|DB00813||Fentanyl||Fentanyl intravenous or intramuscular injections are indicated for short term analgesia during induction, maintenance, and recovery from general or regional anesthesia.[Label] These injections are also used with a neuroleptic for premedication, induction, and as an adjunct to maintenance of anesthesia.[Label] Finally, fentanyl intravenous or intramuscular injections are used with oxygen for anesthesia in high risk patients.[Label]
Fentanyl sublingual tablets, transmucosal lozenges, buccal tablets, sublingual sprays, transdermal systems, and nasal sprays are indicated for the management of breakthrough pain in opioid tolerant cancer patients who require around the clock pain management.[L6598,L6601,L6604,L6607,L922,L6610]|
|DB00454||Meperidine||Used to control moderate to severe pain.|
|DB00333||Methadone||For the treatment of dry cough, drug withdrawal syndrome, opioid type drug dependence, and pain.|
|DB01192||Oxymorphone||For the treatment of moderate-to-severe pain.|
|DB00327||Hydromorphone||Hydromorphone is indicated for the management of moderate to severe acute pain and severe chronic pain. Due to its addictive potential and overdose risk, hydromorphone is only prescribed when other first-line treatments have failed.[A176468]
The WHO has proposed a three-step ladder for the management of pain in which it is suggested to start with a non-opioid medication followed by addition of weak opioids to the non-opioid treatment for moderate pain and finishing in the use of strong opioids such as hydromorphone along with the existing regimen for cases of severe pain.[A176471]
Off-label, hydromorphone can be administered for the suppression of refractory cough.[A176468]|
|DB00295||Morphine||Morphine is used for the management of chronic moderate-to-severe pain.[A176050]
Opioids, including morphine, can manage pain effectively when used for a short amount of time. The use of opioids for longer periods needs to be monitored as they can develop a physical dependence, addiction disorder and drug abuse.[L5728]|
|DB01535||Carfentanil||Carfentanil is similar (but more potent) to the opioid analgesic fentanyl. It is used as a tranquilizer for large animals.|
|DB00802||Alfentanil||For the management of postoperative pain and the maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00899||Remifentanil||For use during the induction and maintenance of general anesthesia.|
|DB00708||Sufentanil||The indications for this drug are as follows:
1. As an analgesic adjunct in the maintenance of balanced general anesthesia in patients who are intubated and ventilated.
2. As a primary anesthetic agent for the induction and maintenance of anesthesia with 100% oxygen in patients undergoing major surgical procedures, in patients who are intubated and ventilated, such as cardiovascular surgery or neurosurgical procedures in the sitting position, to provide favorable myocardial and cerebral oxygen balance or when extended postoperative ventilation is anticipated.
3. For epidural administration as an analgesic combined with low dose (usually 12.5 mg per administration) bupivacaine usually during labor and vaginal delivery
4. The sublingual form is indicated for the management of acute pain in adults that is severe to warrant the use of an opioid analgesic in certified medically supervised healthcare settings, including hospitals, surgical centers, and emergency departments.