Neuraxial Anesthetics

Spinal anesthesia, epidural anesthesia, caudal anesthesia
DrugDrug NameDrug Indication
DB00297BupivacaineFor the production of local or regional anesthesia or analgesia for surgery, for oral surgery procedures, for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, and for obstetrical procedures.
DB00296RopivacaineUsed in obstetric anesthesia and regional anesthesia for surgery.
DB00281LidocaineLidocaine is an anesthetic of the amide group indicated for production of local or regional anesthesia by infiltration techniques such as percutaneous injection and intravenous regional anesthesia by peripheral nerve block techniques such as brachial plexus and intercostal and by central neural techniques such as lumbar and caudal epidural blocks [F4349, L5930].
DB01002LevobupivacaineFor the production of local or regional anesthesia for surgery and obstetrics, and for post-operative pain management
DB00295MorphineMorphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050] Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]
DB00813FentanylFor the treatment of cancer patients with severe pain that breaks through their regular narcotic therapy.
DB00708SufentanilThe indications for this drug are as follows: 1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated. 2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated. 3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery 4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments. [FDA label]
DrugDrug NameTargetType
DB00297BupivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB00297BupivacaineProstaglandin E2 receptor EP1 subtypetarget
DB00297BupivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00297BupivacaineCytochrome P450 2C19enzyme
DB00297BupivacaineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00296RopivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00296RopivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00281LidocaineSodium channel protein type 5 subunit alphatarget
DB00281LidocaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB00281LidocaineEpidermal growth factor receptortarget
DB00281LidocaineSodium channel protein type 9 subunit alphatarget
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00281LidocaineSolute carrier family 22 member 5transporter
DB00281LidocaineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2A6enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2B6enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2C18enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00281LidocaineCytochrome P450 2C9enzyme
DB00281LidocaineSodium channel protein type 4 subunit alphatarget
DB00281LidocaineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1target
DB00281LidocaineAlpha-1-acid glycoprotein 2target
DB01002LevobupivacaineSodium channel protein type 10 subunit alphatarget
DB01002LevobupivacaineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB01002LevobupivacaineCytochrome P450 1A2enzyme
DB00295MorphineMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2D6enzyme
DB00295MorphineMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 2C8enzyme
DB00295MorphineCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B7enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-1enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-8enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B4enzyme
DB00295MorphineUDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1-3enzyme
DB00295MorphineLymphocyte antigen 96target
DB00295MorphineSerum albumincarrier
DB00813FentanylMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A5enzyme
DB00813FentanylCytochrome P450 3A7enzyme
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1transporter
DB00813FentanylKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00813FentanylMultidrug resistance protein 1target
DB00708SufentanilMu-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilDelta-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilKappa-type opioid receptortarget
DB00708SufentanilCytochrome P450 3A4enzyme