|DB13783||Acemetacin||Acemetacin is not FDA, Canada or EMA approved, but in the countries where it is marketed it is indicated for the symptomatic treatment of pain and swelling in acute inflammation of the joints in rheumathoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, low back pain and post-surgical pain.[L1045] It is also indicated for the treatment of chronic inflammation of the joints in presence of rheumatoid arthritis, treatment of ankylosing spondylitis, treatment of irritation in the joints and spinal column caused by degenerative disorders, treatment of inflammatory soft-tissue rheumatism syndrome and painful swelling and inflammation caused by injury.[L1044, L1046]|
|DB00945||Acetylsalicylic acid||**Pain, fever, and inflammation**
Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), in the regular tablet form (immediate-release), is indicated to relieve pain, fever, and inflammation associated with many conditions, including the flu, the common cold, neck and back pain, dysmenorrhea, headache, tooth pain, sprains, fractures, myositis, neuralgia, synovitis, arthritis, bursitis, burns, and various injuries. It is also used for symptomatic pain relief after surgical and dental procedures [FDA label].
The _extra strength_ formulation of acetylsalicylic acid is also indicated for the management migraine pain with photophobia (sensitivity to light) and phonophobia (sensitivity to sound)[FDA label].
ASA is also indicated for various other purposes, due to its ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. These include:
Reducing the risk of cardiovascular death in suspected cases of myocardial infarction (MI) [FDA label].
Reducing the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction in patients, and for reducing the risk of morbidity and mortality in cases of unstable angina and in those who have had a prior myocardial infarction [FDA label].
For reducing the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and to prevent atherothrombotic cerebral infarction (in conjunction with other treatments) [FDA label].
For the prevention of thromboembolism after hip replacement surgery [FDA label].
For decreasing platelet to platelet adhesion following carotid endarterectomy, aiding in the prevention of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) [FDA label].
Used for patients undergoing hemodialysis with a silicone rubber arteriovenous cannula inserted to prevent thrombosis at the insertion site [FDA Label].
**Important note regarding use of the extended-release formulation [F4405]**
In the setting of acute myocardial infarction, or before percutaneous interventions, the extended-release form of acetylsalicylic acid should not be used. Use immediate-release formulations in scenarios requiring rapid onset of action [Label, F4405]. The extended-release form is taken to decrease the incidence of mortality and myocardial infarction (MI) for individuals diagnosed with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD), including patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina or with chronic stable angina. Additionally, the extended-release form is used to decrease the risk of death and recurrent episodes of stroke in patients with a history of stroke or TIA [F4405].
|DB13167||Alclofenac||Alclofenac is indicated in rheumatology, in particular for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and, as an analgesic, in painful arthritic pathologies.|
|DB01424||Aminophenazone||Formerly widely used as an antipyretic and analgesic in rheumatism, neuritis, and common colds. Currently used to measure total body water.|
|DB01435||Antipyrine||Antipyrine is an analgesic often used to test effects of other drugs on liver enzymes..|
|DB01419||Antrafenine||Antrafenine is used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent for the relief of mild to moderate pain.|
|DB01014||Balsalazide||For the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis.|
|DB13501||Bendazac||Prior to the withdrawal of bendazac from various international regions of use due to concerns for hepatotoxicity [A39891, A39892, A39893, L4778] the chemical had demonstrated potential usefulness predominantly as the prescription medication bendazac lysine for the indication of managing the level of vision in patients with mild to moderate cataracts to facilitate delaying the need for surgical intervention [A39863, A39869, A39890].
Elsewhere bendazac may still be available in a limited capacity as a non-prescription topical cream product for treating conditions like local pain, inflammation, dermatitis, eczema, pruritis, hives, insect bites, burns, erythema, and others [L4780] - although such products may also be facing general discontinuation [L4781].|
|DB09084||Benzydamine||Available predominantly as a liquid mouthwash, oromucosal spray, or topical cream, benzydamine is most frequently employed as a locally acting analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatment for the relief of painful inflammatory conditions.
When formulated as a mouthwash or spray, benzydamine may be used to treat traumatic conditions like pharyngitis following tonsillectomy or the use of a naso-gastric tube, inflammatory conditions like pharyngitis, aphthous ulcers and oral ulceration due to radiation therapy, dentistry operations and procedures, or more general conditions like sore throat, sore tongue, sore gums, mouth ulcers, or discomfort caused by dentures. [L1121]
When used as a topical cream, benzydamine may be employed to relieve symptoms associated with painful inflammatory conditions of the muscolo-skeletal system including acute inflammatory disorders such as myalgia and bursitis or traumatic conditions like sprains, strains, bruises, sore muscles, stiff joints, or even the after-effects of fractures. [ L1123]|
|DB12480||Betulinic Acid||Not Available|
|DB13346||Bufexamac||Indicated for the treatment of various skin conditions, such as atopic eczema and other inflammatory dermatoses. |
|DB13612||Carbaspirin calcium||Not Available|
|DB01401||Choline magnesium trisalicylate||Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to reduce pain and inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis. This medication is also used to treat fever in adults.|
|DB09218||Clonixin||Indicated for use in the management of chronic arthritic conditions and certain soft tissue disorders associated with pain and inflammation.|
|DB09213||Dexibuprofen||For more information, refer to [ibuprofen].|
|DB09214||Dexketoprofen||For short-term treatment of mild to moderate pain, including dysmenorrhoea, musculoskeletal pain and toothache [L1302]. |
|DB00586||Diclofenac||For the acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB00861||Diflunisal||For symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. musculoskeletal trauma, post-dental extraction, post-episiotomy), osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB09215||Droxicam||Droxicam is an NSAID previously used for the treatment of inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis [L1119].|
|DB00573||Fenoprofen||For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also for the relief of mild to moderate pain.|
|DB00712||Flurbiprofen||Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. |
|DB01050||Ibuprofen||Ibuprofen is the most commonly used and prescribed NSAID. It is very common over the counter medication widely used as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic.[A39096]
The use of ibuprofen and its enantiomer [DB09213] in a racemic mix is common for the management of mild to moderate pain related to dysmenorrhea, headache, migraine, postoperative dental pain, spondylitis, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and soft tissue disorder.[A39097]
Due to its activity against prostaglandin and thromboxane synthesis, ibuprofen has been attributed to alteration of platelet function and prolongation of gestation and labor.[A39092]
As ibuprofen is a widely used medication, the main therapeutic indications are:
* Patent Ductus Arteriosus - it is a neonatal condition wherein the ductus arteriosus (blood vessel that connects the main pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta) fails to close after birth causing severe risk of heart failure. The prostaglandin inhibition of ibuprofen has been studied for the treatment of this condition as it is known that prostaglandin E2 is responsible for keeping the ductus arteriosus open.[A39100]
* Rheumatoid- and osteo-arthritis - ibuprofen is very commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of inflammatory, musculoskeletal and rheumatic disorders.[A39176]
* Cystic fibrosis - the use of high dosages of ibuprofen has been proven to decrease inflammation and decreasing polymorphonuclear cell influx in the lungs.[A39177]
* Orthostatic hypotension - ibuprofen can induce sodium retention and antagonize the effect of diuretics which has been reported to be beneficial for patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.[A1651]
* Dental pain - ibuprofen is used to manage acute and chronic orofacial pain.[A10901]
* Minor pain - ibuprofen is widely used to reduce minor aches and pains as well as to reduce fever and manage dysmenorrhea. It is very commonly used for the relief of acute indications such as fever and tension headaches.[A39092]
* Investigational uses - efforts have been put into developing ibuprofen for the prophylaxis of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease, and breast cancer.[A39092]|
|DB00159||Icosapent||EPA can be used for lowering elevated triglycerides in those who are hyperglyceridemic. In addition, EPA may play a therapeutic role in patients with cystic fibrosis by reducing disease severity and may play a similar role in type 2 diabetics in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy.|
|DB13860||Imidazole salicylate||Not Available|
|DB00328||Indometacin||Oral indometacin is indicated for symptomatic management of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, moderate to severe ankylosing spondylitis, moderate to severe osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis.[A177871,Label]
Intravenous indometacin is indicated to induce closure of a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing between 500 and 1750 g when after 48 hours usual medical management (e.g., fluid restriction, diuretics, digitalis, respiratory support, etc.) is ineffective.[F4600]|
|DB01009||Ketoprofen||For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain.|
|DB00465||Ketorolac||Ketorolac is a Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) and has antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. [A176131] It is indicated for short term management of acute pain that requires the caliber of pain management offered by opioids. [L6526] Clinicians may choose to initiate ketorolac to manage post-operative pain, spinal and soft tissue pain, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, menstrual disorders and headaches among other ailments. [L6520] Regardless of the etiology of pain, patients should use the lowest possible dose, and avoid using ketorolac for an extended period of time (ideally ≤ 5 days).[L6526] A benefit of choosing ketorolac over other analgesics with similar potency is that that there does not appear to be a risk of dependence or tolerance with ketorolac use.[A176131] |
|DB06725||Lornoxicam||For the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain, as well as pain and inflammation of the joints caused by certain types of rheumatic diseases.|
|DB09212||Loxoprofen||Loxoprofen is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication (NSAID) indicated for pain and inflammation related to musculoskeletal and joint disorders [L1226]. In addition to its effects on pain, it is an antipyretic and anti-inflammatory medication [L1227].|
|DB01397||Magnesium salicylate||Magnesium salicylate is a common analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate muscular pain|
|DB00939||Meclofenamic acid||For the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00244||Mesalazine||Mesalazine is indicated for the induction of remission in patients with active or mild to moderate acute exacerbations of ulcerative colitis and for the maintenance of remission of ulcerative colitis [FDA Label], [L5101]. Prescribing information for mesalazine in the UK also indicates the medication for the maintenance of remission of Crohn's ileo-colitis [L5101].|
|DB04817||Metamizole||Used in the past as a powerful painkiller and fever reducer.|
|DB00788||Naproxen||Naproxen is indicated for the management of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, tendinitis, bursitis, acute gout, primary dysmenorrhea, and for the relief of mild to moderate pain.[L6582][L6583][A178975] Further, it is first-line therapy for osteoarthritis, acute gouty arthritis, dysmenorrhea, and musculoskeletal inflammation and analgesia.[A178975]|
|DB01250||Olsalazine||For the treatment of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Ulcerative Colitis.|
|DB00991||Oxaprozin||Used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.|
|DB00812||Phenylbutazone||For the treatment of backache and ankylosing spondylitis|
|DB00554||Piroxicam||For treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB09288||Propacetamol||Propacetamol is a paracetamol prodrug of intravenous administration used to control fever and pain of perioperative period in multimodal analgesia therapy.[L1511]|
|DB00936||Salicylic acid||Key additive in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, callouses, corns, keratosis pilaris and warts.|
|DB01399||Salsalate||For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and related rheumatic disorders.|
|DB00795||Sulfasalazine||For the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis as a second-line agent.|
|DB00605||Sulindac||For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis), and acute gouty arthritis.|
|DB00870||Suprofen||Used as eye drops to inhibit the miosis (pupil constriction) that may occur during ocular surgery.|
|DB00469||Tenoxicam||For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, backache, and pain.|
|DB01600||Tiaprofenic acid||Tiaprofenic acid is used to treat pain, especially arthritic pain.|
|DB09216||Tolfenamic Acid||In the information for tolfenamic acid, it is stated that this drug, being an NSAID, is effective in treating the pain associated with the acute attack of migraines in adults.[L1293]|
|DB00500||Tolmetin||For the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including the treatment of acute flares long-term management. Also for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.|
|DB11079||Trolamine salicylate||Indicated for the temporary relief of aches, and pains of muscles and joints associated with backache, lumbago, strains, bruises, sprains and arthritic or rheumatic pain, pain of tendons and ligaments [L1791].|
|DB04828||Zomepirac||Zomepirac was indicated for the management of mild to severe pain.|