Identification

Name
Calcidiol
Accession Number
DB00146  (NUTR00006, APRD00428)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Approved, Nutraceutical
Description

The major circulating metabolite of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). It is produced in the liver and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of rickets and osteomalacia, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • (3S,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10-triene-3,25-diol
  • (3β,5Z,7E)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
  • (5Z,7E)-(3S)-9,10-secocholesta-5,7,10(19)-triene-3,25-diol
  • 25-hydroxycholecalciferol
  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3
  • Calcidiol
  • Calcifédiol
  • Calcifediol
  • Calcifediol anhydrous
  • Calcifediol Anhydrous
  • Calcifediolum
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI Key
Calcifediol hydrateP6YZ13C99Q63283-36-3WRLFSJXJGJBFJQ-WPUCQFJDSA-N
Prescription Products
NameDosageStrengthRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
RayaldeeCapsule, extended release30 ug/1OralOpko Pharmaceuticals Llc2016-10-25Not applicableUs
International/Other Brands
Calderol (Upjohn) / Caldiol (Medica) / De Kai (China Otsuka) / Dedrogyl (Desma) / Dédrogyl (DB) / Didrogyl (Bruno Farm.) / Hidroferol (Faes)
Categories
UNII
T0WXW8F54E
CAS number
19356-17-3
Weight
Average: 400.6371
Monoisotopic: 400.334130652
Chemical Formula
C27H44O2
InChI Key
JWUBBDSIWDLEOM-DTOXIADCSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C27H44O2/c1-19-10-13-23(28)18-22(19)12-11-21-9-7-17-27(5)24(14-15-25(21)27)20(2)8-6-16-26(3,4)29/h11-12,20,23-25,28-29H,1,6-10,13-18H2,2-5H3/b21-11+,22-12-/t20-,23+,24-,25+,27-/m1/s1
IUPAC Name
(1S,3Z)-3-{2-[(1R,3aS,4E,7aR)-1-[(2R)-6-hydroxy-6-methylheptan-2-yl]-7a-methyl-octahydro-1H-inden-4-ylidene]ethylidene}-4-methylidenecyclohexan-1-ol
SMILES
C[[email protected]](CCCC(C)(C)O)[[email protected]@]1([H])CC[[email protected]@]2([H])\C(CCC[[email protected]]12C)=C\C=C1\C[[email protected]@H](O)CCC1=C

Pharmacology

Indication

Used to treat vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, refractory rickets (vitamin D resistant rickets), familial hypophosphatemia and hypoparathyroidism, and in the management of hypocalcemia and renal osteodystrophy in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing dialysis. Also used in conjunction with calcium in the management and prevention of primary or corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.

Structured Indications
Pharmacodynamics

Calcidiol is the precursor of vitamin D3. Vitamin D3 is a steroid hormone that has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, in mineralization of bone, and for the assimilation of vitamin A. The classical manifestations of vitamin D deficiency is rickets, which is seen in children and results in bony deformaties including bowed long bones. Deficiency in adults leads to the disease osteomalacia. Both rickets and osteomalacia reflect impaired mineralization of newly synthesized bone matrix, and usually result from a combination of inadequate exposure to sunlight and decreased dietary intake of vitamin D. Common causes of vitamin D deficiency include genetic defects in the vitamin D receptor, severe liver or kidney disease, and insufficient exposure to sunlight. Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining calcium balance and in the regulation of parathyroid hormone (PTH). It promotes renal reabsorption of calcium, increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and increases calcium and phosphorus mobilization from bone to plasma.

Mechanism of action

Calcidiol is transformed in the kidney by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D3. Calcitriol binds to intracellular receptors that then function as transcription factors to modulate gene expression. Like the receptors for other steroid hormones and thyroid hormones, the vitamin D receptor has hormone-binding and DNA-binding domains. The vitamin D receptor forms a complex with another intracellular receptor, the retinoid-X receptor, and that heterodimer is what binds to DNA. In most cases studied, the effect is to activate transcription, but situations are also known in which vitamin D suppresses transcription. Calcitriol increases the serum calcium concentrations by: increasing GI absorption of phosphorus and calcium, increasing osteoclastic resorption, and increasing distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium. Calcitriol appears to promote intestinal absorption of calcium through binding to the vitamin D receptor in the mucosal cytoplasm of the intestine. Subsequently, calcium is absorbed through formation of a calcium-binding protein.

TargetActionsOrganism
AVitamin D3 receptor
agonist
Human
Absorption

Readily absorbed.

Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism

Calcidiol undergoes hydroxylation in the mitochondria of kidney tissue, and this reaction is activated by the renal 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-1-(alpha)-hydroxylase to produce calcitriol (1,25- dihydroxycholecalciferol), the active form of vitamin D3.

Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

288 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity

Bone pain, constipation (especially in children or adolescents), diarrhea, drowsiness, dryness of mouth; headache (continuing), increased thirst, increase in frequency of urination, especially at night, or in amount of urine, irregular heartbeat, itching skin, loss of appetite, metallic taste, muscle pain, nausea or vomiting (especially in children or adolescents), unusual tiredness or weakness.

Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
Not Available
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
DrugInteractionDrug group
AcetyldigitoxinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Acetyldigitoxin.Approved
AcetyldigoxinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Acetyldigoxin.Experimental
Aluminum hydroxideThe serum concentration of Aluminum hydroxide can be increased when it is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
BendroflumethiazideBendroflumethiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
CalcipotriolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcipotriol is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
CalciumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium is combined with Calcidiol.Nutraceutical
Calcium AcetateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Acetate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
Calcium CarbonateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Carbonate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
Calcium CitrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Citrate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
Calcium glubionateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium glubionate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
Calcium GluceptateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Gluceptate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
Calcium gluconateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium gluconate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved, Vet Approved
Calcium lactateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium lactate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved, Experimental, Vet Approved
Calcium lactate gluconateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium lactate gluconate is combined with Calcidiol.Experimental
Calcium laevulateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium laevulate is combined with Calcidiol.Experimental
Calcium pangamateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium pangamate is combined with Calcidiol.Experimental
Calcium PhosphateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcium Phosphate is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
CaseinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Casein is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
ChlorothiazideChlorothiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved, Vet Approved
ChlorthalidoneChlorthalidone may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
CholestyramineThe serum concentration of Calcidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Cholestyramine.Approved
ColesevelamThe serum concentration of Calcidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colesevelam.Approved
ColestipolThe serum concentration of Calcidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Colestipol.Approved
CyclopenthiazideCyclopenthiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Experimental
CymarinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Cymarin.Experimental
DanazolDanazol may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
DeslanosideCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Deslanoside.Approved
DigitoxinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Digitoxin.Approved
DigoxinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Digoxin.Approved
DihydrotachysterolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcidiol is combined with Dihydrotachysterol.Approved
DoxercalciferolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Doxercalciferol is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
ErgocalciferolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Calcidiol is combined with Ergocalciferol.Approved, Nutraceutical
GitoformateCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Gitoformate.Experimental
HydrochlorothiazideHydrochlorothiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved, Vet Approved
HydroflumethiazideHydroflumethiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
IndapamideIndapamide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
Lanatoside CCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Lanatoside C.Experimental
MethyclothiazideMethyclothiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
MetildigoxinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Metildigoxin.Experimental
MetolazoneMetolazone may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
Mineral oilThe serum concentration of Calcidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Mineral oil.Approved, Vet Approved
OleandrinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Oleandrin.Experimental
OrlistatThe serum concentration of Calcidiol can be decreased when it is combined with Orlistat.Approved, Investigational
OuabainCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Ouabain.Approved
ParicalcitolThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Paricalcitol is combined with Calcidiol.Approved, Investigational
PeruvosideCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Peruvoside.Experimental
PolythiazidePolythiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
ProscillaridinCalcidiol may increase the arrhythmogenic activities of Proscillaridin.Experimental
QuinethazoneQuinethazone may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved
SucralfateThe serum concentration of Sucralfate can be increased when it is combined with Calcidiol.Approved
TrichlormethiazideTrichlormethiazide may increase the hypercalcemic activities of Calcidiol.Approved, Vet Approved
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Dae-Jung Kang, Jong-Hyuk Im, Hyun-Jung Jung, Jae-Hoon Kang, "BUFFER COMPOSITION FOR CATALYZING THE PREPARATION OF CALCITRIOL OR CALCIFEDIOL AND METHOD FOR PREPARING CALCITRIOL OR CALCIFEDIOL USING SAME." U.S. Patent US20120064584, issued March 15, 2012.

US20120064584
General References
Not Available
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB03550
KEGG Compound
C01561
PubChem Compound
5283731
PubChem Substance
46505690
ChemSpider
4446820
ChEBI
17933
ChEMBL
CHEMBL1040
Therapeutic Targets Database
DAP000290
PharmGKB
PA164745614
HET
VDY
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Calcidiol
ATC Codes
A11CC06 — Calcifediol
AHFS Codes
Not Available
PDB Entries
Not Available
FDA label
Not Available
MSDS
Not Available

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0Active Not RecruitingPreventionDeficiency, Vitamin D1
1CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) / Chronic Renal Insufficiency / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary1
1RecruitingSupportive CareBone Neoplasms / Cancer, Breast / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / Hypocalcemia / Prostate Cancer1
2CompletedPreventionCommunity-dwelling Seniors / History of a Fall in the Previous 12 Months1
2RecruitingPreventionAcute Kidney Injury (AKI) / Critically Ill1
2Unknown StatusTreatmentBMI >30 kg/m2 / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Insulin Resistance1
3CompletedTreatmentChronic Kidney Disease (CKD) / Deficiency, Vitamin D / Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary3
3RecruitingTreatmentMyocardial Infarction (MI)1
4CompletedTreatmentBronchial Asthma1
4CompletedTreatmentSecondary Hyperparathyroidism Due to Renal Causes1
4Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentDeficiency, Vitamin D / Hip Fractures1
4Unknown StatusTreatmentDisorder of Vitamin D / Kidney Failure,Chronic1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
  • Organon usa inc
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Capsule, extended releaseOral30 ug/1
Prices
Not Available
Patents
Patent NumberPediatric ExtensionApprovedExpires (estimated)
US8906410No2007-02-022027-02-02Us
US6582727No2000-08-222020-08-22Us
US8361488No2008-07-192028-07-19Us
US9408858No2008-04-252028-04-25Us
US9498486No2008-04-252028-04-25Us
US8778373No2008-04-252028-04-25Us
US8426391No2008-08-272028-08-27Us
US8207149No2008-04-252028-04-25Us

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubilityInsolubleNot Available
logP6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0022 mg/mLALOGPS
logP6.71ALOGPS
logP5.65ChemAxon
logS-5.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.98ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area40.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity125.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability50.32 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9953
Blood Brain Barrier+0.9164
Caco-2 permeable+0.8891
P-glycoprotein substrateSubstrate0.7454
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IInhibitor0.5209
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IIInhibitor0.6087
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.7849
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.8379
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.9004
CYP450 3A4 substrateSubstrate0.7815
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.8874
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9229
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9488
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7885
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.7968
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.56
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.8612
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.917
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.991
Rat acute toxicity4.1429 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.8189
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.7589
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Not Available
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-001i-2900000000-33a8e563016d6e2e358e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)GC-MSsplash10-00lr-2900000000-f6bedf68127696063061
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-001i-2900000000-33a8e563016d6e2e358e
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSGC-MSsplash10-00lr-2900000000-f6bedf68127696063061
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSNot Available

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as vitamin d and derivatives. These are compounds containing a secosteroid backbone, usually secoergostane or secocholestane.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Lipids and lipid-like molecules
Class
Steroids and steroid derivatives
Sub Class
Vitamin D and derivatives
Direct Parent
Vitamin D and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Triterpenoids / Tertiary alcohols / Secondary alcohols / Cyclic alcohols and derivatives / Hydrocarbon derivatives
Substituents
Triterpenoid / Tertiary alcohol / Cyclic alcohol / Secondary alcohol / Organic oxygen compound / Hydrocarbon derivative / Organooxygen compound / Alcohol / Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
diol, D3 vitamins, hydroxycalciol (CHEBI:17933) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives (C01561) / Vitamin D3 and derivatives (LMST03020246)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Agonist
General Function
Zinc ion binding
Specific Function
Nuclear hormone receptor. Transcription factor that mediates the action of vitamin D3 by controlling the expression of hormone sensitive genes. Recruited to promoters via its interaction with BAZ1B...
Gene Name
VDR
Uniprot ID
P11473
Uniprot Name
Vitamin D3 receptor
Molecular Weight
48288.64 Da
References
  1. Reinhart GA: Vitamin D analogs: novel therapeutic agents for cardiovascular disease? Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2004 Sep;5(9):947-51. [PubMed:15503649]
  2. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352]

Enzymes

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Iron ion binding
Specific Function
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID
O15528
Uniprot Name
25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 alpha hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
56503.475 Da
References
  1. Schuster I: Cytochromes P450 are essential players in the vitamin D signaling system. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011 Jan;1814(1):186-99. doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2010.06.022. Epub 2010 Jul 7. [PubMed:20619365]
  2. Bernad M, Jaramillo G, Aguado P, del Campo T, Coya J, Martin Mola E, Gijon Banos J, Saldana Barrera H, Martinez ME: [Polymorphism of the gene of vitamin D receptor and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women]. Med Clin (Barc). 1999 May 15;112(17):651-5. [PubMed:10374186]
  3. Diesel B, Radermacher J, Bureik M, Bernhardt R, Seifert M, Reichrath J, Fischer U, Meese E: Vitamin D(3) metabolism in human glioblastoma multiforme: functionality of CYP27B1 splice variants, metabolism of calcidiol, and effect of calcitriol. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 1;11(15):5370-80. [PubMed:16061850]
  4. Eto TA, Nakamura Y, Taniguchi T, Miyamoto K, Nagatomo J, Maeda Y, Higashi S, Okuda K, Setoguchi T: Assay of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1 alpha-hydroxylase in rat kidney mitochondria. Anal Biochem. 1998 Apr 10;258(1):53-8. [PubMed:9527847]
  5. Hart GR, Furniss JL, Laurie D, Durham SK: Measurement of vitamin D status: background, clinical use, and methodologies. Clin Lab. 2006;52(7-8):335-43. [PubMed:16955631]
  6. Vigo Gago E, Cadarso-Suarez C, Perez-Fernandez R, Romero Burgos R, Devesa Mugica J, Segura Iglesias C: Association between vitamin D receptor FokI. Polymorphism and serum parathyroid hormone level in patients with chronic renal failure. J Endocrinol Invest. 2005 Feb;28(2):117-21. [PubMed:15887856]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Substrate
General Function
Oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function
Has a role in maintaining calcium homeostasis. Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent 24-hydroxylation of calcidiol (25-hydroxyvitamin D(3)) and calcitriol (1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)). The enzyme can...
Gene Name
CYP24A1
Uniprot ID
Q07973
Uniprot Name
1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) 24-hydroxylase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
58874.695 Da
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on October 02, 2017 04:31