Identification
NameInterferon alfa-n3
Accession NumberDB00018  (BTD00023, BIOD00023)
TypeBiotech
GroupsApproved, Investigational
Description

Purified, natural (n is for natural) human interferon alpha proteins (consists of 3 forms or polymorphisms including 2a, 2b and 2c). 166 residues, some are glycosylated (MW range from 16 kD to 27 kD).

Protein structureDb00018
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaNot Available
Protein average weightNot Available
Sequences
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2A)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRKISLFSCLKDRHDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMKEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2B)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRRISLFSCLKDRHDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMNEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
>DB00018 sequence (alpha-2C)
CDLPQTHSLGSRRTLMLLAQMRRISLFSCLKDRRDFGFPQEEFGNQFQKAETIPVLHEMI
QQIFNLFSTKDSSAAWDETLLDKFYTELYQQLNDLEACVIQGVGVTETPLMNEDSILAVR
KYFQRITLYLKEKKYSPCAWEVVRAEIMRSFSLSTNLQESLRSKE
Download FASTA Format
SynonymsNot Available
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
AlferonInjection5000000 [arb'U]/mLSubcutaneousHemispherx Biopharma1989-10-10Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
NameCompany
AlferonInterferon Sciences Inc.
Alferon LDONot Available
Alferon N InjectionNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
Categories
UNII47BPR3V3MP
CAS numberNot Available
Pharmacology
Indication

For the intralesional treatment of refractory or recurring external condylomata acuminata.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Interferon alfa-n3 upregulates the expression of MHC I proteins, allowing for increased presentation of peptides derived from viral antigens. This enhances the activation of CD8+ T cells that are the precursors for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and makes the macrophage a better target for CTL-mediated killing. Interferon alpha also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators, including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase), beta-2 microglobulin, neopterin and protein kinase R.

Mechanism of action

Interferon alpha binds to type I interferon receptors (IFNAR1 and IFNAR2c) which, upon dimerization, activate two Jak (Janus kinase) tyrosine kinases (Jak1 and Tyk2). These transphosphorylate themselves and phosphorylate the receptors. The phosphorylated INFAR receptors then bind to Stat1 and Stat2 (signal transducers and activators of transcription) which dimerize and activate multiple (~100) immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Interferon alpha binds less stably to type I interferon receptors than interferon beta.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP17181 details
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2Proteinyes
agonist
HumanP48551 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AldesleukinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Aldesleukin.Approved
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe metabolism of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Experimental
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Approved
BCG vaccineThe therapeutic efficacy of Bcg can be decreased when used in combination with Interferon alfa-n3.Investigational
ClozapineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Clozapine.Approved
DyphyllineThe metabolism of Dyphylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Approved
MetamizoleThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metamizole is combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Withdrawn
MethadoneThe serum concentration of Methadone can be increased when it is combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Approved
RibavirinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Ribavirin.Approved
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon alfa-n3.Approved
ZidovudineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon alfa-n3 is combined with Zidovudine.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
General References
  1. Sturgill MG, Rashidbaigi A, Liao MJ, Zhao XX, Hua J, Trout R, Knill JR, Grasing KW: Extravascular administration of interferon alfa-N3 increases serum exposure and 2-5(A) synthetase activity. J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jun;40(6):606-15. [PubMed:10868311 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentSevere Acute Respiratory Syndrome1
2TerminatedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections3
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
InjectionSubcutaneous5000000 [arb'U]/mL
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Alferon n 5 million unit vial412.87USD ml
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)61 °CBeldarrain, A. et al., Biochemistry 38:7865-7873 (1999)
isoelectric point5.99Not Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Type i interferon receptor activity
Specific Function:
Associates with IFNAR2 to form the type I interferon receptor. Receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Binding to type I IFNs triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of a number of proteins including JAKs, TYK2, STAT proteins and IFNR alpha- and beta-subunits themselves. Can also transduce IFNB signals without the help of IFNAR2, and not activating the Jak-STAT pathway.
Gene Name:
IFNAR1
Uniprot ID:
P17181
Uniprot Name:
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 1
Molecular Weight:
63524.81 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Dhalluin C, Ross A, Huber W, Gerber P, Brugger D, Gsell B, Senn H: Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis of the binding of the 40 kDa PEG-interferon-alpha2a and its individual positional isomers to the extracellular domain of the receptor IFNAR2. Bioconjug Chem. 2005 May-Jun;16(3):518-27. [PubMed:15898717 ]
  4. Ishii K, Shinohara M, Sawa M, Kogame M, Higami K, Sano M, Morita T, Sumino Y: Interferon alpha receptor 2 expression by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with a high viral load of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 showing substitution of amino Acid 70 in the core region. Intervirology. 2010;53(2):105-10. doi: 10.1159/000264200. Epub 2009 Dec 3. [PubMed:19955815 ]
  5. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
yes
Actions
agonist
General Function:
Type i interferon receptor activity
Specific Function:
Associates with IFNAR1 to form the type I interferon receptor. Receptor for interferons alpha and beta. Involved in IFN-mediated STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 activation. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are directly involved in signal transduction due to their association with the TYR kinase, JAK1. Isoform 3 is a potent inhibitor of type I IFN receptor activity.
Gene Name:
IFNAR2
Uniprot ID:
P48551
Uniprot Name:
Interferon alpha/beta receptor 2
Molecular Weight:
57758.24 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Dhalluin C, Ross A, Huber W, Gerber P, Brugger D, Gsell B, Senn H: Structural, kinetic, and thermodynamic analysis of the binding of the 40 kDa PEG-interferon-alpha2a and its individual positional isomers to the extracellular domain of the receptor IFNAR2. Bioconjug Chem. 2005 May-Jun;16(3):518-27. [PubMed:15898717 ]
  4. Ishii K, Shinohara M, Sawa M, Kogame M, Higami K, Sano M, Morita T, Sumino Y: Interferon alpha receptor 2 expression by peripheral blood monocytes in patients with a high viral load of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 showing substitution of amino Acid 70 in the core region. Intervirology. 2010;53(2):105-10. doi: 10.1159/000264200. Epub 2009 Dec 3. [PubMed:19955815 ]
  5. Yano H, Ogasawara S, Momosaki S, Akiba J, Kojiro S, Fukahori S, Ishizaki H, Kuratomi K, Basaki Y, Oie S, Kuwano M, Kojiro M: Growth inhibitory effects of pegylated IFN alpha-2b on human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Liver Int. 2006 Oct;26(8):964-75. [PubMed:16953837 ]
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 17, 2016 12:23