Identification

Name
Creatine
Accession Number
DB00148  (NUTR00022)
Type
Small Molecule
Groups
Investigational, Nutraceutical
Description

An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as creatinine in the urine.

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  • ((amino(Imino)methyl)(methyl)amino)acetic acid
  • (alpha-Methylguanido)acetic acid
  • (N-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
  • (α-methylguanido)acetic acid
  • alpha-Methylguanidino acetic acid
  • Creatin
  • Creatine
  • Kreatin
  • Methylglycocyamine
  • N-(aminoiminomethyl)-N-methylglycine
  • N-[(e)-AMINO(imino)methyl]-N-methylglycine
  • N-Amidinosarcosine
  • N-Carbamimidoyl-N-methylglycine
  • N-Methyl-N-guanylglycine
Categories
UNII
MU72812GK0
CAS number
57-00-1
Weight
Average: 131.1332
Monoisotopic: 131.069476547
Chemical Formula
C4H9N3O2
InChI Key
CVSVTCORWBXHQV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C4H9N3O2/c1-7(4(5)6)2-3(8)9/h2H2,1H3,(H3,5,6)(H,8,9)
IUPAC Name
2-(N-methylcarbamimidamido)acetic acid
SMILES
CN(CC(O)=O)C(N)=N

Pharmacology

Indication

For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance

Structured Indications
Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

Creatine is a essential, non-proteinaceous amino acid found in all animals and, in some plants. Creatine is synthesized in the kidney, liver and pancreas from L-arginine, glycine and L-methionine. Following its biosynthesis, creatine is transported to the skeletal muscle, heart, brain and other tissues. Most of the creatine is metabolized in these tissues to phosphocreatine (creatine phosphate). Phosphocreatine is a major energy storage form in the body. Supplemental creatine may have an energy-generating action during anaerobic exercise and may also have neuroprotective and cardioprotective actions.

Mechanism of action

In the muscles, a fraction of the total creatine binds to phosphate - forming creatine phosphate. The reaction is catalysed by creatine kinase, and the result is phosphocreatine (PCr). Phosphocreatine binds with adenosine diphosphate to convert it back to ATP (adenosine triphosphate), an important cellular energy source for short term ATP needs prior to oxidative phosphorylation.

TargetActionsOrganism
ACreatine kinase M-type
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase B-type
ligand
Human
ACreatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial
ligand
Human
ASodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1Not AvailableHuman
AGuanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
product of
Human
Absorption
Not Available
Volume of distribution
Not Available
Protein binding
Not Available
Metabolism
Not Available
Route of elimination
Not Available
Half life

3 hours

Clearance
Not Available
Toxicity
Not Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategory
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)Disease
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaDisease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)Disease
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticDisease
Glycine and Serine MetabolismMetabolic
Arginine and Proline MetabolismMetabolic
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)Disease
Prolinemia Type IIDisease
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDisease
SarcosinemiaDisease
Hyperprolinemia Type IDisease
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)Disease
Hyperprolinemia Type IIDisease
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)Disease
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencyDisease
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)Disease
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]Disease
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencyDisease
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencyDisease
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs
Not Available

Interactions

Drug Interactions
Not Available
Food Interactions
Not Available

References

Synthesis Reference

Stefan Weiss, Helmut Krommer, "Process for the preparation of a creatine or creatine monohydrate." U.S. Patent US5719319, issued September, 1963.

US5719319
General References
  1. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Tarnopolsky MA, Candow DG: Effect of alpha-lipoic acid combined with creatine monohydrate on human skeletal muscle creatine and phosphagen concentration. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2003 Sep;13(3):294-302. [PubMed:14669930]
  2. Dangott B, Schultz E, Mozdziak PE: Dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation increases satellite cell mitotic activity during compensatory hypertrophy. Int J Sports Med. 2000 Jan;21(1):13-6. [PubMed:10683092]
  3. Hespel P, Op't Eijnde B, Van Leemputte M, Urso B, Greenhaff PL, Labarque V, Dymarkowski S, Van Hecke P, Richter EA: Oral creatine supplementation facilitates the rehabilitation of disuse atrophy and alters the expression of muscle myogenic factors in humans. J Physiol. 2001 Oct 15;536(Pt 2):625-33. [PubMed:11600695]
  4. Hultman E, Soderlund K, Timmons JA, Cederblad G, Greenhaff PL: Muscle creatine loading in men. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1996 Jul;81(1):232-7. [PubMed:8828669]
  5. Juhn M: Popular sports supplements and ergogenic aids. Sports Med. 2003;33(12):921-39. [PubMed:12974658]
External Links
Human Metabolome Database
HMDB00064
KEGG Compound
C00300
PubChem Compound
586
PubChem Substance
46504868
ChemSpider
566
BindingDB
50357229
ChEBI
57947
ChEMBL
CHEMBL283800
PharmGKB
PA164778930
HET
CRN
Drugs.com
Drugs.com Drug Page
PDRhealth
PDRhealth Drug Page
Wikipedia
Creatine
PDB Entries
1v7z / 3a6j / 3b6r
MSDS
Download (73.1 KB)

Clinical Trials

Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
1CompletedBasic ScienceNutritional Status1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)1
2CompletedTreatmentAmyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)3
2CompletedTreatmentHuntington's Disease (HD)2
2CompletedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
3CompletedPreventionSchizophrenic Disorders1
3CompletedTreatmentMuscle Weakness1
3TerminatedTreatmentParkinson's Disease (PD)1
4CompletedTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
4WithdrawnTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentCognitive Benefits1
Not AvailableCompletedTreatmentAngelman's syndrome / Nervous System Diseases1
Not AvailableRecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1

Pharmacoeconomics

Manufacturers
Not Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
Not Available
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Creatine monohydrate powder0.81USD g
Cytotine 1.5 g/15 ml liquid0.07USD ml
Creatine powder0.01USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
Patents
Not Available

Properties

State
Solid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)255 dec °CPhysProp
water solubility1.33E+004 mg/L (at 18 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-0.2Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.11 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-2.9ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.5ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)12.43ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.41 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity42.01 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability12.17 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET features
PropertyValueProbability
Human Intestinal Absorption+0.9605
Blood Brain Barrier+0.6849
Caco-2 permeable-0.6228
P-glycoprotein substrateNon-substrate0.5275
P-glycoprotein inhibitor INon-inhibitor0.9704
P-glycoprotein inhibitor IINon-inhibitor0.8744
Renal organic cation transporterNon-inhibitor0.8321
CYP450 2C9 substrateNon-substrate0.7916
CYP450 2D6 substrateNon-substrate0.767
CYP450 3A4 substrateNon-substrate0.7585
CYP450 1A2 substrateNon-inhibitor0.9136
CYP450 2C9 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9068
CYP450 2D6 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.8954
CYP450 2C19 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9157
CYP450 3A4 inhibitorNon-inhibitor0.9346
CYP450 inhibitory promiscuityLow CYP Inhibitory Promiscuity0.9969
Ames testNon AMES toxic0.7522
CarcinogenicityNon-carcinogens0.8138
BiodegradationNot ready biodegradable0.7859
Rat acute toxicity2.0088 LD50, mol/kg Not applicable
hERG inhibition (predictor I)Weak inhibitor0.9653
hERG inhibition (predictor II)Non-inhibitor0.9649
ADMET data is predicted using admetSAR, a free tool for evaluating chemical ADMET properties. (23092397)

Spectra

Mass Spec (NIST)
Download (8.81 KB)
Spectra
SpectrumSpectrum TypeSplash Key
Predicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSPredicted GC-MSNot Available
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-014i-0900000000-7739f1c16da098ff4661
GC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFGC-MSsplash10-0002-0900000000-f89f340e776ae37776b3
Mass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)MSsplash10-0006-9100000000-47f885347545055f546d
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-000x-9800000000-bc1387ab36f71e04b988
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-6c686da36a88d9fbdbcf
MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-13b7d28e8f5be1c5dada
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-cc4bd4c587dd80f63bcb
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0udi-3900000000-d35c7578ad50de8377b7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a4d7fee14f74e1ed8b4b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-e5d62520dfcbf4bfe5c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-06fbcf897ccce3fa90b7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-9a0b8275e74605a92681
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9000000000-5f622f2c3de4f213a8ed
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-20ba65c7a2c9434fcf39
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-01qc-0965022201-53bb6f168e0934ae4a87
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-638479794e8c3a6e0b61
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-39676937b1a3ad0dc0bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-d53c75786742ecdb3c16
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001l-0945022201-2fc3f234454021c5e202
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-40aa07f89dddb181e489
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-5aca4d0b8ed7d2500af2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-9a9685c32bf6c721a497
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-c99f9492e0b84d5fae6b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-8ab609e6dd62bd18841f
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-e04e407d5f06d21582c4
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fd81d06317727fa740b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8428e2af90720afb4337
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , PositiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-3162b4c94e66796a643b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , NegativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d1ec8777bb4c780ed68b
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-e106409f5603a4dd8858
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-01q9-5900000000-51b914df7d335eeaea6a
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positive (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-00di-9100000000-281ab3f032b3faa4807c
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0019-9600000000-50c5c6eec4970de5065e
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9100000000-2ce0268fe5da21f6b6e1
Predicted MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negative (Annotated)Predicted LC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-1d96235140bff7eeb962
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-638479794e8c3a6e0b61
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-004i-0900000000-39676937b1a3ad0dc0bc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0090000000-d53c75786742ecdb3c16
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-40aa07f89dddb181e489
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-5aca4d0b8ed7d2500af2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-03di-0190000000-9a9685c32bf6c721a497
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-d1ec8777bb4c780ed68b
MS/MS Spectrum - , negativeLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9300000000-aff3ba92f70996daa5dc
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-1900000000-d077f3e6e379b57b32c2
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9300000000-cb4f9bcb6b454e752905
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-c9eeb425afbfebda50be
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-fd81d06317727fa740b1
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-8428e2af90720afb4337
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-IT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-0006-9000000000-731f442bdd0f58f187c7
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-a4d7fee14f74e1ed8b4b
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-e5d62520dfcbf4bfe5c9
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000i-9000000000-52b9be7e1524d1221d92
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000f-9000000000-47fe7d70ef9d734eaf88
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-20ba65c7a2c9434fcf39
LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-001i-0900000000-3162b4c94e66796a643b
MS/MS Spectrum - , positiveLC-MS/MSsplash10-000x-9800000000-6a145185d53b0d6d95f7
1H NMR Spectrum1D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum2D NMRNot Applicable

Taxonomy

Description
This compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha amino acids and derivatives. These are amino acids in which the amino group is attached to the carbon atom immediately adjacent to the carboxylate group (alpha carbon), or a derivative thereof.
Kingdom
Organic compounds
Super Class
Organic acids and derivatives
Class
Carboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub Class
Amino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct Parent
Alpha amino acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Guanidines / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Carboximidamides / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Imines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
Substituents
Alpha-amino acid or derivatives / Guanidine / Carboximidamide / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid / Organic nitrogen compound / Organic oxygen compound / Organopnictogen compound / Organic oxide / Hydrocarbon derivative
Molecular Framework
Aliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
glycine derivative, guanidines (CHEBI:16919)

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKM
Uniprot ID
P06732
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase M-type
Molecular Weight
43100.91 Da
References
  1. Zeng L, Hu Q, Wang X, Mansoor A, Lee J, Feygin J, Zhang G, Suntharalingam P, Boozer S, Mhashilkar A, Panetta CJ, Swingen C, Deans R, From AH, Bache RJ, Verfaillie CM, Zhang J: Bioenergetic and functional consequences of bone marrow-derived multipotent progenitor cell transplantation in hearts with postinfarction left ventricular remodeling. Circulation. 2007 Apr 10;115(14):1866-75. Epub 2007 Mar 26. [PubMed:17389266]
  2. Zhou DQ, Hu Y, Liu G, Gong L, Xi Y, Wen L: Muscle-specific creatine kinase gene polymorphism and running economy responses to an 18-week 5000-m training programme. Br J Sports Med. 2006 Dec;40(12):988-91. Epub 2006 Sep 25. [PubMed:17000714]
  3. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKMT1A
Uniprot ID
P12532
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase U-type, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47036.3 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Slenzka K, Appel R, Kappel Th, Rahmann H: Influence of altered gravity on brain cellular energy and plasma membrane metabolism of developing lower aquatic vertebrates. Adv Space Res. 1996;17(6-7):125-8. [PubMed:11538605]
  4. Wyss M, Schlegel J, James P, Eppenberger HM, Wallimann T: Mitochondrial creatine kinase from chicken brain. Purification, biophysical characterization, and generation of heterodimeric and heterooctameric molecules with subunits of other creatine kinase isoenzymes. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 15;265(26):15900-8. [PubMed:2394753]
  5. Muhlebach SM, Wirz T, Brandle U, Perriard JC: Evolution of the creative kinases. The chicken acidic type mitochondrial creatine kinase gene as the first nonmammalian gene. J Biol Chem. 1996 May 17;271(20):11920-9. [PubMed:8662608]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Ubiquitin protein ligase binding
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKB
Uniprot ID
P12277
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase B-type
Molecular Weight
42643.95 Da
References
  1. Tian XF, Zhang XS, Li YH, Wang ZZ, Zhang F, Wang LM, Yao JH: Proteasome inhibition attenuates lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia reperfusion in rats. Life Sci. 2006 Oct 26;79(22):2069-76. Epub 2006 Jun 23. [PubMed:16875703]
  2. Debrincat MA, Zhang JG, Willson TA, Silke J, Connolly LM, Simpson RJ, Alexander WS, Nicola NA, Kile BT, Hilton DJ: Ankyrin repeat and suppressors of cytokine signaling box protein asb-9 targets creatine kinase B for degradation. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 16;282(7):4728-37. Epub 2006 Dec 5. [PubMed:17148442]
  3. Burklen TS, Hirschy A, Wallimann T: Brain-type creatine kinase BB-CK interacts with the Golgi Matrix Protein GM130 in early prophase. Mol Cell Biochem. 2007 Mar;297(1-2):53-64. Epub 2006 Oct 12. [PubMed:17036164]
  4. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Ligand
General Function
Creatine kinase activity
Specific Function
Reversibly catalyzes the transfer of phosphate between ATP and various phosphogens (e.g. creatine phosphate). Creatine kinase isoenzymes play a central role in energy transduction in tissues with l...
Gene Name
CKMT2
Uniprot ID
P17540
Uniprot Name
Creatine kinase S-type, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight
47504.08 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423]
  3. Koufen P, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Wendt S, Wallimann T, Stark G: Free radical-induced inactivation of creatine kinase: influence on the octameric and dimeric states of the mitochondrial enzyme (Mib-CK). Biochem J. 1999 Dec 1;344 Pt 2:413-7. [PubMed:10567223]
  4. Wyss M, James P, Schlegel J, Wallimann T: Limited proteolysis of creatine kinase. Implications for three-dimensional structure and for conformational substrates. Biochemistry. 1993 Oct 12;32(40):10727-35. [PubMed:8399219]
  5. Stachowiak O, Dolder M, Wallimann T, Richter C: Mitochondrial creatine kinase is a prime target of peroxynitrite-induced modification and inactivation. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16694-9. [PubMed:9642223]
  6. Wallimann T, Wyss M, Brdiczka D, Nicolay K, Eppenberger HM: Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes in tissues with high and fluctuating energy demands: the 'phosphocreatine circuit' for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem J. 1992 Jan 1;281 ( Pt 1):21-40. [PubMed:1731757]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
General Function
Neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
Specific Function
Required for the uptake of creatine in muscles and brain.
Gene Name
SLC6A8
Uniprot ID
P48029
Uniprot Name
Sodium- and chloride-dependent creatine transporter 1
Molecular Weight
70522.17 Da
References
  1. Rosenberg EH, Munoz CM, Degrauw TJ, Jakobs Cn, Salomons GS: Overexpression of wild-type creatine transporter (SLC6A8) restores creatine uptake in primary SLC6A8-deficient fibroblasts. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2006 Apr-Jun;29(2-3):345-6. [PubMed:16763899]
  2. Derave W, Straumann N, Olek RA, Hespel P: Electrolysis stimulates creatine transport and transporter cell surface expression in incubated mouse skeletal muscle: potential role of ROS. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Dec;291(6):E1250-7. Epub 2006 Jul 18. [PubMed:16849631]
  3. Lunardi G, Parodi A, Perasso L, Pohvozcheva AV, Scarrone S, Adriano E, Florio T, Gandolfo C, Cupello A, Burov SV, Balestrino M: The creatine transporter mediates the uptake of creatine by brain tissue, but not the uptake of two creatine-derived compounds. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 3;142(4):991-7. Epub 2006 Sep 1. [PubMed:16949212]
  4. Campistol J, Arias-Dimas A, Poo P, Pineda M, Hoffman M, Vilaseca MA, Artuch R, Ribes A: [Cerebral creatine transporter deficiency: an infradiagnosed neurometabolic disease]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Mar 16-31;44(6):343-7. [PubMed:17385170]
  5. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Yes
Actions
Product of
General Function
Methyltransferase activity
Specific Function
Not Available
Gene Name
GAMT
Uniprot ID
Q14353
Uniprot Name
Guanidinoacetate N-methyltransferase
Molecular Weight
26317.925 Da
References
  1. Almeida LS, Vilarinho L, Darmin PS, Rosenberg EH, Martinez-Munoz C, Jakobs C, Salomons GS: A prevalent pathogenic GAMT mutation (c.59G>C) in Portugal. Mol Genet Metab. 2007 May;91(1):1-6. Epub 2007 Mar 1. [PubMed:17336114]
  2. Kan HE, Meeuwissen E, van Asten JJ, Veltien A, Isbrandt D, Heerschap A: Creatine uptake in brain and skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007 Jun;102(6):2121-7. Epub 2007 Mar 8. [PubMed:17347380]
  3. Wang L, Zhang Y, Shao M, Zhang H: Spatiotemporal expression of the creatine metabolism related genes agat, gamt and ct1 during zebrafish embryogenesis. Int J Dev Biol. 2007;51(3):247-53. [PubMed:17486546]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
Unknown
Actions
Inhibitor
General Function
Symporter activity
Specific Function
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cat...
Gene Name
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID
O76082
Uniprot Name
Solute carrier family 22 member 5
Molecular Weight
62751.08 Da
References
  1. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [PubMed:10525100]

Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on November 07, 2017 01:33