Identification
NameL-Leucine
Accession NumberDB00149  (NUTR00033)
TypeSmall Molecule
GroupsApproved, Nutraceutical
Description

An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation. [PubChem]

Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
(2S)-2-Amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
(2S)-alpha-2-Amino-4-methylvaleric acid
(2S)-alpha-Leucine
(S)-(+)-Leucine
(S)-Leucine
2-Amino-4-methylvaleric acid
L
L-Leucin
L-Leuzin
Leu
Leucine
External IDs FEMA NO. 3297
Product Ingredients
IngredientUNIICASInChI KeyDetails
L-Leucine hydrochlorideN39KV97633 760-84-9XKZZNHPZEPVUQK-JEDNCBNOSA-NDetails
Approved Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Generic Prescription ProductsNot Available
Approved Over the Counter ProductsNot Available
Unapproved/Other Products Not Available
International BrandsNot Available
Brand mixtures
NameIngredientsDosageRouteLabellerMarketing StartMarketing End
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose ClinimixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312015-08-05Canada
2.5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.5%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.25%dexLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travas. Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.25%dexLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-07-301998-08-13Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-02-022007-08-02Canada
2.75% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312007-08-02Canada
2.75%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.eleC.W.5%dex.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
4.25% Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrlytes In 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
4.25% Travasol Amino Acid Without Electrolytes In 5% Dextrose QuickmixSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1995-12-312007-08-02Canada
4.25%trav. Amino Acid InJ.W.O.elect.5%dext.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
4.25%travasol Amino Acid InJ.W.elecw.5%dex.LiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1996-12-311999-08-10Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection With Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 20% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312015-08-05Canada
5% Travasol Amino Acid Injection Without Electrolytes In 25% DextroseSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
AminosynInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2012-03-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1979-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn 10% W ElectrolytesLiquidIntravenousAbbott1984-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn 3.5% MLiquidIntravenousAbbott1980-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn 5%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1977-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 7%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1979-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 8.5%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1984-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn 8.5% Injection With ElectrolytesSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1984-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn IIInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-032017-05-18Us
Aminosyn II 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 10% With ElectrolytesSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1991-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 15%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1995-12-31Not applicableCanada
Aminosyn II 5% InjLiquidIntravenousAbbott1988-12-311999-08-09Canada
Aminosyn II 7% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 7% M In 10% Dextrose(dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 10% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 7% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% M In 20% Dextrose (dual Chamber)SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II 8.5% With 50% DextroseSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1988-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II In Dextrose InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1987-12-312012-08-03Canada
Aminosyn II With ElectrolytesInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-04-03Not applicableUs
Aminosyn RFInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-02-18Not applicableUs
Aminosyn RF InjectionSolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1986-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn Sulfite FreeInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-10-27Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PFInjection, solutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1985-09-06Not applicableUs
Aminosyn-PF 10%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Aminosyn-PF 7%SolutionIntravenousHospira, Inc.1990-12-312016-07-29Canada
Bcaa 4% InjLiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1992-12-312011-05-10Canada
ClinimixInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-09-29Not applicableUs
Clinimix 2.5% Travasol Aa Without Electrolytes In 10% Dextrose InjecSolutionIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1996-12-312007-08-02Canada
Clinimix EInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-03-26Not applicableUs
ClinisolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-08-30Not applicableUs
HepatamineInjection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1982-08-03Not applicableUs
NephramineInjection, solutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1978-02-24Not applicableUs
NovamineInjection, solution, concentrateIntravenousHospira, Inc.2011-11-22Not applicableUs
Olimel 3.3% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter LaboratoriesNot applicableNot applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-09-29Not applicableCanada
Olimel 4.4% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-26Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7%EmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-03-01Not applicableCanada
Olimel 5.7% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-01-19Not applicableCanada
Periolimel 2.5% EEmulsionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2011-02-28Not applicableCanada
PlenamineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.2015-01-30Not applicableUs
Premasol - Sulfite-free (amino Acid)Injection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories2003-06-19Not applicableUs
Primene 10%LiquidIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1997-11-14Not applicableCanada
Primene 10%-liq IVLiquidIntravenousClintec Nutrition Company1995-12-311998-08-13Canada
ProsolInjection, solutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1998-08-26Not applicableUs
Quick Mix 2.5% Travasol Aa With Electrolytes With 25% Dextrose InjecLiquidIntravenousBaxter Corporation Clintec Nutrition Division1993-12-312000-07-20Canada
Renamin (amino Acids) InjectionSolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1996-02-022011-05-10Canada
TravasolInjectionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1984-08-23Not applicableUs
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 5.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1981-12-312007-08-02Canada
Travasol Amino Acid Inj 8.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1980-12-312008-03-26Canada
Travasol ESolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1974-12-31Not applicableCanada
Travasol Inj Without Electrolytes 5.5%SolutionIntravenousBaxter Laboratories1978-12-312007-08-02Canada
TrophamineSolutionIntravenousB. Braun Medical Inc.1984-07-20Not applicableUs
Vamin 18 Electrolyte-freeSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1996-12-302006-07-17Canada
Vamin NSolutionIntravenousFresenius Kabi Ab1995-12-312006-07-17Canada
Categories
UNIIGMW67QNF9C
CAS number61-90-5
WeightAverage: 131.1729
Monoisotopic: 131.094628665
Chemical FormulaC6H13NO2
InChI KeyROHFNLRQFUQHCH-YFKPBYRVSA-N
InChI
InChI=1S/C6H13NO2/c1-4(2)3-5(7)6(8)9/h4-5H,3,7H2,1-2H3,(H,8,9)/t5-/m0/s1
IUPAC Name
(2S)-2-amino-4-methylpentanoic acid
SMILES
CC(C)C[[email protected]](N)C(O)=O
Pharmacology
Indication

Indicated to assist in the prevention of the breakdown of muscle proteins that sometimes occur after trauma or severe stress.

Structured Indications Not Available
Pharmacodynamics

An essential amino acid. (Claim) Leucine helps with the regulation of blood-sugar levels, the growth and repair of muscle tissue (such as bones, skin and muscles), growth hormone production, wound healing as well as energy regulation. It can assist to prevent the breakdown of muscle proteins that sometimes occur after trauma or severe stress. It may also be beneficial for individuals with phenylketonuria - a condition in which the body cannot metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine

Mechanism of action

This group of essential amino acids are identified as the branched-chain amino acids, BCAAs. Because this arrangement of carbon atoms cannot be made by humans, these amino acids are an essential element in the diet. The catabolism of all three compounds initiates in muscle and yields NADH and FADH2 which can be utilized for ATP generation. The catabolism of all three of these amino acids uses the same enzymes in the first two steps. The first step in each case is a transamination using a single BCAA aminotransferase, with a-ketoglutarate as amine acceptor. As a result, three different a-keto acids are produced and are oxidized using a common branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase, yielding the three different CoA derivatives. Subsequently the metabolic pathways diverge, producing many intermediates. The principal product from valine is propionylCoA, the glucogenic precursor of succinyl-CoA. Isoleucine catabolism terminates with production of acetylCoA and propionylCoA; thus isoleucine is both glucogenic and ketogenic. Leucine gives rise to acetylCoA and acetoacetylCoA, and is thus classified as strictly ketogenic. There are a number of genetic diseases associated with faulty catabolism of the BCAAs. The most common defect is in the branched-chain a-keto acid dehydrogenase. Since there is only one dehydrogenase enzyme for all three amino acids, all three a-keto acids accumulate and are excreted in the urine. The disease is known as Maple syrup urine disease because of the characteristic odor of the urine in afflicted individuals. Mental retardation in these cases is extensive. Unfortunately, since these are essential amino acids, they cannot be heavily restricted in the diet; ultimately, the life of afflicted individuals is short and development is abnormal The main neurological problems are due to poor formation of myelin in the CNS.

TargetKindPharmacological actionActionsOrganismUniProt ID
Probable leucine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ15031 details
Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase 2ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO60294 details
Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase 1ProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9UIC8 details
Leucine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanQ9P2J5 details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrialProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanO15382 details
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolicProteinunknownNot AvailableHumanP54687 details
Related Articles
AbsorptionNot Available
Volume of distributionNot Available
Protein bindingNot Available
MetabolismNot Available
Route of eliminationNot Available
Half lifeNot Available
ClearanceNot Available
ToxicityNot Available
Affected organisms
  • Humans and other mammals
Pathways
PathwayCategorySMPDB ID
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationMetabolicSMP00032
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00173
Amikacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00253
Spectinomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00258
Leucine Stimulation on Insulin SignalingSignalingSMP00682
Glutaminolysis and CancerDiseaseSMP02298
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type IDiseaseSMP00237
Clindamycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00249
Gentamicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00254
Netilmicin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00257
Doxycycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00291
Minocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00292
Lymecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00295
Tigecycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00712
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00137
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IDiseaseSMP00139
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVDiseaseSMP00141
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseDiseaseSMP00199
Propionic AcidemiaDiseaseSMP00236
Tobramycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00711
Arbekacin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00713
Methacycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00727
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencyDiseaseSMP00138
Azithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00247
Telithromycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00252
Streptomycin Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00259
Demeclocycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00290
Oxytetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00293
Tetracycline Action PathwayDrug actionSMP00294
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencyDiseaseSMP00521
Pharmacogenomic Effects/ADRs Not Available
Interactions
Drug Interactions Not Available
Food InteractionsNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference

Takayasu Tsuchida, Haruo Momose, Yoshio Hirose, "Process for producing L-leucine." U.S. Patent US3970519, issued February, 1975.

US3970519
General ReferencesNot Available
External Links
ATC CodesNot Available
AHFS CodesNot Available
PDB Entries
FDA labelNot Available
MSDSDownload (72.6 KB)
Clinical Trials
Clinical Trials
PhaseStatusPurposeConditionsCount
0RecruitingSupportive CareProtein Feeding in Post-traumatic Injury Patients1
1CompletedBasic ScienceCocaine Abuse1
1, 2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentBlackfan Diamond Syndrome / Congenital Hypoplastic Anemia / DBA / Diamond Blackfan Anemia / Pure Red Cell Aplasia1
1, 2CompletedTreatmentHyperoxaluria1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentCarcinoid Tumors / Medulloblastomas / Neuroblastomas / Neuroendocrine Tumors1
2Active Not RecruitingTreatmentNAFLD1
2CompletedTreatmentType 2 Diabetes Mellitus2
2Not Yet RecruitingTreatmentMetabolic Syndromes1
2RecruitingPreventionBone destruction / Cancer, Breast1
2RecruitingPreventionMuscle Wasting / Quality of Life1
2RecruitingTreatmentDiamond Blackfan Anemia1
2RecruitingTreatmentMajor Depressive Disorder (MDD)1
3CompletedTreatmentCritical Illness1
3CompletedTreatmentInfant, Low Birth Weight / Infant, Small for Gestational Age / Infants, Premature / Newborn Infants / Sepsis1
3RecruitingTreatmentTuberculosis, Pulmonary1
4RecruitingTreatmentCardiac Arrest / Hypothermia1
Not AvailableActive Not RecruitingTreatmentMenopause1
Not AvailableCompletedNot AvailableRespiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn1
Not AvailableCompletedDiagnosticInsulin Resistance1
Not AvailableTerminatedNot AvailableCystic Fibrosis (CF)1
Not AvailableTerminatedBasic ScienceHealthy Volunteers1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusBasic ScienceAirway Obstruction / Smoking1
Not AvailableUnknown StatusTreatmentHyperglycemias / Infant, Low Birth Weight1
Pharmacoeconomics
ManufacturersNot Available
Packagers
Dosage forms
FormRouteStrength
Injection, solutionIntravenous
LiquidIntravenous
Injection, solution, concentrateIntravenous
EmulsionIntravenous
SolutionIntravenous
InjectionIntravenous
Prices
Unit descriptionCostUnit
Leucine powder1.62USD each
L-leucine powder0.28USD g
DrugBank does not sell nor buy drugs. Pricing information is supplied for informational purposes only.
PatentsNot Available
Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueSource
melting point (°C)293 °CPhysProp
water solubility2.15E+004 mg/L (at 25 °C)YALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
logP-1.52HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
pKa2.35 (at 13 °C)KORTUM,G ET AL (1961)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility69.8 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-1.6ChemAxon
logS-0.27ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.52ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity34.17 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.16 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted ADMET featuresNot Available
Spectra
Mass Spec (NIST)Download (8.19 KB)
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0pb9-0900000000-c0176b3cef05fc597576View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-eb7cee37b9d78694010cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-7033b5fdcd4216168462View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-cd1de48a6db61eb4455eView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-05fr-7900000000-e3b993b282ec2115b484View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0019-9000000000-6e468213b3429cf627bcView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-ef06e48ca82519977a37View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-QQsplash10-0udi-1391000000-5183562a14017e557e33View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-000i-9100000000-05b5a7a191a32803595eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-5302e9c96e75e06e9705View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-9e70778b46864cd22996View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0019-9000000000-6e468213b3429cf627bcView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-4f403c61aaa8a103c049View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-d85fcc558423654f45fdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-931937d3bdd49b3ae623View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0930000000-aa1256c9224fecacf025View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-0a72425a86f804d3a16bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-4ed8cafebf4ee4e82e6aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-3ac62b780abd90dd28b1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-eb75eb03a58512ea36dfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-c0f28e4ebdef67c5b509View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-0751a9e803a2e7715d1aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-001i-5900000000-8040fc883917239630a7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-016s-9000000000-a7f9e8d43e66dbd02b6fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-001r-7900000000-da119558c426d9c9d3a1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-ae8365105ae2a18e0c10View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-000f-9000000000-228ee614be6648b37433View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-d1f3e047af455e156a1eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-409dfbdb20719c3afda5View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - CE-ESI-TOF (CE-system connected to 6210 Time-of-Flight MS, Agilent) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-720554d58264a9cfdb67View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-90fab591d1f6d6318002View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-001i-0900000000-ed843252a559d532dc5eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as leucine and derivatives. These are compounds containing leucine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of leucine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentLeucine and derivatives
Alternative ParentsL-alpha-amino acids / Methyl-branched fatty acids / Amino acids / Monocarboxylic acids and derivatives / Carboxylic acids / Organopnictogen compounds / Organic oxides / Monoalkylamines / Hydrocarbon derivatives / Carbonyl compounds
SubstituentsLeucine or derivatives / Alpha-amino acid / L-alpha-amino acid / Branched fatty acid / Methyl-branched fatty acid / Fatty acid / Fatty acyl / Amino acid / Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives / Carboxylic acid
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptorsproteinogenic amino acid, L-alpha-amino acid, leucine, pyruvate family amino acid (CHEBI:15603 ) / Common amino acids (C00123 )

Targets

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Leucine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LARS2
Uniprot ID:
Q15031
Uniprot Name:
Probable leucine--tRNA ligase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
101975.43 Da
References
  1. Ma JJ, Zhao MW, Wang ED: Split leucine-specific domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 12;45(49):14809-16. [PubMed:17144674 ]
  2. Zhu B, Zhao MW, Eriani G, Wang ED: A present-day aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with ancestral editing properties. RNA. 2007 Jan;13(1):15-21. Epub 2006 Nov 9. [PubMed:17095543 ]
  3. Vu MT, Martinis SA: A unique insert of leucyl-tRNA synthetase is required for aminoacylation and not amino acid editing. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5170-6. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17407263 ]
  4. Hsu JL, Rho SB, Vannella KM, Martinis SA: Functional divergence of a unique C-terminal domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase to accommodate its splicing and aminoacylation roles. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):23075-82. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16774921 ]
  5. Lue SW, Kelley SO: A single residue in leucyl-tRNA synthetase affecting amino acid specificity and tRNA aminoacylation. Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 17;46(15):4466-72. Epub 2007 Mar 23. [PubMed:17378584 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Trna methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Probable S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferase that acts as a component of the wybutosine biosynthesis pathway. Wybutosine is a hyper modified guanosine with a tricyclic base found at the 3'-position adjacent to the anticodon of eukaryotic phenylalanine tRNA (By similarity). May methylate the carboxyl group of leucine residues to form alpha-leucine ester residues.
Gene Name:
LCMT2
Uniprot ID:
O60294
Uniprot Name:
tRNA wybutosine-synthesizing protein 4
Molecular Weight:
75601.095 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase activity
Specific Function:
Methylates the carboxyl group of the C-terminal leucine residue of protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunits to form alpha-leucine ester residues.
Gene Name:
LCMT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIC8
Uniprot Name:
Leucine carboxyl methyltransferase 1
Molecular Weight:
38378.695 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
Leucine-trna ligase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the specific attachment of an amino acid to its cognate tRNA in a two step reaction: the amino acid (AA) is first activated by ATP to form AA-AMP and then transferred to the acceptor end of the tRNA. Exhibits a post-transfer editing activity to hydrolyze mischarged tRNAs.
Gene Name:
LARS
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2J5
Uniprot Name:
Leucine--tRNA ligase, cytoplasmic
Molecular Weight:
134465.155 Da
References
  1. Ma JJ, Zhao MW, Wang ED: Split leucine-specific domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Aquifex aeolicus. Biochemistry. 2006 Dec 12;45(49):14809-16. [PubMed:17144674 ]
  2. Karkhanis VA, Boniecki MT, Poruri K, Martinis SA: A viable amino acid editing activity in the leucyl-tRNA synthetase CP1-splicing domain is not required in the yeast mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2006 Nov 3;281(44):33217-25. Epub 2006 Sep 6. [PubMed:16956879 ]
  3. Vu MT, Martinis SA: A unique insert of leucyl-tRNA synthetase is required for aminoacylation and not amino acid editing. Biochemistry. 2007 May 1;46(17):5170-6. Epub 2007 Apr 4. [PubMed:17407263 ]
  4. Hsu JL, Rho SB, Vannella KM, Martinis SA: Functional divergence of a unique C-terminal domain of leucyl-tRNA synthetase to accommodate its splicing and aminoacylation roles. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 11;281(32):23075-82. Epub 2006 Jun 14. [PubMed:16774921 ]
  5. Dohm JC, Vingron M, Staub E: Horizontal gene transfer in aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases including leucine-specific subtypes. J Mol Evol. 2006 Oct;63(4):437-47. Epub 2006 Sep 4. [PubMed:16955236 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. May also function as a transporter of branched chain alpha-keto acids.
Gene Name:
BCAT2
Uniprot ID:
O15382
Uniprot Name:
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, mitochondrial
Molecular Weight:
44287.445 Da
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Berger BJ, English S, Chan G, Knodel MH: Methionine regeneration and aminotransferases in Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol. 2003 Apr;185(8):2418-31. [PubMed:12670965 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
General Function:
L-valine transaminase activity
Specific Function:
Catalyzes the first reaction in the catabolism of the essential branched chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine.
Gene Name:
BCAT1
Uniprot ID:
P54687
Uniprot Name:
Branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase, cytosolic
Molecular Weight:
42965.815 Da
References
  1. Chen CD, Huang TF, Lin CH, Guan HH, Hsieh YC, Lin YH, Huang YC, Liu MY, Chang WC, Chen CJ: Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of branched-chain aminotransferase from Deinococcus radiodurans. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2007 Jun 1;63(Pt 6):492-4. Epub 2007 May 5. [PubMed:17554170 ]
  2. Saito M, Nishimura K, Wakabayashi S, Kurihara T, Nagata Y: Purification of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase from Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637. Amino Acids. 2007 Sep;33(3):445-9. Epub 2006 Nov 2. [PubMed:17077963 ]

Transporters

Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
inhibitor
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Sodium-independent transporter that mediates the update of aromatic acid. Can function as a net efflux pathway for aromatic amino acids in the basosolateral epithelial cells (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SLC16A10
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF71
Uniprot Name:
Monocarboxylate transporter 10
Molecular Weight:
55492.07 Da
References
  1. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Matsuo H, Kim JY, Chairoungdua A, Kobayashi Y, Enomoto A, Cha SH, Goya T, Endou H: The human T-type amino acid transporter-1: characterization, gene organization, and chromosomal location. Genomics. 2002 Jan;79(1):95-103. [PubMed:11827462 ]
  2. Kim DK, Kanai Y, Chairoungdua A, Matsuo H, Cha SH, Endou H: Expression cloning of a Na+-independent aromatic amino acid transporter with structural similarity to H+/monocarboxylate transporters. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 18;276(20):17221-8. Epub 2001 Feb 20. [PubMed:11278508 ]
Kind
Protein
Organism
Human
Pharmacological action
unknown
Actions
substrate
General Function:
Transporter activity
Specific Function:
Very active and specific thyroid hormone transporter. Stimulates cellular uptake of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) and diidothyronine. Does not transport Leu, Phe, Trp or Tyr.
Gene Name:
SLC16A2
Uniprot ID:
P36021
Uniprot Name:
Monocarboxylate transporter 8
Molecular Weight:
59510.86 Da
References
  1. Friesema EC, Ganguly S, Abdalla A, Manning Fox JE, Halestrap AP, Visser TJ: Identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 as a specific thyroid hormone transporter. J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):40128-35. Epub 2003 Jul 18. [PubMed:12871948 ]
Drug created on June 13, 2005 07:24 / Updated on August 02, 2017 16:20