Accession NumberDB00117  (NUTR00030)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical

An essential amino acid that is required for the production of histamine. [PubChem]

(S)-a-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propanoic acid
(S)-alpha-amino-1H-Imidazole-4-propanoic acid
(S)-alpha-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-propionic acid
(S)-α-amino-1H-Imidazole-4-propanoic acid
External IDs Not Available
Product Ingredients Not Available
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
AminosynHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesAbbott
Aminosyn 3.5% MAbbott
Aminosyn 5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 7%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn IIHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 15%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 5% InjAbbott
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn RF InjectionHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PFHospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 10%Hospira, Inc.
Aminosyn-PF 7%Hospira, Inc.
ClinimixBaxter Laboratories
Clinimix EBaxter Laboratories
ClinisolBaxter Laboratories
Freamine HbcB. Braun Medical Inc.
Freamine IIIB. Braun Medical Inc.
HepatamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NephramineB. Braun Medical Inc.
NovamineHospira, Inc.
PlenamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%Baxter Laboratories
Primene 10%-liq IVClintec Nutrition Company
ProsolBaxter Laboratories
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionBaxter Laboratories
TravasolBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%Baxter Laboratories
Travasol EBaxter Laboratories
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%Baxter Laboratories
Trepoxicam-7.5Physician Therapeutics Llc
TrophamineB. Braun Medical Inc.
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeFresenius Kabi Ab
Vamin NFresenius Kabi Ab
CAS number71-00-1
WeightAverage: 155.1546
Monoisotopic: 155.069476547
Chemical FormulaC6H9N3O2
(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)propanoic acid

The actions of supplemental L-histidine are entirely unclear. It may have some immunomodulatory as well as antioxidant activity. L-histidine may be indicated for use in some with rheumatoid arthritis. It is not indicated for treatment of anemia or uremia or for lowering serum cholesterol.

Structured Indications Not Available

Is found abundantly in hemoglobin; has been used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, allergic diseases, ulcers and anemia. A deficiency can cause poor hearing.

Mechanism of action

Since the actions of supplemental L-histidine are unclear, any postulated mechanism is entirely speculative. However, some facts are known about L-histidine and some of its metabolites, such as histamine and trans-urocanic acid, which suggest that supplemental L-histidine may one day be shown to have immunomodulatory and/or antioxidant activities. Low free histidine has been found in the serum of some rheumatoid arthritis patients. Serum concentrations of other amino acids have been found to be normal in these patients. L-histidine is an excellent chelating agent for such metals as copper, iron and zinc. Copper and iron participate in a reaction (Fenton reaction) that generates potent reactive oxygen species that could be destructive to tissues, including joints.
L-histidine is the obligate precursor of histamine, which is produced via the decarboxylation of the amino acid. In experimental animals, tissue histamine levels increase as the amount of dietary L-histidine increases. It is likely that this would be the case in humans as well. Histamine is known to possess immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity. Suppressor T cells have H2 receptors, and histamine activates them. Promotion of suppressor T cell activity could be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis. Further, histamine has been shown to down-regulate the production of reactive oxygen species in phagocytic cells, such as monocytes, by binding to the H2 receptors on these cells. Decreased reactive oxygen species production by phagocytes could play antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory roles in such diseases as rheumatoid arthritis.
This latter mechanism is the rationale for the use of histamine itself in several clinical trials studying histamine for the treatment of certain types of cancer and viral diseases. In these trials, down-regulation by histamine of reactive oxygen species formation appears to inhibit the suppression of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, allowing these cells to be more effective in attacking cancer cells and virally infected cells.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Histidine decarboxylaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP19113 details
Histidine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP12081 details
Sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter 3ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ99624 details
Histidine ammonia-lyaseProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP42357 details
Related Articles

Absorbed from the small intestine via an active transport mechanism requiring the presence of sodium.

Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available

ORL-RAT LD50 > 15000 mg/kg, IPR-RAT LD50 > 8000 mg/kg, ORL-MUS LD50 > 15000 mg/kg, IVN-MUS LD50 > 2000 mg/kg; Mild gastrointestinal side effects.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00713
Methacycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00727
Histidine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00044
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00351
Ureidopropionase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00492
Beta-Alanine MetabolismMetabolicSMP00007
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00249
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00254
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00257
Doxycycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00291
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00292
Lymecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00295
Tigecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00712
Clarithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00248
Erythromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00250
Roxithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00251
Kanamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00255
Neomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00256
Clomocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00262
Paromomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00714
Rolitetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00726
Chloramphenicol Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00729
Ammonia RecyclingMetabolicSMP00009
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00247
Telithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00252
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00259
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
Synthesis Reference

Kazumi Araki, Tetsuro Kuga, “Process for producing L-histidine by fermentation.” U.S. Patent US4495283, issued April, 1975.

General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.7 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2RecruitingPreventionMuscle Atrophy / Quality of Life1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentHIV-1 Infections1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis 1
4CompletedTreatmentDyslipidemias / HIV Disease1
4CompletedTreatmentHuman Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infections1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentMyocardial Infarction (MI)1
ManufacturersNot Available
Dosage forms
Injection, solutionIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
Unit descriptionCostUnit
L-histidine mhc crystals0.32USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Experimental Properties
melting point (°C)287 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility4.56E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-3.32CHMELIK,J ET AL. (1991)
logS-0.53ADME Research, USCD
pKa2.76 (at 0 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility62.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.85ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.44ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity38.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.67 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8921
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7546
Caco-2 permeable-0.6669
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6143
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9889
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9923
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.907
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8647
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.8235
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8363
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9815
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9646
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9566
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9656
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8309
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9798
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7016
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.569
Rat acute toxicity1.7719 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9893
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9551
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397 )
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (7.24 KB)
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0940000000-43b9b035189af65e19cbView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-0910000000-fc3ecec9d4ff3aa8cb09View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udi-0910000000-8284a673a35f7ac2241fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-0fk9-8910000000-a3231b1a418b5798ecacView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0udi-1920000000-227e8116769731104e82View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0ufu-2942100000-31605fd50ecc1f5be0edView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQsplash10-0002-2901100000-ae0f3865934743de764cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0ue9-0900000000-75e38a3f347210c301b0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0ue9-0900000000-75e38a3f347210c301b0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udi-0910000000-c54bd92cc112eec7e509View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-21530fac9975dc1edc7cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053r-9300000000-a946c375931adb366aaeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-053r-9000000000-61a3602d80bc0d54c579View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-7d63b501889c2628f4f0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-d4ccd4e44ca818b4cb17View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-811aee5724fe0999c134View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-052753eb699ae7cb4cb9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-3e145a05e6a71a0a2f56View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-143a4b9d88183bc5abe7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-a8c213472da676a241f2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-dfdf9562f155abb5fdebView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0uk9-0879331100-8434b5b9e7e5700c2353View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-aaaaadcecd4cd7c94e1eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-90c4cbd09d7abc003013View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-1381708d18c24486773dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0w29-0696321100-eb62fc608270d1151707View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-3450566ff38e6506a70fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-01q9-7900000000-124509a66476629ce10aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-efa6a21b1be16fda0802View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-137840e69da48c6114e4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udu-3900000000-06d50e90c797793a72d7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-de7c9eb8068ef4f39f85View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-00l6-9000000000-ebf778679d4c6d6a6057View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-014i-9000000000-08d0188684283d1b2372View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-46c2f608d27f0381a039View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as histidine and derivatives. These are compounds containing cysteine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of cysteine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentHistidine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Histidine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Aralkylamine
  • Azole
  • Imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
74139.825 Da
  1. Landete JM, Pardo I, Ferrer S: Histamine, histidine, and growth-phase mediated regulation of the histidine decarboxylase gene in lactic acid bacteria isolated from wine. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2006 Jul;260(1):84-90. [PubMed:16790022 ]
  2. Fernandez M, del Rio B, Linares DM, Martin MC, Alvarez MA: Real-time polymerase chain reaction for quantitative detection of histamine-producing bacteria: use in cheese production. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Oct;89(10):3763-9. [PubMed:16960050 ]
  3. Nitta Y, Kikuzaki H, Ueno H: Food components inhibiting recombinant human histidine decarboxylase activity. J Agric Food Chem. 2007 Jan 24;55(2):299-304. [PubMed:17227057 ]
  4. Kitamura Y, Das AK, Murata Y, Maeyama K, Dev S, Wakayama Y, Kalubi B, Takeda N, Fukui H: Dexamethasone suppresses histamine synthesis by repressing both transcription and activity of HDC in allergic rats. Allergol Int. 2006 Sep;55(3):279-86. [PubMed:17075268 ]
  5. Castellani ML, Kempuraj D, Frydas S, Theoharides TC, Simeonidou I, Conti P, Vecchiet J: Inhibitory effect of quercetin on tryptase and MCP-1 chemokine release, and histidine decarboxylase mRNA transcription by human mast cell-1 cell line. Neuroimmunomodulation. 2006;13(3):179-86. Epub 2006 Dec 21. [PubMed:17191019 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Histidine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
57409.97 Da
  1. Nagatoyo Y, Iwaki J, Suzuki S, Kuno A, Hasegawa T: Molecular recognition of histidine tRNA by histidyl-tRNA synthetase from hyperthermophilic archaeon, Aeropyrum pernix K1. Nucleic Acids Symp Ser (Oxf). 2005;(49):307-8. [PubMed:17150756 ]
  2. Rosen AE, Brooks BS, Guth E, Francklyn CS, Musier-Forsyth K: Evolutionary conservation of a functionally important backbone phosphate group critical for aminoacylation of histidine tRNAs. RNA. 2006 Jul;12(7):1315-22. Epub 2006 Jun 1. [PubMed:16741232 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Symporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-dependent amino acid/proton antiporter. Mediates electrogenic cotransport of glutamine and sodium ions in exchange for protons. Also recognizes histidine, asparagine and alanine. May mediate amino acid transport in either direction under physiological conditions. May play a role in nitrogen metabolism and synaptic transmission.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
55772.405 Da
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Eppig JJ, Pendola FL, Wigglesworth K, Pendola JK: Mouse oocytes regulate metabolic cooperativity between granulosa cells and oocytes: amino acid transport. Biol Reprod. 2005 Aug;73(2):351-7. Epub 2005 Apr 20. [PubMed:15843493 ]
Pharmacological action
General Function:
Histidine ammonia-lyase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
72696.9 Da
  1. Viergutz S, Retey J: Kinetic analysis of the reactions catalyzed by histidine and phenylalanine ammonia lyases. Chem Biodivers. 2004 Feb;1(2):296-302. [PubMed:17191848 ]
  2. Lambrecht NW, Yakubov I, Sachs G: Fasting-induced changes in ECL cell gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2007 Oct 22;31(2):183-92. Epub 2007 May 29. [PubMed:17536021 ]
  3. Watts KT, Mijts BN, Lee PC, Manning AJ, Schmidt-Dannert C: Discovery of a substrate selectivity switch in tyrosine ammonia-lyase, a member of the aromatic amino acid lyase family. Chem Biol. 2006 Dec;13(12):1317-26. [PubMed:17185227 ]
  4. Katona A, Tosa MI, Paizs C, Retey J: Inhibition of histidine ammonia lyase by heteroaryl-alanines and acrylates. Chem Biodivers. 2006 May;3(5):502-8. [PubMed:17193285 ]


Pharmacological action
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on May 19, 2017 16:22