Ornithine

Identification

Name
Ornithine
Accession Number
DB00129  (NUTR00043)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Ornithine is an amino acid produced in the urea cycle by the splitting off of urea from arginine. It is a central part of the urea cycle, which allows for the disposal of excess nitrogen. L-Ornithine is a precursor of citrulline and arginine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (S)-2,5-Diaminopentanoate
  • (S)-2,5-Diaminopentanoic acid
  • (S)-2,5-diaminovaleric acid
  • (S)-alpha,delta-Diaminovaleric acid
  • (S)-ornithine
  • (S)-α,δ-diaminovaleric acid
  • L-Ornithine
  • levo-ornithine
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Ornithine dihydrochloride8N284L2VLC6211-16-1HGBAVEGDXFHRQP-FHNDMYTFSA-N
Ornithine hydrochlorideHBK84K66XH3184-13-2GGTYBZJRPHEQDG-WCCKRBBISA-N
Ornithine oxoglurate4FEN49K96W5191-97-9SLPUVFBNQHVEEU-WCCKRBBISA-N
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Primene 10%Ornithine dihydrochloride (318 mg) + Glutamic Acid (1 g) + Glycine (400 mg) + L-Alanine (800 mg) + L-Arginine (840 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (600 mg) + L-Cysteine (189 mg) + L-Histidine (380 mg) + L-Isoleucine (670 mg) + L-Leucine (1 g) + L-Lysine (1.1 g) + L-Methionine (240 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (420 mg) + L-Proline (300 mg) + L-Serine (400 mg) + L-Threonine (370 mg) + L-Tryptophan (200 mg) + L-Tyrosine (45 mg) + L-Valine (760 mg) + Taurine (60 mg)LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Primene 10%-liq IVOrnithine (249 mg) + Glutamic Acid (1 g) + Glycine (400 mg) + L-Alanine (800 mg) + L-Arginine (840 mg) + L-Aspartic Acid (600 mg) + L-Cysteine hydrochloride (246 mg) + L-Histidine (380 mg) + L-Isoleucine (670 mg) + L-Leucine (1 g) + L-Lysine (1.1 g) + L-Methionine (240 mg) + L-Phenylalanine (420 mg) + L-Proline (300 mg) + L-Serine (400 mg) + L-Threonine (370 mg) + L-Tryptophan (200 mg) + L-Tyrosine (45 mg) + L-Valine (760 mg) + Taurine (60 mg)LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
Categories
UNII
E524N2IXA3
CAS number
70-26-8
Weight
Average: 132.161
Monoisotopic: 132.089877638
Chemical Formula
C5H12N2O2
InChI Key
AHLPHDHHMVZTML-BYPYZUCNSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C5H12N2O2/c6-3-1-2-4(7)5(8)9/h4H,1-3,6-7H2,(H,8,9)/t4-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2,5-diaminopentanoic acid
SMILES
NCCC[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

Used for nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance. It has been claimed that ornithine improves athletic performance, has anabolic effects, has wound-healing effects, and is immuno-enhancing.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

A non-essential and nonprotein amino acid, ornithine is critical for the production of the body's proteins, enzymes and muscle tissue. Ornithine plays a central role in the urea cycle and is important for the disposal of excess nitrogen (ammonia). Ornithine is the starting point for the synthesis of many polyamines such as putrescine and spermine. Ornithine supplements are claimed to enhance the release of growth hormone and to burn excess body fat. Ornithine is necessary for proper immune function and good liver function.

Mechanism of action

L-Ornithine is metabolised to L-arginine. L-arginine stimulates the pituitary release of growth hormone. Burns or other injuries affect the state of L-arginine in tissues throughout the body. As De novo synthesis of L-arginine during these conditions is usually not sufficient for normal immune function, nor for normal protein synthesis, L-ornithine may have immunomodulatory and wound-healing activities under these conditions (by virtue of its metabolism to L-arginine).

TargetActionsOrganism
UOrnithine aminotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UOrnithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UArginase-1Not AvailableHuman
UOrnithine decarboxylase antizyme 1Not AvailableHuman
ULow affinity cationic amino acid transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
UMitochondrial ornithine transporter 2Not AvailableHuman
UCationic amino acid transporter 4Not AvailableHuman
UHigh affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
UArginase-2, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UMitochondrial ornithine transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
UCationic amino acid transporter 3Not AvailableHuman
UOrnithine decarboxylase antizyme 2Not AvailableHuman
UGlycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrialNot AvailableHuman
UOrnithine decarboxylase antizyme 3Not AvailableHuman
Absorption

Absorbed from the small intestine via a sodium-dependent active transport process

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Ornithine undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver to L-arginine, polyamines, and proline, and several other metabolites.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Oral, rat LD50 = 10000 mg/kg

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
ArgininemiaDisease
Argininosuccinic AciduriaDisease
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Citrullinemia Type IDisease
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencyDisease
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Urea CycleMetabolic
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)Disease
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisMetabolic
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Takayasu Tsuchida, Haruo Uchibori, Yoshitaka Nishimoto, "Process and microorganism for producing L-ornithine by Corynebacterium, Brevibacterium, or Athrobacter." U.S. Patent US5188947, issued January, 1970.

US5188947
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00214
KEGG Compound
C00077
PubChem Compound
6262
PubChem Substance
46505239
ChemSpider
6026
ChEBI
15729
ChEMBL
CHEMBL446143
PharmGKB
PA164783814
IUPHAR
725
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
ORN
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Ornithine
ATC Codes
Not Available
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (72.9 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Not Available
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
LiquidIntravenous
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)140 °CPhysProp
water solubilityAppreciableNot Available
logP-4.22SANGSTER (1994)
pKa1.94 (at 25 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility172.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-3.6ALOGPS
logP-3.7ChemAxon
logS0.11ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.67ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.29ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area89.34 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity33.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability13.85 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.8449
Blood Brain Barrier+0.7613
Caco-2 permeable-0.7431
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6568
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9856
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9681
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8847
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8464
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.7517
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.8238
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9653
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9639
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9786
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9659
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9327
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9931
Ames testAMES toxic0.8541
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8407
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.8711
Rat acute toxicity1.0540 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9771
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9663
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0006-1920000000-b0357b8c9888abda7d80
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)GC-MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-8aaa0faabf1429b90611
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00di-7910000000-5fa118444ceb45204aa3
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-006x-3910000000-f6d0c6492f2cab33a392
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00dr-2900000000-77222ff2d0118d3d3b57
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-0006-1910000000-53c73c4fa3665c44d3b9
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-03di-1691000000-dc14976cfee86cc828b9
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - EI-BGC-MSsplash10-0006-0920000000-f65f61e4a3739eabb1d1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-1920000000-b0357b8c9888abda7d80
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-0910000000-8aaa0faabf1429b90611
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00di-7910000000-5fa118444ceb45204aa3
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-006x-3910000000-f6d0c6492f2cab33a392
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00dr-2900000000-77222ff2d0118d3d3b57
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-0006-1910000000-53c73c4fa3665c44d3b9
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-03di-1691000000-dc14976cfee86cc828b9
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-f59681b9f46f1b738487
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0006-0900000000-3048477975b51ae176af
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-00dr-2900000000-8d1a2cc0a88f7d9216e1
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0udi-1900000000-bc40b76e8b03ef7a08f0
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-01b9-6900000000-8fe592b77d2d8e4ae704
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-462b84db532c33527580
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-9c9c28d2e40d5eadacd2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-e44e06092c06bb4791af
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-4d6ccc429f5155b24654
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-dcad699e8ed7e1b19860
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-7b130437d4e1ceea277b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-0fae230bc6b21623a4bf
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-5a350a8e7c607a8b9a60
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-516054b6c2f3cd4a1d02
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-0793321000-9fef988b5ce019f84642
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-a612df8df5f8ba1ff7f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0910000000-97fad20414656e2b7b93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01di-0490000000-1b137b937beb110d2e4b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-e3fc95eb909e45d8e648
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-cdd9aac89a5a71814ff3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-9500000000-f1cc3eccf3f5ab734222
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-93ce7b142d1f82f17e95
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9200000000-186f270471bdec40f804
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ebbdf0ab6d3180cba1a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-207bcc826fb2238c2cc5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-a2f9a950fb23a6b18857
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-e3fc95eb909e45d8e648
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-cdd9aac89a5a71814ff3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001r-9500000000-f1cc3eccf3f5ab734222
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0900000000-a612df8df5f8ba1ff7f3
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0910000000-97fad20414656e2b7b93
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01di-0490000000-1b137b937beb110d2e4b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0159-0900000000-93ce7b142d1f82f17e95
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9200000000-186f270471bdec40f804
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-ebbdf0ab6d3180cba1a5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-207bcc826fb2238c2cc5
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9000000000-a2f9a950fb23a6b18857
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-4d6ccc429f5155b24654
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-dcad699e8ed7e1b19860
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-7b130437d4e1ceea277b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-9000000000-5a350a8e7c607a8b9a60
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-516054b6c2f3cd4a1d02
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
13C NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as l-alpha-amino acids. These are alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Fatty acids and conjugates / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
L-alpha-amino acid / Fatty acid / Amino acid / Carboxylic acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Amine / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organic oxide / Organopnictogen compound / Primary amine
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
non-proteinogenic L-alpha-amino acid, ornithine (CHEBI:15729) / Other amino acids (C00077)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
OAT
Uniprot ID
P04181
Uniprot Name
Ornithine aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
48534.39 Da
References
  1. Levillain O, Balvay S, Peyrol S: Localization and differential expression of arginase II in the kidney of male and female mice. Pflugers Arch. 2005 Feb;449(5):491-503. Epub 2004 Dec 23. [PubMed:15616821]
  2. Inubushi T, Takasawa T, Tuboi Y, Watanabe N, Aki K, Katunuma N: Changes of glucose metabolism and skin-collagen neogenesis in vitamin B6 deficiency. Biofactors. 2005;23(2):59-67. [PubMed:16179747]
  3. Kaneko S, Ueda-Yamada M, Ando A, Matsumura S, Okuda-Ashitaka E, Matsumura M, Uyama M, Ito S: Cytotoxic effect of spermine on retinal pigment epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan;48(1):455-63. [PubMed:17197567]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Phospholipid binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
OTC
Uniprot ID
P00480
Uniprot Name
Ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
39934.775 Da
References
  1. Barcelona-Andres B, Marina A, Rubio V: Gene structure, organization, expression, and potential regulatory mechanisms of arginine catabolism in Enterococcus faecalis. J Bacteriol. 2002 Nov;184(22):6289-300. [PubMed:12399499]
  2. El Alami M, Dubois E, Oudjama Y, Tricot C, Wouters J, Stalon V, Messenguy F: Yeast epiarginase regulation, an enzyme-enzyme activity control: identification of residues of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and arginase responsible for enzyme catalytic and regulatory activities. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13;278(24):21550-8. Epub 2003 Apr 4. [PubMed:12679340]
  3. Templeton MD, Reinhardt LA, Collyer CA, Mitchell RE, Cleland WW: Kinetic analysis of the L-ornithine transcarbamoylase from Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola that is resistant to the transition state analogue (R)-N delta-(N'-sulfodiaminophosphinyl)-L-ornithine. Biochemistry. 2005 Mar 22;44(11):4408-15. [PubMed:15766270]
  4. Morizono H, Cabrera-Luque J, Shi D, Gallegos R, Yamaguchi S, Yu X, Allewell NM, Malamy MH, Tuchman M: Acetylornithine transcarbamylase: a novel enzyme in arginine biosynthesis. J Bacteriol. 2006 Apr;188(8):2974-82. [PubMed:16585758]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Manganese ion binding
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
ARG1
Uniprot ID
P05089
Uniprot Name
Arginase-1
Molecular Weight
34734.655 Da
References
  1. Gobert AP, Cheng Y, Wang JY, Boucher JL, Iyer RK, Cederbaum SD, Casero RA Jr, Newton JC, Wilson KT: Helicobacter pylori induces macrophage apoptosis by activation of arginase II. J Immunol. 2002 May 1;168(9):4692-700. [PubMed:11971019]
  2. Iwata S, Tsujino T, Ikeda Y, Ishida T, Ueyama T, Gotoh T, Mori M, Yokoyama M: Decreased expression of arginase II in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats. Hypertens Res. 2002 May;25(3):411-8. [PubMed:12135320]
  3. Stickings P, Mistry SK, Boucher JL, Morris SM, Cunningham JM: Arginase expression and modulation of IL-1beta-induced nitric oxide generation in rat and human islets of Langerhans. Nitric Oxide. 2002 Dec;7(4):289-96. [PubMed:12446178]
  4. Bansal V, Ochoa JB: Arginine availability, arginase, and the immune response. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003 Mar;6(2):223-8. [PubMed:12589193]
  5. El Alami M, Dubois E, Oudjama Y, Tricot C, Wouters J, Stalon V, Messenguy F: Yeast epiarginase regulation, an enzyme-enzyme activity control: identification of residues of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and arginase responsible for enzyme catalytic and regulatory activities. J Biol Chem. 2003 Jun 13;278(24):21550-8. Epub 2003 Apr 4. [PubMed:12679340]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme protein that negatively regulates ODC activity and intracellular polyamine biosynthesis and uptake by binding to and targeting ODC1 for degradation (PubMed:17...
Gene Name
OAZ1
Uniprot ID
P54368
Uniprot Name
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 1
Molecular Weight
25405.265 Da
References
  1. Lopez-Contreras AJ, Lopez-Garcia C, Jimenez-Cervantes C, Cremades A, Penafiel R: Mouse ornithine decarboxylase-like gene encodes an antizyme inhibitor devoid of ornithine and arginine decarboxylating activity. J Biol Chem. 2006 Oct 13;281(41):30896-906. Epub 2006 Aug 17. [PubMed:16916800]
  2. Yamaguchi Y, Takatsuka Y, Matsufuji S, Murakami Y, Kamio Y: Characterization of a counterpart to Mammalian ornithine decarboxylase antizyme in prokaryotes. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 17;281(7):3995-4001. Epub 2005 Dec 14. [PubMed:16354653]
  3. Janne J, Alhonen L, Pietila M, Keinanen TA: Genetic approaches to the cellular functions of polyamines in mammals. Eur J Biochem. 2004 Mar;271(5):877-94. [PubMed:15009201]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Low-affinity l-arginine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Functions as permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine); the affinity for its substrates differs between isoforms created by alternative splicin...
Gene Name
SLC7A2
Uniprot ID
P52569
Uniprot Name
Cationic amino acid transporter 2
Molecular Weight
71672.175 Da
References
  1. Yeramian A, Martin L, Arpa L, Bertran J, Soler C, McLeod C, Modolell M, Palacin M, Lloberas J, Celada A: Macrophages require distinct arginine catabolism and transport systems for proliferation and for activation. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Jun;36(6):1516-26. [PubMed:16703566]
  2. Cerec V, Piquet-Pellorce C, Aly HA, Touzalin AM, Jegou B, Bauche F: Multiple pathways for cationic amino acid transport in rat seminiferous tubule cells. Biol Reprod. 2007 Feb;76(2):241-9. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17065601]
  3. Endo M, Oyadomari S, Terasaki Y, Takeya M, Suga M, Mori M, Gotoh T: Induction of arginase I and II in bleomycin-induced fibrosis of mouse lung. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Aug;285(2):L313-21. Epub 2003 Apr 4. [PubMed:12679322]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Not Available
Specific Function
Ornithine transport across inner mitochondrial membrane, from the cytoplasm to the matrix.
Gene Name
SLC25A2
Uniprot ID
Q9BXI2
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial ornithine transporter 2
Molecular Weight
32580.07 Da
References
  1. Camacho JA, Rioseco-Camacho N, Andrade D, Porter J, Kong J: Cloning and characterization of human ORNT2: a second mitochondrial ornithine transporter that can rescue a defective ORNT1 in patients with the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria syndrome, a urea cycle disorder. Mol Genet Metab. 2003 Aug;79(4):257-71. [PubMed:12948741]
  2. Begum L, Jalil MA, Kobayashi K, Iijima M, Li MX, Yasuda T, Horiuchi M, del Arco A, Satrustegui J, Saheki T: Expression of three mitochondrial solute carriers, citrin, aralar1 and ornithine transporter, in relation to urea cycle in mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002 Apr 12;1574(3):283-92. [PubMed:11997094]
  3. Camacho JA, Mardach R, Rioseco-Camacho N, Ruiz-Pesini E, Derbeneva O, Andrade D, Zaldivar F, Qu Y, Cederbaum SD: Clinical and functional characterization of a human ORNT1 mutation (T32R) in the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2006 Oct;60(4):423-9. Epub 2006 Aug 28. [PubMed:16940241]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine).
Gene Name
SLC7A4
Uniprot ID
O43246
Uniprot Name
Cationic amino acid transporter 4
Molecular Weight
68267.17 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
High-affinity, low capacity permease involved in the transport of the cationic amino acids (arginine, lysine and ornithine) in non-hepatic tissues. May also function as an ecotropic retroviral leuk...
Gene Name
SLC7A1
Uniprot ID
P30825
Uniprot Name
High affinity cationic amino acid transporter 1
Molecular Weight
67637.62 Da
References
  1. Rotmann A, Strand D, Martine U, Closs EI: Protein kinase C activation promotes the internalization of the human cationic amino acid transporter hCAT-1. A new regulatory mechanism for hCAT-1 activity. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24;279(52):54185-92. Epub 2004 Oct 15. [PubMed:15491978]
  2. Cerec V, Piquet-Pellorce C, Aly HA, Touzalin AM, Jegou B, Bauche F: Multiple pathways for cationic amino acid transport in rat seminiferous tubule cells. Biol Reprod. 2007 Feb;76(2):241-9. Epub 2006 Oct 25. [PubMed:17065601]
  3. Yeramian A, Martin L, Arpa L, Bertran J, Soler C, McLeod C, Modolell M, Palacin M, Lloberas J, Celada A: Macrophages require distinct arginine catabolism and transport systems for proliferation and for activation. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Jun;36(6):1516-26. [PubMed:16703566]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Metal ion binding
Specific Function
May play a role in the regulation of extra-urea cycle arginine metabolism and also in down-regulation of nitric oxide synthesis. Extrahepatic arginase functions to regulate L-arginine bioavailabili...
Gene Name
ARG2
Uniprot ID
P78540
Uniprot Name
Arginase-2, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
38577.515 Da
References
  1. Rodriguez PC, Zea AH, DeSalvo J, Culotta KS, Zabaleta J, Quiceno DG, Ochoa JB, Ochoa AC: L-arginine consumption by macrophages modulates the expression of CD3 zeta chain in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1;171(3):1232-9. [PubMed:12874210]
  2. Levillain O, Hus-Citharel A, Garvi S, Peyrol S, Reymond I, Mutin M, Morel F: Ornithine metabolism in male and female rat kidney: mitochondrial expression of ornithine aminotransferase and arginase II. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2004 Apr;286(4):F727-38. Epub 2004 Feb 10. [PubMed:14871882]
  3. Levillain O, Diaz JJ, Blanchard O, Dechaud H: Testosterone down-regulates ornithine aminotransferase gene and up-regulates arginase II and ornithine decarboxylase genes for polyamines synthesis in the murine kidney. Endocrinology. 2005 Feb;146(2):950-9. Epub 2004 Nov 11. [PubMed:15539552]
  4. Bussiere FI, Chaturvedi R, Cheng Y, Gobert AP, Asim M, Blumberg DR, Xu H, Kim PY, Hacker A, Casero RA Jr, Wilson KT: Spermine causes loss of innate immune response to Helicobacter pylori by inhibition of inducible nitric-oxide synthase translation. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jan 28;280(4):2409-12. Epub 2004 Nov 17. [PubMed:15548540]
  5. Nissim I, Luhovyy B, Horyn O, Daikhin Y, Nissim I, Yudkoff M: The role of mitochondrially bound arginase in the regulation of urea synthesis: studies with [U-15N4]arginine, isolated mitochondria, and perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 6;280(18):17715-24. Epub 2005 Mar 7. [PubMed:15753084]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Ornithine transport across inner mitochondrial membrane, from the cytoplasm to the matrix.
Gene Name
SLC25A15
Uniprot ID
Q9Y619
Uniprot Name
Mitochondrial ornithine transporter 1
Molecular Weight
32735.96 Da
References
  1. Korman SH, Kanazawa N, Abu-Libdeh B, Gutman A, Tsujino S: Hyperornithinemia, hyperammonemia, and homocitrullinuria syndrome with evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction due to a novel SLC25A15 (ORNT1) gene mutation in a Palestinian family. J Neurol Sci. 2004 Mar 15;218(1-2):53-8. [PubMed:14759633]
  2. Camacho JA, Mardach R, Rioseco-Camacho N, Ruiz-Pesini E, Derbeneva O, Andrade D, Zaldivar F, Qu Y, Cederbaum SD: Clinical and functional characterization of a human ORNT1 mutation (T32R) in the hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria (HHH) syndrome. Pediatr Res. 2006 Oct;60(4):423-9. Epub 2006 Aug 28. [PubMed:16940241]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
L-ornithine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Mediates the uptake of the cationic amino acids arginine, lysine and ornithine in a sodium-independent manner.
Gene Name
SLC7A3
Uniprot ID
Q8WY07
Uniprot Name
Cationic amino acid transporter 3
Molecular Weight
67168.31 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Hosokawa H, Sawamura T, Kobayashi S, Ninomiya H, Miwa S, Masaki T: Cloning and characterization of a brain-specific cationic amino acid transporter. J Biol Chem. 1997 Mar 28;272(13):8717-22. [PubMed:9079705]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor activity
Specific Function
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme protein that negatively regulates ODC activity and intracellular polyamine biosynthesis and uptake by binding to ODC1 without promoting its degradation (PubMe...
Gene Name
OAZ2
Uniprot ID
O95190
Uniprot Name
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 2
Molecular Weight
21010.94 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Glycine amidinotransferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central ner...
Gene Name
GATM
Uniprot ID
P50440
Uniprot Name
Glycine amidinotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
48455.01 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Thomasset N, Quash GA, Dore JF: The differential contribution of arginase and transamidinase to ornithine biosynthesis in two achromic human melanoma cell lines. FEBS Lett. 1982 Nov 1;148(1):63-6. [PubMed:7173402]
  4. Natesan S, Reddy SR: Compensatory changes in enzymes of arginine metabolism during renal hypertrophy in mice. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001 Dec;130(4):585-95. [PubMed:11691635]
  5. Mitruka BM, Costilow RN: Arginine and ornithine catabolism by Clostridium botulinum. J Bacteriol. 1967 Jan;93(1):295-301. [PubMed:5335895]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Putrescine transmembrane transporter activity
Specific Function
Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) antizyme protein that negatively regulates ODC activity and intracellular polyamine biosynthesis and uptake by binding to ODC1 without promoting its degradation (PubMe...
Gene Name
OAZ3
Uniprot ID
Q9UMX2
Uniprot Name
Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3
Molecular Weight
27412.93 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:31