Identification

Name
Alpha-Linolenic Acid
Accession Number
DB00132  (NUTR00034)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid. It is a component of many common vegetable oils and is important to human nutrition.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (9,12,15)-linolenic acid
  • (9Z,12Z,15Z)-Octadecatrienoic acid
  • (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid
  • 9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-octadecatrienoic acid
  • 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  • ALA
  • all-cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  • alpha-Linolenic acid
  • cis-delta(9,12,15)-Octadecatrienoic acid
  • cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  • Linolenic acid
  • α-linolenic acid
External IDs
18:3(N-3) / FEMA NO. 3380, LINOLENIC ACID-
Mixture Products
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
Folcaps Care OneAlpha-Linolenic Acid (50 mg/1) + Biotin (300 mg/1) + Calcium Carbonate (100 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (27 mg/1) + Magnesium (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Vitamin E acetate (15 [iU]/1) + Zinc (5 mg/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMidlothian Laboratories2009-05-01Not applicableUs
Folcaps Omega-3Alpha-Linolenic Acid (30 mg/1) + Calcium (150 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (170 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (260 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (40 mg/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (25 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Vitamin E acetate (30 [iU]/1)Capsule, gelatin coatedOralMidlothian Laboratories2011-01-03Not applicableUs
UltimateCare ONE NFAlpha-Linolenic Acid (50 mg/1) + Biotin (300 ug/1) + Calcium (100 mg/1) + Calcium threonate (1 mg/1) + Cholecalciferol (800 [iU]/1) + Doconexent (350 mg/1) + Docusate sodium (50 mg/1) + Ferrous asparto glycinate (7 mg/1) + Folic Acid (1 mg/1) + Icosapent (100 mg/1) + Iodine (150 ug/1) + Iron (20 mg/1) + Magnesium oxide (50 mg/1) + Nicotinamide (10 mg/1) + Omega-3 fatty acids (500 mg/1) + Pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/1) + Riboflavin (1.5 mg/1) + Calcium ascorbate (24 mg/1) + Vitamin E (15 [iU]/1) + Zinc oxide (5 mg/1)CapsuleOralTrigen Laboratories, Inc.2009-12-042017-09-16Us
Categories
UNII
0RBV727H71
CAS number
463-40-1
Weight
Average: 278.4296
Monoisotopic: 278.224580204
Chemical Formula
C18H30O2
InChI Key
DTOSIQBPPRVQHS-PDBXOOCHSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C18H30O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h3-4,6-7,9-10H,2,5,8,11-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b4-3-,7-6-,10-9-
IUPAC Name
(9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid
SMILES
CC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O

Pharmacology

Indication

For nutritional supplementation and for treating dietary shortage or imbalance.

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Alpha Linolenic Acid (ALA) is an 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid with three double bonds. It is also called an omega-3 fatty acid, and is essential for all mammals. Alpha-linolenic acid (or omega 3 fatty acid) intake can decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 1) preventing arrhythmias that can lead to sudden cardiac death, 2) decreasing the risk of thrombosis (blood clot formation) that can lead to heart attack or stroke, 3) decreasing serum triglyceride levels, 4) slowing the growth of atherosclerotic plaque, 5) improving vascular endothelial function, 6) lowering blood pressure slightly, and 7) decreasing inflammation. ALA deficiencies can lead to visual problems and sensory neuropathy. Scaly and hemorrhagic skin or scalp inflammations may also develop.

Mechanism of action

Alpha Linolenic Acid or ALA is considered an essential fatty acid because it is required for human health, but cannot be synthesized by humans. It is in fact a plant-derived fatty acid. Humans can synthesize other omega-3 fatty acids from ALA, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA is a precursor of the series-3 prostaglandins, the series-5 leukotrienes and the series-3 thromboxanes. These eicosanoids have anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. ALA metabolites may also inhibit the production of the pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta). Omega-3 fatty acids like ALA and its byproducts can modulate the expression of a number of genes, including those involved with fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. They regulate gene expression through their effects on the activity of transcription factors including NF-kappa B and members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family. Incorporation of ALA and its metabolites in cell membranes can affect membrane fluidity and may play a role in anti-inflammatory activity, inhibition of platelet aggregation and possibly in anti-proliferative actions of ALA. ALA is first metabolized by delta6 desaturease into steridonic acid.

TargetActionsOrganism
AFatty acid desaturase 1
ligand
Human
AFatty acid desaturase 2
ligand
Human
USodium/calcium exchanger 1Not AvailableHuman
UTransient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1Not AvailableHuman
UElongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4Not AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alphaNot AvailableHuman
UBile acid receptor
agonist
Human
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor deltaNot AvailableHuman
UPeroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gammaNot AvailableHuman
URetinoic acid receptor RXR-alphaNot AvailableHuman
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life
Not Available
Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid MetabolismMetabolic
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Jean-Pierre Masse, "Therapeutic composition containing alpha-linolenic acid and a compound capable of promoting the passage of the acid through the cell membrane, plant extract comprising the acid and the compound, and process for the preparation of the extract." U.S. Patent US5002767, issued February, 1986.

US5002767
General References
  1. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002 Nov 19;106(21):2747-57. [PubMed:12438303]
  2. Connor WE: Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):171S-5S. [PubMed:10617967]
  3. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22. [PubMed:15051847]
  4. Cho E, Hung S, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE: Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):209-18. [PubMed:11157315]
  5. Lauritzen I, Blondeau N, Heurteaux C, Widmann C, Romey G, Lazdunski M: Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors. EMBO J. 2000 Apr 17;19(8):1784-93. [PubMed:10775263]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB01388
KEGG Compound
C06427
PubChem Compound
5280934
PubChem Substance
46507620
ChemSpider
4444437
BindingDB
50240347
ChEBI
27432
ChEMBL
CHEMBL8739
PharmGKB
PA449384
IUPHAR
1049
Guide to Pharmacology
GtP Drug Page
HET
LNL
Wikipedia
Alpha-linolenic_acid
ATC Codes
Not Available
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Download (19 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
Not Available

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, gelatin coatedOral
CapsuleOral
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Alpha lipoic acid 200 mg tablet0.22USD tablet
Alpha-lipoic acid 50 mg caplet0.12USD caplet
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Liquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)-16.5 °CPhysProp
boiling point (°C)231 °C at 1.70E+01 mm HgPhysProp
water solubility0.000124 mg/mL at 25 °CMEYLAN,WM et al. (1996)
logP6.46SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000266 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.62ALOGPS
logP6.06ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.99ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity89.64 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability34.98 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9896
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9314
Caco-2 permeable+0.7735
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.6766
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9499
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.9025
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.9311
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7735
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9081
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.6884
CYP450 1A2 substrateInhibitor0.6915
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8798
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9631
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9638
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9465
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9426
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.9132
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.6502
BiodegradationReady biodegradable0.7808
Rat acute toxicity1.4499 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8818
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9315
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (10.9 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-052f-7900000000-8765cf82603feb1b448f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-302519a616eaed5fcc59
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-005c-9800000000-2d44b3c70e2992b9a812
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-052f-7900000000-8765cf82603feb1b448f
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-004i-9300000000-302519a616eaed5fcc59
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-005c-9800000000-2d44b3c70e2992b9a812
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-052f-5900000000-28710ea35f196c595e03
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0190000000-aee97e9ea2c7f0783adf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-05nb-9500000000-fb92aefc701027239359
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/ALC-MS/MSsplash10-0aru-9100000000-a5dddfe6f629d1371fac
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 30V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, NegativeLC-MS/MSNot Available
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0090000000-a18b573ad888d048efa6
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-2b7bea03a685454dd135
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-e5350a66361bc63d1071
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-TOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0090000000-5731aa5e301022c06813
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as lineolic acids and derivatives. These are derivatives of lineolic acid. Lineolic acid is a polyunsaturated omega-6 18 carbon long fatty acid, with two CC double bonds at the 9- and 12-positions.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Fatty Acyls
Sub Class
Lineolic acids and derivatives
Direct Parent
Lineolic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Long-chain fatty acids / Unsaturated fatty acids / Straight chain fatty acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organic oxides / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Octadecanoid / Long-chain fatty acid / Fatty acid / Unsaturated fatty acid / Straight chain fatty acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Carboxylic acid derivative / Organic oxygen compound / Organic oxide
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
omega-3 fatty acid, linolenic acid (CHEBI:27432) / Unsaturated fatty acids, Polyunsaturated fatty acids (C06427) / Unsaturated fatty acids (LMFA01030152)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Isoform 2 does not exhibit any catalytic activity toward 20:3n-6, but it may enhance FADS2 activity (By similarity). Isoform 1 is a component of a lipid metabolic pathway that catalyzes biosynthesi...
Gene Name
FADS1
Uniprot ID
O60427
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid desaturase 1
Molecular Weight
51963.945 Da
References
  1. Xiang M, Rahman MA, Ai H, Li X, Harbige LS: Diet and gene expression: delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases in healthy Chinese and European subjects. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(6):492-8. Epub 2006 Sep 19. [PubMed:16988497]
  2. Descomps B, Rodriguez A: [Essential fatty acids and prematurity: a triple experimental approach]. C R Seances Soc Biol Fil. 1995;189(5):781-96. [PubMed:8673626]
  3. Hoffman DR, DeMar JC, Heird WC, Birch DG, Anderson RE: Impaired synthesis of DHA in patients with X-linked retinitis pigmentosa. J Lipid Res. 2001 Sep;42(9):1395-401. [PubMed:11518758]
  4. Maniongui C, Blond JP, Ulmann L, Durand G, Poisson JP, Bezard J: Age-related changes in delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activities in rat liver microsomes. Lipids. 1993 Apr;28(4):291-7. [PubMed:8487621]
  5. Mohan IK, Das UN: Effect of L-arginine-nitric oxide system on the metabolism of essential fatty acids in chemical-induced diabetes mellitus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Jan;62(1):35-46. [PubMed:10765977]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Stearoyl-coa 9-desaturase activity
Specific Function
Component of a lipid metabolic pathway that catalyzes biosynthesis of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) from precursor essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (LA) (18:2n-6) ...
Gene Name
FADS2
Uniprot ID
O95864
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid desaturase 2
Molecular Weight
52259.075 Da
References
  1. Portolesi R, Powell BC, Gibson RA: Competition between 24:5n-3 and ALA for Delta 6 desaturase may limit the accumulation of DHA in HepG2 cell membranes. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jul;48(7):1592-8. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17409318]
  2. Xiang M, Rahman MA, Ai H, Li X, Harbige LS: Diet and gene expression: delta-5 and delta-6 desaturases in healthy Chinese and European subjects. Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(6):492-8. Epub 2006 Sep 19. [PubMed:16988497]
  3. Baylin A, Ruiz-Narvaez E, Kraft P, Campos H: alpha-Linolenic acid, Delta6-desaturase gene polymorphism, and the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb;85(2):554-60. [PubMed:17284757]
  4. Li MC, Bu YP, Wang GK, Hu GW, Xing LJ: [Heteologous expression of Mortierella isabellina delta6 -fatty acid desaturase gene in soybean]. Yi Chuan Xue Bao. 2004 Aug;31(8):858-63. [PubMed:15481543]
  5. Ge L, Gordon JS, Hsuan C, Stenn K, Prouty SM: Identification of the delta-6 desaturase of human sebaceous glands: expression and enzyme activity. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 May;120(5):707-14. [PubMed:12713571]
  6. Tan L, Meesapyodsuk D, Qiu X: Molecular analysis of 6 desaturase and 6 elongase from Conidiobolus obscurus in the biosynthesis of eicosatetraenoic acid, a omega3 fatty acid with nutraceutical potentials. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011 Apr;90(2):591-601. doi: 10.1007/s00253-010-3060-y. Epub 2011 Jan 6. [PubMed:21210105]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Ion channel binding
Specific Function
Mediates the exchange of one Ca(2+) ion against three to four Na(+) ions across the cell membrane, and thereby contributes to the regulation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels and Ca(2+)-dependent cellul...
Gene Name
SLC8A1
Uniprot ID
P32418
Uniprot Name
Sodium/calcium exchanger 1
Molecular Weight
108546.06 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Ander BP, Hurtado C, Raposo CS, Maddaford TG, Deniset JF, Hryshko LV, Pierce GN, Lukas A: Differential sensitivities of the NCX1.1 and NCX1.3 isoforms of the Na+-Ca2+ exchanger to alpha-linolenic acid. Cardiovasc Res. 2007 Jan 15;73(2):395-403. Epub 2006 Sep 23. [PubMed:17059813]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transmembrane signaling receptor activity
Specific Function
Ligand-activated non-selective calcium permeant cation channel involved in detection of noxious chemical and thermal stimuli. Seems to mediate proton influx and may be involved in intracellular aci...
Gene Name
TRPV1
Uniprot ID
Q8NER1
Uniprot Name
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
Molecular Weight
94955.33 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transferase activity
Specific Function
Catalyzes the first and rate-limiting reaction of the four that constitute the long-chain fatty acids elongation cycle. This endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzymatic process, allows the addition of 2 ...
Gene Name
ELOVL4
Uniprot ID
Q9GZR5
Uniprot Name
Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4
Molecular Weight
36828.905 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Key regulator of lipid metabolism. Activated by the endogenous ligand 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphocholine (16:0/18:1-GPC). Activated by oleyleth...
Gene Name
PPARA
Uniprot ID
Q07869
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Molecular Weight
52224.595 Da
References
  1. Murakami K, Ide T, Suzuki M, Mochizuki T, Kadowaki T: Evidence for direct binding of fatty acids and eicosanoids to human peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Jul 14;260(3):609-13. [PubMed:10403814]
  2. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [PubMed:16731579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor for bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, lithocholic acid and deoxycholic acid. Represses the transcription of the cholesterol 7-alpha-hydroxyla...
Gene Name
NR1H4
Uniprot ID
Q96RI1
Uniprot Name
Bile acid receptor
Molecular Weight
55913.915 Da
References
  1. Zhang J, Kris-Etherton PM, Thompson JT, Hannon DB, Gillies PJ, Heuvel JP: Alpha-linolenic acid increases cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells by decreasing stearoyl CoA desaturase 1 expression: evidence for a farnesoid-X-receptor mechanism of action. J Nutr Biochem. 2012 Apr;23(4):400-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2011.01.004. Epub 2011 Jun 11. [PubMed:21658928]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Ligand-activated transcription factor. Receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Has a preference for poly-unsaturated fatty acids, such as gamma-lin...
Gene Name
PPARD
Uniprot ID
Q03181
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Molecular Weight
49902.99 Da
References
  1. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [PubMed:16731579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear receptor that binds peroxisome proliferators such as hypolipidemic drugs and fatty acids. Once activated by a ligand, the nuclear receptor binds to DNA specific PPAR response elements (PPRE...
Gene Name
PPARG
Uniprot ID
P37231
Uniprot Name
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
Molecular Weight
57619.58 Da
References
  1. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [PubMed:16731579]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Receptor for retinoic acid. Retinoic acid receptors bind as heterodimers to their target response elements in response to their ligands, all-trans or 9-cis retinoic acid, and regulate gene expressi...
Gene Name
RXRA
Uniprot ID
P19793
Uniprot Name
Retinoic acid receptor RXR-alpha
Molecular Weight
50810.835 Da
References
  1. Vanden Heuvel JP, Thompson JT, Frame SR, Gillies PJ: Differential activation of nuclear receptors by perfluorinated fatty acid analogs and natural fatty acids: a comparison of human, mouse, and rat peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma, liver X receptor-beta, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. Toxicol Sci. 2006 Aug;92(2):476-89. Epub 2006 May 26. [PubMed:16731579]

Carriers

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
General Function
Transporter activity
Specific Function
B-FABP could be involved in the transport of a so far unknown hydrophobic ligand with potential morphogenic activity during CNS development. It is required for the establishment of the radial glial...
Gene Name
FABP7
Uniprot ID
O15540
Uniprot Name
Fatty acid-binding protein, brain
Molecular Weight
14888.855 Da
References
  1. Balendiran GK, Schnutgen F, Scapin G, Borchers T, Xhong N, Lim K, Godbout R, Spener F, Sacchettini JC: Crystal structure and thermodynamic analysis of human brain fatty acid-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 1;275(35):27045-54. [PubMed:10854433]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:31