|DB00259||Sulfanilamide||For the treatment of vulvovaginitis caused by Candida albicans.|
|DB00966||Telmisartan||Used alone or in combination with other classes of antihypertensives for the treatment of hypertension. Also used in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as the treatment of congestive heart failure (only in patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors).|
|DB00763||Methimazole||For the treatment of hyperthyroidism, goiter, Graves disease and psoriasis.|
|DB00313||Valproic Acid||**Indicated** for:[Label]
1) Use as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy in the management of complex partial seizures and simple or complex absence seizures.
2) Adjunctive therapy in the management of multiple seizure types that include absence seizures.
3) Prophylaxis of migraine headaches.
4) Acute management of mania associated with bipolar disorder.
**Off-label** uses include:
1) Maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.[A177919]
2) Treatment for acute bipolar depression.[A177928,A177931,A177934]
3) Emergency treatment of status epilepticus.[A177955]|
|DB00398||Sorafenib||Sorafenib is indicated for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma and advanced renal cell carcinoma. |
|DB01128||Bicalutamide||For treatment (together with surgery or LHRH analogue) of advanced prostatic cancer.|
|DB04920||Clevidipine||For the treatment of hypertension.|
|DB08828||Vismodegib||Vismodegib is used for treating locally advanced or metastatic basal cell carcinoma in patients whose carcinoma has recurred after surgery, and in patients who are not candidates for surgery or radiation.|
|DB09054||Idelalisib||Idelalisib is indicated in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), relapsed follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (FL), and relapsed small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL). For the treatment of relapsed CLL, it is currently indicated as a second-line agent in combination with rituximab in patients for whom rituximab alone would be considered appropriate therapy due to other co-morbidities, while in the treatment of FL and SLL it is intended to be used in patients who have received at least two prior systemic therapies.|
|DB01685||Topiroxostat||Indicated for the treatment of gout and hyperurcemia in Japan.|
|DB09198||Lobeglitazone||Lobeglitazone was approved by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (South Korea) in 2013, and is being monitored by postmarketing surveillance until 2019. Lobeglitazone is not approved for use by either the Food and Drug Administration (USA), Health Canada, or by the European Medicines Agency for use in the management of diabetes.|
|DB09167||Dosulepin||Indicated in the treatment of symptoms of depressive illness, especially where an anti-anxiety effect is required.|
|DB13874||Enasidenib||Indicated for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 (IDH2) mutation.|
|DB13941||Piperaquine||For the treatment of uncomplicated *Plasmodium falciparum* infection in adults, children, and infants aged 6 months and up weighing over 5 kg [FDA Label]. Used in combination with [DB11638].|
|DB11633||Isavuconazole||- Indicated for patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis [FDA Label].
- Indicated for patients 18 years of age and older for the treatment of invasive mucormycosis [FDA Label], including patients where treatment amphotericin B is inappropriate [L1482].|
|DB06654||Safinamide||Safinamide is indicated as an add-on treatment to levodopa with or without other medicines for Parkinson’s disease|
|DB09078||Lenvatinib||Lenvatinib is indicated for the treatment of following conditions.
- Treatment of locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive, radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer.
- Treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in combination with everolimus following one prior antiangiogenic therapy.
- First-line treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).|
|DB05246||Methsuximide||For the control of absence (petit mal) seizures that are refractory to other drugs.|
|DB06414||Etravirine||Indicated as an adjunct therapy in the treatment of adult HIV-1 infections resistant to therapy with other NNRTIs and antiretroviral agents. |
|DB00745||Modafinil||To improve wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with narcolepsy.|
|DB01118||Amiodarone||Intravenously, for initiation of treatment and prophylaxis of frequently recurring ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia in patients refractory to other therapy. Orally, for the treatment of life-threatening recurrent ventricular arrhythmias such as recurrent ventricular fibrillation and recurrent hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia.|
|DB00972||Azelastine||For the symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis and non-allergic rhinitis, as well as symptomatic relief of ocular itching associated with allergic conjunctivitis.|
|DB06268||Sitaxentan||Investigated for use/treatment in pulmonary hypertension, connective tissue diseases, hypertension, and congestive heart failure.|
|DB00363||Clozapine||For use in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia.|
|DB00701||Amprenavir||For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.|
|DB01110||Miconazole||For topical application in the treatment of tinea pedis (athlete’s foot), tinea cruris, and tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum, in the treatment of cutaneous candidiasis (moniliasis), and in the treatment of tinea versicolor.|
|DB00317||Gefitinib||For the continued treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer after failure of either platinum-based or docetaxel chemotherapies.|
|DB11753||Rifamycin||Rifamycin is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive strains of _E. coli_. The status of the disease should not be complicated by fever or blood in the stool. To prevent drug-resistant bacteria, it is important to mention that the use of rifamycin for this indication should be only done in cases where the infection is proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.[L4802]
Travallers' diarrhea is very common problem affecting 20-60% of the travellers and it is defined as an increase in frequency of bowel movements to three or more loose stools per day during a trip abroad. This condition is rarely life threatening but in severe cases it can produce dehydration and sepsis. The most common cause of travellers' diarrhea is a pathogen and from the pathogens identified, bacteria is the most common cause followed by norovirus, rotavirus and similar viruses.[A39995]|
|DB00196||Fluconazole||Fluconazole can be administered in the treatment of the following fungal infections[FDA label]:
1) Vaginal yeast infections caused by Candida
2) Systemic Candida infections
3) Both esophageal and oropharyngeal candidiasis
4) Cryptococcal meningitis
5) UTI (urinary tract infection) by Candida
6) Peritonitis (inflammation of the peritoneum) caused by Candida
**A note on fungal infection prophylaxis**
Patients receiving bone marrow transplantation who are treated with cytotoxic chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy may be predisposed to candida infections, and may receive fluconazole as prophylactic therapy.[FDA label]
**A note on laboratory testing**
Obtaining specimens for fungal culture and other important laboratory studies such as serology or pathology is advised before starting fluconazole therapy in order to isolate the organisms to be eliminated through treatment. It is permissible to start therapy before the results are available, however, adjusting the therapy once laboratory results confirm the causative organism may be necessary.[FDA label]
|DB12245||Triclabendazole||This drug is indicated for the treatment of fascioliasis in patients aged 6 years old and above.[FDA label,L5452]|
|DB12015||Alpelisib||Alpelisib is indicated in combination with fulvestrant to treat postmenopausal women, and men, with advanced or metastatic breast cancer.[Label] This cancer must be hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, and PIK3CA mutated.[Label] The cancer must be detected by an FDA-approved test following progression on or after an endocrine-based regimen.[Label]|