NameInterferon gamma-1b
Accession NumberDB00033  (BTD00017, BIOD00017)
GroupsApproved, Investigational

Human Interferon gamma-1b (140 residues), produced from E. coli. Production of Actimmune is achieved by fermentation of a genetically engineered Escherichia coli bacterium containing the DNA which encodes for the human protein. Purification of the product is achieved by conventional column chromatography. The sequence displayed is a cDNA sequence which codes for human interferon gamma, as described by Gray et. al. and not specifically interferon gamma 1b.

Protein structureDb00033
Related Articles
Protein chemical formulaC761H1206N214O225S6
Protein average weight17145.6 Da
>DB00033 sequence
Download FASTA Format
Interferon gamma-1b, recombinant
Interferon gamma-2a
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
ActimmuneInjection, solution100 ug/.5mLSubcutaneousHznp Usa, Inc.2013-12-01Not applicableUs
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International Brands
ImmukinNot Available
Brand mixturesNot Available
CAS number98059-61-1

Interferon gamma-1b is used for the treatment of Chronic granulomatous disease and Osteopetrosis.

Structured Indications

IFN gamma stimulates expression of the immunoglobulin heavy chain C gamma 3 and C gamma 2a germline transcripts in B cells. Many components of the antigen presentation pathways are also up-regulated by interferon gamma. It is also a potent activator of macrophages, it has antiproliferative effects on transformed cells and it can potentiate the antiviral and antitumor effects of type I interferons. Interferon gamma may also help the body regulate the activity of fibroblasts. By directly blocking the multiplication of fibroblasts and inhibiting the production and action of TGF-b, a potent scar-inducing molecule, Interferon gamma-1b may prevent excessive scarring.

Mechanism of action

Binds directly to the type II interferon gamma receptor IFNGR1, leading to a complex of IFNGR1 and IFNGR2. This activates JAK1 and JAK2 kinases which form a STAT1 docking site. This leads to STAT1 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and initiation of gene transcription of multiple immune-related genes.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Interferon gamma receptor 1Proteinyes
HumanP15260 details
Interferon gamma receptor 2Proteinyes
HumanP38484 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organismsNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
Ambroxol acefyllinateThe metabolism of Ambroxol acefyllinate can be decreased when combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Experimental
AminophyllineThe metabolism of Aminophylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Approved
DyphyllineThe metabolism of Dyphylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Approved
TheophyllineThe metabolism of Theophylline can be decreased when combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Approved
TizanidineThe serum concentration of Tizanidine can be increased when it is combined with Interferon gamma-1b.Approved
ZidovudineThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Interferon gamma-1b is combined with Zidovudine.Approved
Food InteractionsNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Irwin A. Braude, "Production of human IFN-gamma (immune) interferon." U.S. Patent US4376821, issued December, 1975.

General References
  1. Kantoch M, Dobrowolska H, Jarzabek Z, Jankowski M, Sadowski W, Janicki P: [Distribution and characteristics of Poliovirus strains circulating in Poland in 1968-1972. Genetic variation of strains isolated in various secretion periods and clones isolated from vaccines]. Med Dosw Mikrobiol. 1975;27(4):353-63. [PubMed:55526 ]
  2. Ormas P, Pompa G, Beretta C, Faustini R: [The effects of some polypeptides on the systemic blood pressure of sheep (author's transl)]. Folia Vet Lat. 1975 Jan-Mar;5(1):45-54. [PubMed:3458 ]
  3. Selitrennikoff CP, Sonneborn DR: Alkaline phosphatase of Blastocladiella emersonii: partial purification and characterization. J Bacteriol. 1977 Apr;130(1):249-56. [PubMed:15978 ]
  4. Gray PW, Goeddel DV: Structure of the human immune interferon gene. Nature. 1982 Aug 26;298(5877):859-63. [PubMed:6180322 ]
  5. Ealick SE, Cook WJ, Vijay-Kumar S, Carson M, Nagabhushan TL, Trotta PP, Bugg CE: Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human interferon-gamma. Science. 1991 May 3;252(5006):698-702. [PubMed:1902591 ]
  6. Ikeda H, Old LJ, Schreiber RD: The roles of IFN gamma in protection against tumor development and cancer immunoediting. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002 Apr;13(2):95-109. [PubMed:11900986 ]
  7. Chesler DA, Reiss CS: The role of IFN-gamma in immune responses to viral infections of the central nervous system. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2002 Dec;13(6):441-54. [PubMed:12401479 ]
  8. Dessein A, Kouriba B, Eboumbou C, Dessein H, Argiro L, Marquet S, Elwali NE, Rodrigues V, Li Y, Doumbo O, Chevillard C: Interleukin-13 in the skin and interferon-gamma in the liver are key players in immune protection in human schistosomiasis. Immunol Rev. 2004 Oct;201:180-90. [PubMed:15361241 ]
  9. Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D: Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection. Curr HIV Res. 2005 Jan;3(1):87-94. [PubMed:15638726 ]
  10. Copeland KF: Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2005 Dec;5(12):1093-101. [PubMed:16375755 ]
  11. Schroder K, Hertzog PJ, Ravasi T, Hume DA: Interferon-gamma: an overview of signals, mechanisms and functions. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Feb;75(2):163-89. Epub 2003 Oct 2. [PubMed:14525967 ]
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelDownload (605 KB)
MSDSNot Available
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
0TerminatedBasic SciencePlaque Psoriasis1
1Active Not RecruitingTreatmentGlioblastoma or Gliosarcoma1
1CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections2
1CompletedTreatmentRecurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer1
1RecruitingBasic ScienceChronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)1
1Unknown StatusSupportive CareAdverse Effects in the Therapeutic Use of Interferon1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentAnterior Uveitis (AU) / Uveitis1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentCystic Fibrosis (CF)2
1, 2CompletedTreatmentMacular Diseases / Retinal Diseases1
1, 2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentBreast Cancer, Male / Cancer, Breast / HER2-positive Breast Cancer / Malignant Neoplasm of Female Breast1
1, 2SuspendedTreatmentInherited Ophthalmic Diseases / Inherited Retinal Degeneration1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentMucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon / Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum / Recurrent Colon Cancer / Recurrent Rectal Cancer / Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon / Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum / Stage IVA Colon Cancer / Stage IVA Rectal Cancer / Stage IVB Colon Cancer / Stage IVB Rectal Cancer1
1, 2TerminatedTreatmentNon-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL)1
2CompletedTreatmentColorectal Cancers1
2CompletedTreatmentFibrosis, Liver / Liver Cirrhosis1
2CompletedTreatmentFriedreich's Ataxia1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
2CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections / Meningitis, Cryptococcal1
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentRecurrent Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Refractory Mycosis Fungoides / Stage IB Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage II Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IIA Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IIB Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage III Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IIIA Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IIIB Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IV Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IVA Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome / Stage IVB Mycosis Fungoides and Sezary Syndrome1
2RecruitingTreatmentAutosomal Dominant Osteopetrosis Type 21
2TerminatedTreatmentLung Infection1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentViral Hepatitis B1
2, 3CompletedTreatmentMalignant Lymphomas1
3CompletedTreatmentFriedreich's Ataxia3
3TerminatedDiagnosticOvarian Carcinoma / Primary Peritoneal Cancer1
3TerminatedTreatmentChronic Lung Diseases / Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) / Pulmonary Fibrosis2
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
ManufacturersNot Available
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionSubcutaneous100 ug/.5mL
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Actimmune 2 million unit vial344.4USD vial
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US6936694 No2005-08-302022-08-30Us
US6936695 No2005-08-302022-08-30Us
Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)61 °CBeldarrain, A. et al., Biochemistry 38:7865-7873 (1999)
hydrophobicity-0.823Not Available
isoelectric point9.54Not Available
DescriptionNot Available
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassOrganic Acids
ClassCarboxylic Acids and Derivatives
Sub ClassAmino Acids, Peptides, and Analogues
Direct ParentPeptides
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Interferon-gamma receptor activity
Specific Function:
Receptor for interferon gamma. Two receptors bind one interferon gamma dimer.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
54404.07 Da
  1. Matsuda A, Ebihara N, Kumagai N, Fukuda K, Ebe K, Hirano K, Sotozono C, Tei M, Hasegawa K, Shimizu M, Tamari M, Namba K, Ohno S, Mizuki N, Ikezawa Z, Shirakawa T, Hamuro J, Kinoshita S: Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter of the interferon gamma receptor 1 gene are associated with atopic cataracts. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Feb;48(2):583-9. [PubMed:17251453 ]
  2. Yao X, Chen ZQ, Gong JQ, Chen M, Li AS, Liu J: The interferon-gamma receptor gene polymorphisms (Val14Met and Gln64Arg) are not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese patients. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007 Oct;299(8):367-71. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17618444 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Interferon-gamma receptor activity
Specific Function:
Part of the receptor for interferon gamma. Required for signal transduction. This accessory factor is an integral part of the IFN-gamma signal transduction pathway and is likely to interact with GAF, JAK1, and/or JAK2.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
37805.97 Da
  1. Park-Min KH, Serbina NV, Yang W, Ma X, Krystal G, Neel BG, Nutt SL, Hu X, Ivashkiv LB: FcgammaRIII-dependent inhibition of interferon-gamma responses mediates suppressive effects of intravenous immune globulin. Immunity. 2007 Jan;26(1):67-78. [PubMed:17239631 ]
  2. Yao X, Chen ZQ, Gong JQ, Chen M, Li AS, Liu J: The interferon-gamma receptor gene polymorphisms (Val14Met and Gln64Arg) are not associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in Chinese patients. Arch Dermatol Res. 2007 Oct;299(8):367-71. Epub 2007 Jul 6. [PubMed:17618444 ]
  3. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Oxidoreductase activity, acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen, reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen
Specific Function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N...
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
58293.76 Da
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on February 10, 2017 20:53